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2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190005.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of altered total cholesterol and fractions levels in the Brazilian population, according to biochemical data from the National Health Survey. METHODS: A descriptive study, using data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. Total cholesterol and fractions were analyzed and population prevalences of altered values according to socio-demographic variables were calculated. The cutoff points considered were: total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein LDL ≥ 130mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein HDL < 40mg/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL in the population was 32.7%, and higher in women (35.1%). The prevalence of altered HDL was 31.8%, 22.0% in females and 42.8% in males. LDL ≥ 130mg/dL was found in 18.6% and was higher in women (19.9%). The population aged 45 years old and older and those with low levels of education presented a higher prevalence of altered cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Altered values of total cholesterol and fractions were frequent in the Brazilian population, especially among women, the elderly and people with low levels of education. These results may guide control and preventative actions such as healthy eating, physical activity and treatment, all of which aim to prevent coronary diseases.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190006.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) according to different diagnostic criteria, in the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory results from the Brazilian National Health Survey. METHODS: Analysis of laboratory data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to different diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to the criterion of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5% or using medication, using Poisson regression and calculating crude and adjusted PR and 95%CI. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes according to different criteria varies from 6.6 to 9.4%. Intermediate or pre-diabetes hyperglycemia ranged from 6.8 to 16.9%. Considering laboratory criteria or medication use, the prevalence of DM was 8.4 (95%CI 7.65-9.11). The adjusted PR for gender, age, educational level and region was lower for males (PR 0.75; 95%CI 0.63 - 0.89), increased with age: 30 to 34 years (PR 2.32; 95% CI 1.33 - 4.07), 40 to 59 years PR 8.1; 95%CI 4.86 - 13.46), 60 years old or older (PR 12.6; 95%CI 7.1 - 21.0), and higher educational levels was protective (PR 0.8; 95%CI 0.6 - 0.9). Therewas a higher PR in the Central West Region (PR 1.3; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.7), in overweight people (PR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.1), and in obese people (PR 3.3; 95%CI 2.6 - 4.1). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes was higher in females, people over 30 years of age, in populations with low educational levels, and people who were overweight and obese. The study advances in determining the diabetes situation in the country through laboratory criteria.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. METHODS: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. RESULTS: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190010.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the renal function of the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory criteria of the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study was carried out with laboratory data from the PNS, which was collected between the years 2014 and 2015. Population prevalence of the serum creatinine (CR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) according to sociodemographic variables, were analyzed from the PNS laboratory data. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 8,535 individuals aged 18 years old or older for the study of CR and 7,457 for the study of GFR. The GFR prevalence < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.7% (95%CI 6.0 - 7.4), higher in women (8.2% 95%CI 7.2 - 9.2) than in men (5.0% 95%CI 4.2 - 6.0) p < 0.001, and in elderly > 60 years old it was 21.4%. For the values of CR ≥ 1.3 mg/dL in men were 5.5% (95%CI 4.6 - 6.5), and in women values of CR ≥ 1.1 mg/dL were 4.6% (95%CI 4.0 - 5.4), with no diference between the genders, p = 0.140. CONCLUSION: Results from the PNS laboratory identified a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Brazilian population than that estimated in self-reported studies, with higher GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in women, and reaching one fifth of the elderly. These tests may be useful for the purpose of identifying the disease early on and thus preventing the progression of renal damage and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190014.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the socioeconomic and demographic differences in medication use to control hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHOD: Data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) performed in Brazil in 2013 with a representative sample of the population aged 18years old or older were analyzed. The use of medications for hypertension and diabetes according to income, education, race, possession of a private health insurance plan and region of household were estimated. Theprevalence ratios adjusted for sex and age were also estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: 81.4% of the hypertensive population used medication to control the disease. The use was higher among females, white/Caucasian individuals and those with a private health plan. In the case of diabetes mellitus, 80.2% of the population used medication to control the disease and the use was higher in elderly patients, patients with a higher level of education, patients with a private health plan, and patients in the Southeast region. Inequalities according to income and health plan were small even in the strata of sex, age and geographic region analyzed. CONCLUSION: We found a high use of medication to control hypertension and diabetes. Socioeconomic inequalities in use were not expressive, probably due to medication policies that promote greater and equitable access to medicines in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190005.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042220

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as prevalências dos níveis de colesterol total e frações alterados na população brasileira, segundo dados bioquímicos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, utilizando dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde coletados entre os anos de 2014 e 2015. Foram analisados exames de colesterol total e frações e calculadas prevalências populacionais de valores alterados segundo variáveis sociodemográficas. Consideraram-se os seguintes pontos de corte: colesterol total ≥ 200mg/dL; lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) ≥ 130mg/dL e lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) < 40mg/dL. Resultados: Aprevalência de colesterol total ≥ 200mg/dL na população foi de 32,7%, mais elevada em mulheres (35,1%). A prevalência de HDL alterado foi de 31,8%, sendo de 42,8% no sexo masculino e 22,0% no feminino. LDL≥ 130mg/dL foi observado em 18,6%, com prevalência mais elevada em mulheres (19,9%). População com idade de 45 anos ou mais e com baixa escolaridade apresentou maiores prevalências de colesterol com alterações. Conclusão: Valores de colesterol total e frações alterados foram frequentes na população brasileira, especialmente entre mulheres, idosos e pessoas de baixa escolaridade. Esses resultados poderão orientar as ações de controle e prevenção, como alimentação saudável, atividade física e tratamento, visando à prevenção de doenças coronarianas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the prevalence of altered total cholesterol and fractions levels in the Brazilian population, according to biochemical data from the National Health Survey. Methods: A descriptive study, using data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. Total cholesterol and fractions were analyzed and population prevalences of altered values according to socio-demographic variables were calculated. The cutoff points considered were: total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein LDL ≥ 130mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein HDL < 40mg/dL. Results: The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL in the population was 32.7%, and higher in women (35.1%). The prevalence of altered HDL was 31.8%, 22.0% in females and 42.8% in males. LDL ≥ 130mg/dL was found in 18.6% and was higher in women (19.9%). The population aged 45 years old and older and those with low levels of education presented a higher prevalence of altered cholesterol. Conclusion: Altered values of total cholesterol and fractions were frequent in the Brazilian population, especially among women, the elderly and people with low levels of education. These results may guide control and preventative actions such as healthy eating, physical activity and treatment, all of which aim to prevent coronary diseases.

9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190014.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042225

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivos: Avaliar a magnitude de desigualdades socioeconômicas e demográficas da utilização de medicamentos para controle de hipertensão arterial e diabetes mellitus na população brasileira. Método: Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) conduzida no Brasil em 2013, com amostra representativa da população com idade de 18 anos ou mais. Foi estimada a utilização de medicamentos para hipertensão e diabetes segundo renda, escolaridade, raça, posse de plano de saúde e região de moradia. Também foram estimadas as razões de prevalência ajustadas por sexo e idade, por meio de regressão de Poisson. Resultados: Entre os hipertensos, 81,4% fazem uso de medicamentos para controle da doença, sendo a utilização maior entre as mulheres, os brancos e os que têm plano de saúde. No caso de diabetes mellitus, 80,2% fazem uso de medicamentos para controlar a doença e o uso foi mais elevado entre os pacientes idosos, com maior escolaridade, com plano de saúde e da Região Sudeste. As desigualdades segundo renda e plano de saúde foram de pequena magnitude mesmo nos estratos de sexo, idade e região geográfica analisados. Conclusão: Foi constatada utilização de medicamentos para controle da hipertensão e diabetes que pode ser considerada elevada, e as desigualdades socioeconômicas e regionais desse uso revelaram-se de magnitude não expressiva, em virtude da implementação de políticas farmacêuticas no Brasil, que visam promover maior e mais equânime acesso da população a medicamentos.


ABSTRACT: Objectives: To analyze the socioeconomic and demographic differences in medication use to control hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Method: Data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) performed in Brazil in 2013 with a representative sample of the population aged 18years old or older were analyzed. The use of medications for hypertension and diabetes according to income, education, race, possession of a private health insurance plan and region of household were estimated. Theprevalence ratios adjusted for sex and age were also estimated using Poisson regression. Results: 81.4% of the hypertensive population used medication to control the disease. The use was higher among females, white/Caucasian individuals and those with a private health plan. In the case of diabetes mellitus, 80.2% of the population used medication to control the disease and the use was higher in elderly patients, patients with a higher level of education, patients with a private health plan, and patients in the Southeast region. Inequalities according to income and health plan were small even in the strata of sex, age and geographic region analyzed. Conclusion: We found a high use of medication to control hypertension and diabetes. Socioeconomic inequalities in use were not expressive, probably due to medication policies that promote greater and equitable access to medicines in Brazil.

10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190010.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042228

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: O presente estudo avaliou a função renal da população adulta brasileira, segundo critérios laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Metodologia: Estudo descritivo realizado com os dados laboratoriais da PNS, coletados entre os anos de 2014 e 2015. Com base nos dados laboratoriais foram analisadas prevalências populacionais de creatinina sérica (CR) e estimativa da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG), segundo variáveis sociodemográficas. Resultados: A amostra foi de 8.535 indivíduos com idade de 18 anos ou mais para o estudo da CR e de 7.457 indivíduos para o estudo de TFG. A prevalência TFG < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2 foi de 6,7% (IC95% 6,0 - 7,4), foi mais elevada em mulheres (8,2% IC95% 7,2 - 9,2) do que em homens (5,0% IC95% 4,2 - 6,0) p < 0,001 e em idosos ≥ 60 anos foi de 21,4%. Os valores de CR ≥ 1,3 mg/dL em homens foram 5,5% (IC95% 4,6 - 6,5) e em mulheres foram de CR ≥ 1,1 mg/dL, de 4,6% (IC95% 4,0- 5,4), sem diferença estatística significativa nos valores de CR entre sexo, p = 0,140. Conclusão: Resultados laboratoriais da PNS identificaram prevalências mais elevadas da doença renal crônica na população brasileira do que o estimado em estudos autorreferidos. ATFG < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2 é mais elevada em mulheres e atinge um quinto dos idosos. Esses exames podem ser úteis no propósito de identificar precocemente a doença e, dessa forma, prevenir a progressão da lesão renal e reduzir o risco de eventos cardiovasculares e de mortalidade.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the renal function of the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory criteria of the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out with laboratory data from the PNS, which was collected between the years 2014 and 2015. Population prevalence of the serum creatinine (CR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) according to sociodemographic variables, were analyzed from the PNS laboratory data. Results: The sample consisted of 8,535 individuals aged 18 years old or older for the study of CR and 7,457 for the study of GFR. The GFR prevalence < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.7% (95%CI 6.0 - 7.4), higher in women (8.2% 95%CI 7.2 - 9.2) than in men (5.0% 95%CI 4.2 - 6.0) p < 0.001, and in elderly > 60 years old it was 21.4%. For the values of CR ≥ 1.3 mg/dL in men were 5.5% (95%CI 4.6 - 6.5), and in women values of CR ≥ 1.1 mg/dL were 4.6% (95%CI 4.0 - 5.4), with no diference between the genders, p = 0.140. Conclusion: Results from the PNS laboratory identified a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Brazilian population than that estimated in self-reported studies, with higher GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in women, and reaching one fifth of the elderly. These tests may be useful for the purpose of identifying the disease early on and thus preventing the progression of renal damage and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality.

11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190006.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042229

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as prevalências de diabetes mellitus segundo diferentes critérios diagnósticos, na população adulta brasileira, segundo os resultados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Métodos: Análise dos dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, coletados entre os anos de 2014 e 2015. Foram calculadas as prevalências de diabetes conforme diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Foram calculadas as prevalências de diabetes segundo o critério de hemoglobina glicosilada ≥ 6,5% ou em uso de medicamentos, empregando regressão de Poisson para o cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP) bruta e ajustada e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: A prevalência de diabetes segundo diferentes critérios pode variar 6,6 a 9,4%; e a hiperglicemia intermediária, ou pré-diabetes, de 6,8 a 16,9%. Usando-se o critério laboratorial ou uso de medicamentos, a prevalência de diabetes foi de 8,4%. A RP ajustada para sexo, idade, escolaridade e região foi menor no sexo masculino (RP = 0,75; IC95% 0,63 - 0,89); aumentou com a idade: 30 a 34 anos (RP=2,32; IC95% 1,33 - 4,07), 40 a 59 anos (RP = 8,1; IC95% 4,86 - 13,46), 60 anos ou mais (RP = 12,6; IC95% 7,1 - 21,0); e a escolaridade elevada foi protetora (RP = 0,8; IC95% 0,6 - 0,9). Maior RP foi encontrada na Região Centro-Oeste (RP = 1,3; IC95% 1,04 - 1,7) e naqueles com sobrepeso (RP = 1,8; IC95% 1,4 - 2,1) e obesidade (RP = 3,3; IC95% 2,6 - 4,1). Conclusão: A prevalência de diabetes foi maior no sexo feminino, naqueles com idade maior que 30 anos, em população com baixa escolaridade, com excesso de peso e obesidade. Os critérios laboratoriais são mais fidedignos para o conhecimento da situação real do diabetes no país.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) according to different diagnostic criteria, in the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory results from the Brazilian National Health Survey. Methods: Analysis of laboratory data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to different diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to the criterion of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5% or using medication, using Poisson regression and calculating crude and adjusted PR and 95%CI. Results: The prevalence of diabetes according to different criteria varies from 6.6 to 9.4%. Intermediate or pre-diabetes hyperglycemia ranged from 6.8 to 16.9%. Considering laboratory criteria or medication use, the prevalence of DM was 8.4 (95%CI 7.65-9.11). The adjusted PR for gender, age, educational level and region was lower for males (PR 0.75; 95%CI 0.63 - 0.89), increased with age: 30 to 34 years (PR 2.32; 95% CI 1.33 - 4.07), 40 to 59 years PR 8.1; 95%CI 4.86 - 13.46), 60 years old or older (PR 12.6; 95%CI 7.1 - 21.0), and higher educational levels was protective (PR 0.8; 95%CI 0.6 - 0.9). Therewas a higher PR in the Central West Region (PR 1.3; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.7), in overweight people (PR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.1), and in obese people (PR 3.3; 95%CI 2.6 - 4.1). Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes was higher in females, people over 30 years of age, in populations with low educational levels, and people who were overweight and obese. The study advances in determining the diabetes situation in the country through laboratory criteria.

12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042230

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar o consumo de sal na população brasileira pela excreção urinária de sódio. Métodos: A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (2013) teve como objetivo obter dados de saúde de adultos (≥ 18 anos) por meio de seleção aleatória de domicílios. Em cada domicílio foi selecionado um adulto para coleta de dados biológicos (antropometria, pressão arterial, sangue e urina). A urina foi enviada para um laboratório central, para medida da concentração de sódio (eletrodo sensível) e creatinina (método de Jaffé). A estimativa da excreção de sódio foi feita com a equação de Tanaka. Resultados: A dosagem urinária de sódio e de creatinina foi obtida em 8.083 indivíduos (58% mulheres). O consumo médio de sal foi estimado em 9,34 g/dia (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 9,27 - 9,41), sendo maior em homens (9,63 g/dia; IC95% 9,52 - 9,74) do que em mulheres (9,08 g/dia; IC95% 8,99 - 9,17). Não foram observadas diferenças importantes em relação à faixa etária, cor da pele nem escolaridade. O maior consumo foi detectado nas regiões Sudeste e Sul e o menor no Nordeste e Norte. Apenas 2,4% (IC95% 2,0 - 2,8) da amostra apresentou consumo inferior a 5 g/dia, e 58,2% (IC95% 56,7 - 59,6) dos participantes tiveram consumo estimado de 8 a 12 g/dia. Conclusão: O consumo médio de sal da população brasileira é, aproximadamente, o dobro da recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (5g/dia). Tendo em vista a associação da alta ingestão de sal com hipertensão arterial e decréscimo da função renal, os dados apontam para a necessidade de adoção de políticas públicas abrangentes para redução desse consumo na população brasileira.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. Methods: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. Results: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. Conclusion: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.

13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180021, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the population prevalence of arterial hypertension in adults according to different diagnostic criteria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, analyzing information from the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013, consisted of interviews, physical and laboratory measurements (n = 60,202). The prevalence of hypertension was defined according to three diagnostic criteria: self-reported; measured by instrument (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg); measured and/or using medication. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were estimated by the three diagnostic criteria of hypertension. RESULTS: The high blood pressure measurements were: 21.4% (95%CI 20.8 - 22.0) using the criterion self-reported; 22.8% (95%CI 22.1 - 23.4) by measured hypertension; and 32.3% (95%CI 31.7 - 33.0) by measured hypertension and/or reported use of medication. Women presented higher prevalence for the self-reported criterion (24.2%; 95%CI 23.4 - 24.9) and men, for the measured criterion (25.8%; 95%CI 24.8 - 26.8). Hypertension increases with age and is more frequent in urban areas. Using these three criteria, the hypertension was higher in the Southeast and South regions, in relation to the average of the country and the other regions. Using these three criteria, hypertension increased with age, was more frequent in urban areas and in the Southeast and South regions, in relation to the average of the country and the other regions. CONCLUSION: These findings are important to support policies that aim to achieve the World Health Organization's goal of reducing hypertension by 25% over the next decade.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180021, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977715

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência populacional de hipertensão arterial em adultos, segundo diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, que analisa informações da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013, que consistiu em entrevistas, medidas físicas e laboratoriais da população brasileira (n = 60.202). A prevalência de hipertensão arterial foi definida segundo três critérios diagnósticos: hipertensão autorreferida; medida por instrumento (pressão arterial ≥ 140/90 mmHg); medida e/ou em uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos. Foram estimadas as prevalências de hipertensão arterial segundo os três critérios diagnósticos e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: As prevalências de hipertensão arterial encontradas foram: 21,4% (IC95% 20,8 - 22,0) utilizando-se o critério autorreferido, 22,8% (IC95% 22,1 - 23,4) para hipertensão arterial medida e 32,3% (IC95% 31,7 - 33,0) para hipertensão arterial medida e/ou relato de uso de medicação. As mulheres apresentaram prevalências de hipertensão mais elevadas no critério autorreferido (24,2%; IC95% 23,4 - 24,9). Entre os homens, a prevalência foi maior no critério hipertensão arterial medida (25,8%; IC95% 24,8 - 26,7). Utilizando os três critérios, a hipertensão arterial aumentou com a idade, foi mais frequente na região urbana e maior nas regiões sudeste e sul, em relação à média do país e às demais regiões. Conclusão: Estes resultados são importantes para apoiar políticas que visem atingir a meta da Organização Mundial de Saúde de redução da hipertensão em 25% na próxima década.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the population prevalence of arterial hypertension in adults according to different diagnostic criteria. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, analyzing information from the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013, consisted of interviews, physical and laboratory measurements (n = 60,202). The prevalence of hypertension was defined according to three diagnostic criteria: self-reported; measured by instrument (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg); measured and/or using medication. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were estimated by the three diagnostic criteria of hypertension. Results: The high blood pressure measurements were: 21.4% (95%CI 20.8 - 22.0) using the criterion self-reported; 22.8% (95%CI 22.1 - 23.4) by measured hypertension; and 32.3% (95%CI 31.7 - 33.0) by measured hypertension and/or reported use of medication. Women presented higher prevalence for the self-reported criterion (24.2%; 95%CI 23.4 - 24.9) and men, for the measured criterion (25.8%; 95%CI 24.8 - 26.8). Hypertension increases with age and is more frequent in urban areas. Using these three criteria, the hypertension was higher in the Southeast and South regions, in relation to the average of the country and the other regions. Using these three criteria, hypertension increased with age, was more frequent in urban areas and in the Southeast and South regions, in relation to the average of the country and the other regions. Conclusion: These findings are important to support policies that aim to achieve the World Health Organization's goal of reducing hypertension by 25% over the next decade.

15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20Suppl 01(Suppl 01): 46-60, 2017 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658372

RESUMO

Objective:: To analyze under-5 mortality rates and leading causes in Brazil and states in 1990 and 2015, using the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015 estimates. Methods:: The main sources of data for all-causes under-5 mortality and live births estimates were the mortality information system, surveys, and censuses. Proportions and rates per 1,000 live births (LB) were calculated for total deaths and leading causes. Results:: Estimates of under-5 deaths in Brazil were 191,505 in 1990, and 51,226 in 2015, 90% of which were infant deaths. The rates per 1,000 LB showed a reduction of 67.6% from 1990 to 2015, achieving the proposed target established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The reduction generally was more than 60% in states, with a faster reduction in the poorest Northeast region. The ratio of the highest and lowest rates in the states decreased from 4.9 in 1990 to 2.3 in 2015, indicating a reduction in socioeconomic regional disparities. Although prematurity showed a 72% reduction, it still remains as the leading cause of death (COD), followed by diarrheal diseases in 1990, and congenital anomalies, birth asphyxia and septicemia neonatal in 2015. Conclusion:: Under-5 mortality has decreased over the past 25 years, with reduction of regional disparities. However, pregnancy and childbirth-related causes remain as major causes of death, together with congenital anomalies. Intersectoral and specific public health policies must be continued to improve living conditions and health care in order to achieve further reduction of under-5 mortality rates in Brazil.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade da Criança , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(supl.1): 46-60, Mai. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843760

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as taxas de mortalidade e as principais causas de morte na infância no Brasil e estados, entre 1990 e 2015, utilizando estimativas do estudo Carga Global de Doença (Global Burden of Disease - GBD) 2015. Métodos: As fontes de dados foram óbitos e nascimentos estimados com base nos dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM), censos e pesquisas. Foram calculadas proporções e taxas por mil nascidos vivos (NV) para o total de óbitos e as principais causas de morte na infância. Resultados: O número estimado de óbitos para menores de 5 anos, no Brasil, foi de 191.505, em 1990, e 51.226, em 2015, sendo cerca de 90% mortes infantis. A taxa de mortalidade na infância no Brasil sofreu redução de 67,6%, entre 1990 e 2015, cumprindo a meta estabelecida nos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM). A redução total das taxas foi, em geral, acima de 60% nos estados, sendo maior na região Nordeste. A disparidade entre as regiões foi reduzida, sendo que a razão entre o estado com a maior e a menor taxa diminuiu de 4,9, em 1990, para 2,3, em 2015. A prematuridade, apesar de queda de 72% nas taxas, figurou como a principal causa de óbito em ambos os anos, seguida da doença diarreica, em 1990, e das anomalias congênitas, da asfixia no parto e da sepse neonatal, em 2015. Conclusão: A queda nas taxas de mortalidade na infância representa um importante ganho no período, com redução de disparidades geográficas. As causas relacionadas ao cuidado em saúde na gestação, no parto e no nascimento figuram como as principais em 2015, em conjunto com as anomalias congênitas. Políticas públicas intersetoriais e de saúde específicas devem ser aprimoradas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze under-5 mortality rates and leading causes in Brazil and states in 1990 and 2015, using the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015 estimates. Methods: The main sources of data for all-causes under-5 mortality and live births estimates were the mortality information system, surveys, and censuses. Proportions and rates per 1,000 live births (LB) were calculated for total deaths and leading causes. Results: Estimates of under-5 deaths in Brazil were 191,505 in 1990, and 51,226 in 2015, 90% of which were infant deaths. The rates per 1,000 LB showed a reduction of 67.6% from 1990 to 2015, achieving the proposed target established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The reduction generally was more than 60% in states, with a faster reduction in the poorest Northeast region. The ratio of the highest and lowest rates in the states decreased from 4.9 in 1990 to 2.3 in 2015, indicating a reduction in socioeconomic regional disparities. Although prematurity showed a 72% reduction, it still remains as the leading cause of death (COD), followed by diarrheal diseases in 1990, and congenital anomalies, birth asphyxia and septicemia neonatal in 2015. Conclusion: Under-5 mortality has decreased over the past 25 years, with reduction of regional disparities. However, pregnancy and childbirth-related causes remain as major causes of death, together with congenital anomalies. Intersectoral and specific public health policies must be continued to improve living conditions and health care in order to achieve further reduction of under-5 mortality rates in Brazil.

17.
Int J Equity Health ; 15(1): 153, 2016 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil related to occurrence of morbidity and premature mortality, the objective of this study was to analyze inequalities in self-reported prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) and in the physical limitations caused by these diseases, among the Brazilian adult population, according to sociodemographic variables. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study that analyzed information on 60,202 individuals who formed a representative sample of Brazilian adults interviewed for the National Health Survey 2013. Disparities by schooling levels and possession of private health insurance were assessed by calculating the prevalence (P) and prevalence ratio (PR) of each of the 13 NCDs and any associated limitations, while controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic variables. RESULTS: 45 % of the Brazilian adult population reported having at least one NCD. The prevalence ratio was greater among women (1.24 CI 1.21-1.28), individuals over 55 years of age, individuals with low schooling levels (illiterate and incomplete elementary education) (1.08 CI 1.02-1.14) and people living in the Southeast (1.10 CI 1.04-1.16), South (1.26 CI 1.19-1.34) and Central-West (1.11 CI 1.05-1.18) regions of the country. Diseases such as diabetes (1.42 CI 1.13-1.47), hypertension (1.17 CI 1.06-1.28), stroke (2.52 CI 1.74-3.66), arthritis (1.4 CI 1.11-1.77), spinal problems (1.39 CI .1.25-1.56), and chronic renal failure (1.65 CI 1.10.2.46), were more prevalent among adults with low education. For most NCDs, greater reports of limitations were associated with lower schooling levels and lack of private health insurance. CONCLUSION: Populations with lower schooling levels and lack of private health insurance present higher prevalence of various NCD and greater degrees of limitation due to these diseases. Results reveal the extent of social inequalities that persist with regard to occurrence and the impact of NCDs in Brazil.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 15(1): 148, 2016 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. METHOD: Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance. The prevalence ratios adjusted by age and gender were estimated by means of multiple Poisson regression and the analyses took into account the sampling design. RESULTS: Significant social inequalities were identified in the Brazilian adults. Higher prevalence of current smoking, leisure-time physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, whole milk consumption and low ingestion of greens, vegetables, and fruits were observed among the less educated, in the non-white population, and among those without private health insurance. Higher prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was found in the non-white population, but no difference in the consumption of fatty meat was found according to skin color. Score of unhealthy behavior higher than 6 was more frequent in lower educational strata (PR = 3.74) in the non-white population (PR = 1.39) and among those without private health insurance (PR = 1.78). Compared to women, men had higher prevalence rates of smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption, and fatty meat consumption and lower consumption of greens, vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: The results of the study emphasize the importance of monitoring social inequalities in health as part of national health policies and the urgent need to prioritize actions to promote healthy behaviors, especially among the most socially vulnerable segments of society.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pobreza , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Brasil , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 21(2): 339-49, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910143

RESUMO

The objective was to analyze the perception of the Brazilian population on the medical health care, using data from the National Health Survey, 2013. Among those who have consulted with doctor in the 12 months prior to the survey, we analyzed 12 aspects related to health services and medical consultation, according to type of care (public/ private). By multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with dissatisfaction with the care received were investigated. For the dimensionality reduction of the assessed aspects, we used principal component analysis. The survey revealed that 74.2% of the adult Brazilian population consulted a doctor. Among the differences by type of care, stood out the way of getting an appointment, the type of doctor, the waiting time for service, and the reason for consultation. Median scores were concentrated in 80 (good), except for the waiting time between SUS users. Proportions of very good evaluation were, however, higher among users of the private sector. Despite the positive evaluation in both sectors, public and private, the configuration of the Federative Units in the plane formed by the two principal component axes followed a pattern of striking regional differences.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Médicos , Setor Privado , Encaminhamento e Consulta
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 21(2): 379-88, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910146

RESUMO

People who have been diagnosed with cancer tend to adopt healthier lifestyles. This study analyzes the prevalence of smoking, eating fruits and vegetables, exercise and the use of alcoholic beverages among individuals who reported to have been diagnosed with cancer in the PNS (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde or National Health Survey). The prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for consuming fruits and vegetables, sedentary lifestyle (no exercise), use of alcoholic beverages, being overweight and tobacco use. The associa-tion between having received a diagnosis of cancer and the risk and protection factors was analyzed using a Poisson regression, adjusted by sociodemographic variables and other chronic comorbidities. The analyses were stratified by time since the diagnosis and the type of cancer related to the factors analyzed. The types of cancer most often reported were breast and cervix in women, and prostate and stomach in men. Among those who had cancer diagnoses, there was a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, higher proportion of ex-smokers, however, increased use of alcohol. There was no difference in the frequency of exercise or incidence of being overweight between the two groups. Measures to promote health and prevent chronic diseases should be implemented in the follow-up of people who have had cancer, in an effort to ensure integrated healthcare.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar , Verduras
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