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Chemphyschem ; 20(5): 745-751, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614177


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are very promising host materials for nanoscale guest materials. However, some MOFs such as MIL-53 are known to undergo phase transitions which can complicate the guest particle size control. In this study, Pd nanoparticles embedded in Al-MIL-53 were synthesised via (a) electrodeposition and (b) gas-phase reduction. A thorough structural investigation revealed that each synthesis method most likely favoured a different phase of Al-MIL-53, presenting the possibility of MOF phase selection as a technique for size control of embedded nanoparticles. For the first time, we hereby report the use of pair distribution function analysis to successfully investigate the structure and morphology of guest particles embedded in a MOF host.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 10(8): 5042-50, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21125848


We present a new approach for patterning thin films of Prussian blue at the micro- and nano-metric scales. In a first step, a resist was deposited on a gold surface and patterns were generated by photolithography or electron beam lithography. The Prussian blue with idealized formula of KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6] was deposited through the sequential exposure of the patterned surface to a series of solutions containing alternately absorbable Fe3+ cations and [Fe(CN)6]4- anions. These building blocks are gradually associated into dense and continuous films and patterned structures of Prussian blue can be obtained finally by lift-off. This approach was also used to deposit Prussian blue thin films on interdigitated nanoelectrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of this device were investigated.

Ferrocianetos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície
Inorg Chem ; 48(16): 7864-84, 2009 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19618946


The crystal structure of the as-yet-unknown salt K[Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)].3H(2)O, where cydta = (+/-)-trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetate, has been resolved: orthorhombic space group Pbca with R1 = 0.0309, wR2 = 0.0700, and GOF = 0.99. There are two independent [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) anions in the asymmetric unit, and the ligand is (R,R)-cydta in both cases. The coordination polyhedron is a seven-coordinate capped trigonal prism where the quadrilateral face formed by the four ligand donor oxygen atoms is capped by the coordinated water molecule. The speciation of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) in water was studied in detail by a combination of techniques: (i) Measurements of the pH dependence of the Fe(III/II)cydta redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry enabled the estimation of the stability constants (0.1 M KNO(3), 25 degrees C) of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (log beta(III)(110) = 29.05 +/- 0.01) and [Fe(II)(cydta)(H(2)O)](2-) (log beta(II)(110) = 17.96 +/- 0.01) as well as pK(III)(a1OH) = 9.57 and pK(II)(a1H) = 2.69. The formation enthalpy of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (DeltaH degrees = -23 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1)) was measured by direct calorimetry and is compared to the corresponding value for [Fe(III)(edta)(H(2)O)](-) (DeltaH degrees = -31 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1)). (ii) pH-dependent spectrophotometric titrations of Fe(III)cydta lead to pK(III)(a1OH) = 9.54 +/- 0.01 for deprotonation of the coordinated water and a dimerization constant of log K(d) = 1.07. These data are compared with those of Fe(III)pdta (pdta = 1,2-propanediaminetetraacetate; pK(III)(a1OH) = 7.70 +/- 0.01, log K(d) = 2.28) and Fe(III)edta (pK(III)(a1OH) = 7.52 +/- 0.01, log K(d) = 2.64). Temperature- and pressure-dependent (17)O NMR measurements lead to the following kinetic parameters for the water-exchange reaction at [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (at 298 K): k(ex) = (1.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(7) s(-1), DeltaH(++) = 40.2 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(++) = +28.4 +/- 4.7 J mol(-1) K(-1), and DeltaV(++) = +2.3 +/- 0.1 cm(3) mol(-1). A detailed kinetic study of the effect of the buffer, temperature, and pressure on the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) was performed using stopped-flow techniques. The reaction was found to consist of two steps and resulted in the formation of a purple Fe(III) side-on-bound peroxo complex [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-). The peroxo complex and its degradation products were characterized using Mossbauer spectroscopy. Formation of the purple peroxo complex is only observable above a pH of 9.5. Both reaction steps are affected by specific and general acid catalysis. Two different buffer systems were used to clarify the role of general acid catalysis in these reactions. Mechanistic descriptions and a comparison between the edta and cydta systems are presented. The first reaction step reveals an element of reversibility, which is evident over the whole studied pH range. The positive volume of activation for the forward reaction and the positive entropy of activation for the backward reaction suggest a dissociative interchange mechanism for the reversible end-on binding of hydrogen peroxide to [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-). Deprotonation of the end-on-bound hydroperoxo complex leads to the formation of a seven-coordinate side-on-bound peroxo complex [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-), where one carboxylate arm is detached. [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-) can be reached by two different pathways, of which one is catalyzed by a base and the other by deprotonated hydrogen peroxide. For both pathways, a small negative volume and entropy of activation was observed, suggesting an associative interchange mechanism for the ring-closure step to the side-on-bound peroxo complex. For the second reaction step, no element of reversibility was found.

Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Compostos Férricos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Termodinâmica , Dimerização , Ácido Edético/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Software , Espectrofotometria , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer , Temperatura , Titulometria , Água/química
Inorg Chem ; 45(14): 5661-74, 2006 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16813432


The lithium (1) and thallium (2) salts of five new tert-butyl-tris(3-hydrocarbylpyrazol-1-yl)borate ligands [t-BuTp(R)]- (R = H, a; Me, b; i-Pr, c; t-Bu, d; Ph, e) have been synthesized and characterized. Because of steric congestion at B, the reaction between t-BuBH3Li x 0.5 Et2O and excess 2,5-dimethylpyrazole Hpz(Me2) afforded the bis-pz(Me2) derivative, Tl[t-BuBH(3,5-Me2pz)2] (3) after metathesis with TlNO3. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The Li salts 1a and 1c exhibit fluxional behavior on the NMR time scale in solution at room temperature. The solid-state 7Li and 11B NMR spectra of 1c suggest that this salt exists as a mixture of axial and equatorial isomers. The partial hydrolysis of 1d afforded the dimeric Li complex {Li[t-BuB(pz(t-Bu))2(mu-OH)]}2 (4). The crystal structure of 4 shows two Li cations encapsulated by the heteroscorpionate [t-BuB(OH)(3-t-Bupz)2]- ligands. A salt elimination reaction between FeCl2(THF)1.5 and 2 equiv of Li[t-BuTp(R)] (R = H, Me) followed by an in situ one-electron oxidation produced good yields of the homoleptic, paramagnetic low-spin iron(III) complexes [Fe(t-BuTp)2]PF6 (5) and [Fe(t-BuTp(Me))2]PF6 (6) that were characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements in solution and the solid phase, 1H NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are composed of discrete molecular units with the central Fe(III) ion in an almost perfectly octahedral coordination to six nitrogen atoms. Compound 5 has the shortest Fe-N bond lengths ever reported for [Fe(RTp(R)')2]+-type compounds.