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1.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(4): 312-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious global public health problem that affects a large part of the Brazilian adult population and can cause limitations and losses of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the association of hypertension and its correlated limitations, with sociodemographic and epidemiological factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study analyzing information on 44,271 adults (30 years or older) from the Brazilian National Health Survey of 2013. METHODS: The prevalence of hypertension and the degree of limitation of the patients' activities associated with hypertension, according to sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and lifestyles, were calculated for both sexes. To analyze the strength of association, bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression were used. RESULTS: Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor among Brazilian adults aged 30 years or older (40.7%). It was strongly associated with the aging process (prevalence ratio, PR 3.51), obesity (PR 1.73), heart disease (PR 1.67) and stroke (PR 1.86). Furthermore, limitations associated with hypertension were more prevalent among those with comorbidities from noncommunicable diseases relating to hypertension complications (stroke PR 1.47; heart disease PR 1.69) and with incomplete elementary education (PR 1.19). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed sociodemographic inequality in the prevalence of hypertension, especially in the population with some degree of limitation associated with hypertension. It showed that improvements in access to primary care services for controlling hypertension at its initial stages are essential in order to avoid comorbidities of greater severity and limitations and losses of quality of life, especially among socially disadvantaged people.

2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e190002.supl.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article aims to estimate reference values for laboratory tests of cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine for the Brazilian adult population. METHODS: A descriptive study carried out with laboratory data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). Samples of blood and urine were collected in a PNS subsample of 8,952 individuals aged 18 years old or older. To determine the reference values, exclusion criteria were applied: presence of previous diseases and outliers, defined by values outside the range estimated by the mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Subsequently, reference values were calculated according to gender, age group and race/skin color. RESULTS: Differences in reference values according to gender were observed. Women had higher values of total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c. Glycosylated hemoglobin showed similar values in relation to gender, and creatinine was higher among men. The mean reference values were higher in the elderly population, aged 60 years old or older. The mean, lower and upper limits of total cholesterol and fractions of non-white people were slightly lower. There was no difference according to race/skin color for glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine. CONCLUSION: The establishment of national reference parameters for laboratory tests, adapted to the sociodemographic and geographic characteristics, provides relevant information for evaluation of diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases in Brazil.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Creatinina/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Brasil , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190003.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe reference values for blood counts obtained from laboratory tests in the Brazilian adult population according to laboratory results from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), by gender, age group and skin color. METHODS: The initial sample consisted of 8,952 adults. To determine the reference values, individuals with prior diseases and outliers were excluded. Mean values, standard deviation and limits were stratified by gender, age group and skin color. RESULTS: For red blood cells, men presented a mean value of 5.0 million per mm3 (limits: 4.3-5.8) and women, 4.5 million per mm3 (limits: 3.9-5.1). Hemoglobin levels were higher among men with a mean of 14.9 g/dL (13.0-16.9), and in women, 13.2 g/dL (11.5-14.9). The mean number of white blood cells among men was 6.142/mm3 (2.843-9.440) and 6.426/mm3 (2.883-9.969) for women. Other parameters showed close values between the genders. Regarding age groups and skin color, mean values, standard deviation and limits of the exams presented small variations. CONCLUSION: Hematological reference values based on the national survey allow for the establishment of specific reference limits for gender, age and skin color. The results presented here may contribute to the establishment of better evidence and criteria for the care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190004.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article aims at describing the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde- PNS) methodology of collecting laboratory exams data. METHODOLOGY: A subsample of 25% of the census tracts was selected, according to the stratification of the PNS sample, with a probability inversely proportional to the difficulty of collection. The collection of blood and urine was done in the households by a laboratory agent, among residents selected for individual interview. Due to the difficulties found in the field work, the sample did not reach the minimum expected number in some strata, and a post-stratification procedure was proposed for the data analysis. RESULTS: The collection of biospecimens was performed in 8,952 individuals. Laboratory tests were: glycated hemoglobin; total cholesterol; LDL cholesterol; HDL cholesterol; serology for dengue; red blood cell count (erythrogram) and white series count (leukogram); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies; creatinine. Theexcretion of potassium, salt and sodium and creatinine was estimated in the urine. The database of laboratory exams was weighed and made publicly available on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation's PNS website and can be accessed without prior authorization. CONCLUSION: The total subsample of laboratory exams is of great value, since it allowed us to establish national reference parameters adequate to sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the Brazilian population, providing relevant and complementary information for the analysis of the health situation of Brazil.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Brasil , Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dengue/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. METHOD: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. CONCLUSION: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(10): e00214918, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596402

RESUMO

This study is a quantitative and qualitative assessment of data from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in Brazil. Coverage of the data by municipality was estimated as the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Data quality in the SINASC was assessed via probabilistic linkage with the database from the Birth in Brazil study, 2011-2012, and kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated. In 2013, data coverage was high and homogeneous in all states of Brazil. However, the analysis according to municipalities (counties) showed greater spatial heterogeneity. As for completeness of information in SINASC, kappa coefficients were statistically different from zero for all the tested variables (p < 0.001), and marginal distributions of all the variables were similar in the two databases. Gestational age was the variable with the worst agreement, with a kappa value of 0.461. The indicator that describes the inconsistencies, measured by the sum of the square of the differences between the reported and expected prematurity rates by birthweight bracket, showed the highest value in the North of Brazil and the lowest in the South, pointing to geographic inequalities in measurement of gestational age.

7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. METHODOLOGY: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). DISCUSSION: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. CONCLUSION: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowing the factors associated with periodic HIV testing among female sex workers (FSW) is essential to expand testing coverage and to broaden programs of treatment as prevention. METHODS: We used data from 4,328 FSWs recruited by the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. Data analysis considered the complex sampling design. The prevalence of HIV testing in the last year and periodic HIV test were estimated. Factors associated with regular HIV testing were identified through logistic regression models. RESULTS: The testing coverage in the last year was 39.3%. Only 13.5% of FSW reported having performed a periodic HIV test in the last year. Among the factors associated with the higher probability of HIV testing in the last year were a better level of education, living with a partner, working indoors, consistent use of condoms, and regular use of public and private health services stood out. DISCUSSION: Periodic HIV testing allows early diagnosis and immediate treatment of cases, reducing the chances of spreading the infection to the population. However, factors such as stigma and discrimination hinder the use of regular health services. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to expand awareness campaigns, especially among FSWs with low educational level and greater vulnerability, in order to broaden the perception of risk and the importance of periodic testing, in addition to encouraging regular health care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 312-321, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043440

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious global public health problem that affects a large part of the Brazilian adult population and can cause limitations and losses of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the association of hypertension and its correlated limitations, with sociodemographic and epidemiological factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study analyzing information on 44,271 adults (30 years or older) from the Brazilian National Health Survey of 2013. METHODS: The prevalence of hypertension and the degree of limitation of the patients' activities associated with hypertension, according to sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and lifestyles, were calculated for both sexes. To analyze the strength of association, bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression were used. RESULTS: Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor among Brazilian adults aged 30 years or older (40.7%). It was strongly associated with the aging process (prevalence ratio, PR 3.51), obesity (PR 1.73), heart disease (PR 1.67) and stroke (PR 1.86). Furthermore, limitations associated with hypertension were more prevalent among those with comorbidities from noncommunicable diseases relating to hypertension complications (stroke PR 1.47; heart disease PR 1.69) and with incomplete elementary education (PR 1.19). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed sociodemographic inequality in the prevalence of hypertension, especially in the population with some degree of limitation associated with hypertension. It showed that improvements in access to primary care services for controlling hypertension at its initial stages are essential in order to avoid comorbidities of greater severity and limitations and losses of quality of life, especially among socially disadvantaged people.

11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190024, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942330

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in many countries. Unhealthy eating and sedentary lifestyle are the main risk factors for obesity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and identify the associated factors in the Brazilian adult population on the basis of data collected in the 2013 National Health Survey. METHOD: We analyzed the data from a sample of 59,402 adult subjects, excluding pregnant women. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by means of weight and height measurements. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with obesity. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 16.8% for men and 24.4% for women. Advanced age (over 50 years), low education level (no schooling or incomplete elementary school), African Brazilian and living with partner were risk factors for obesity. Leisure time physical activity and the habit of watching more than 4 hours of television per day showed significant effects for both sexes. Regarding the referred morbidity, in obese people, the chances of having a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or some non-communicable chronic disease were higher. Obese men and women had significantly increased systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Our findings emphasize the importance of public policies for the prevention of obesity and for the promotion of healthy habits in Brazilian society.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 8, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma in health services may be detrimental to health seeking attitudes and practices. This study investigates non-disclosure of sex work to health care providers among female sex workers (FSW) in Brazil and its association with the utilization of health care services. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling, carried out in 12 Brazilian cities to identify HIV risk behaviors among FSW. We first assessed statistical associations of sociodemographic, human right violations, health service access and utilization, and discrimination variables with non-disclosure of FSW status to health care providers as outcome. Secondly, we investigated the association of non-disclosure of FSW status with selected preventive health care outcomes: HIV testing, PAP smear exam, and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Among 4245 recruited FSW, a high percentage received free condoms (82%) but only 24.4% were counseled on STI. Most FSW used non-specialized public healthcare routinely (62.6%), but only 51.5% had a Pap smear exam in the last two years and less than 40% were tested for HIV in the last 12 months. Among FSW who engaged in risky behavior (49.6%), only 8.3% used PEP. Regarding human rights violations, approximately 15% were required to give part of their earnings to owners of workplace establishments, 38% started sex work under 18 years old and 6% were required to periodically present their HIV test results. 21.3% reported having faced discrimination in health services, and 24.3% always disclosed their FSW status. Multivariable logistic models indicated significant associations of non-disclosure on the four healthcare outcomes, with lower odds of using preventive health services among women who did not disclose their sex work status, even after controlling for age, educational level, NGO affiliation, and type of health care routinely used. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that sex work stigmatization within health services may be one of the main barriers to STI control and HIV response among FSW. It is essential to combat stigmatization and discrimination against FSW in health services to guarantee the appropriate uptake of preventive services available in the public health system in Brazil.


Assuntos
Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Profissionais do Sexo , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190024, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990734

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: A prevalência de obesidade está aumentando em um ritmo alarmante em muitos países. Uma alimentação não saudável e o sedentarismo são os principais fatores de risco para a obesidade. O objetivo deste artigo foi estudar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à obesidade na população adulta brasileira com base nos dados coletados na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Método: Amostra de 59.402 indivíduos adultos, excluindo-se as mulheres grávidas. O índice de massa corporal foi calculado por meio das aferições de peso e estatura. A obesidade foi definida por índice de massa corporal ≥ 30 kg/m2. Utilizaram-se modelos de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados à obesidade. Resultados: As prevalências de obesidade foram de 16,8% para homens e 24,4% para mulheres. Idade avançada (a partir dos 50 anos), nível de instrução baixo (sem instrução ou ensino fundamental incompleto), raça/cor preta e viver com companheiro foram fatores de risco à obesidade. A atividade física no lazer e o hábito de assistir mais de 4 horas de televisão por dia mostraram associações significativas para ambos os sexos. Quanto à morbidade referida, em pessoas obesas, as chances de ter o diagnóstico de hipertensão, diabetes ou de alguma doença crônica não transmissível foram maiores. Homens e mulheres obesos tiveram a pressão arterial sistólica significativamente aumentada. Conclusão: Os achados enfatizam a importância de políticas públicas para a prevenção da obesidade e para a promoção de hábitos saudáveis na sociedade brasileira.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in many countries. Unhealthy eating and sedentary lifestyle are the main risk factors for obesity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and identify the associated factors in the Brazilian adult population on the basis of data collected in the 2013 National Health Survey. Method: We analyzed the data from a sample of 59,402 adult subjects, excluding pregnant women. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by means of weight and height measurements. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 16.8% for men and 24.4% for women. Advanced age (over 50 years), low education level (no schooling or incomplete elementary school), African Brazilian and living with partner were risk factors for obesity. Leisure time physical activity and the habit of watching more than 4 hours of television per day showed significant effects for both sexes. Regarding the referred morbidity, in obese people, the chances of having a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or some non-communicable chronic disease were higher. Obese men and women had significantly increased systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Our findings emphasize the importance of public policies for the prevention of obesity and for the promotion of healthy habits in Brazilian society.

14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(10): e00214918, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039396

RESUMO

Resumo: Neste trabalho, avaliam-se quantitativa e qualitativamente as informações do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC). A cobertura das informações por município foi estimada pela razão entre nascidos vivos informados e estimados. Para avaliação da qualidade das informações do SINASC, relacionou-se o sistema à base de dados do estudo Nascer no Brasil, 2011-2012, e foram estimados coeficientes kappa de concordância. Em 2013, a cobertura das informações foi alta e homogênea em todas as Unidades da Federação. Entretanto, a análise por município brasileiro apresentou maior heterogeneidade espacial. Quanto à qualidade de preenchimento das informações do SINASC, os coeficientes kappa de concordância foram estatisticamente diferentes de zero para todas as variáveis testadas (p < 0,001), e as distribuições marginais para todas as variáveis consideradas foram semelhantes nas duas bases de dados. A idade gestacional foi a variável que mostrou pior concordância, com valor de kappa de 0,461. O indicador que descreve as inconsistências, medido pela soma do quadrado das diferenças entre os percentuais de prematuridade informados e esperados por faixa de peso ao nascer, teve o valor mais alto na Região Norte e o menor na Região Sul, apontando para desigualdades geográficas na mensuração da idade gestacional.


Abstract: This study is a quantitative and qualitative assessment of data from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in Brazil. Coverage of the data by municipality was estimated as the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Data quality in the SINASC was assessed via probabilistic linkage with the database from the Birth in Brazil study, 2011-2012, and kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated. In 2013, data coverage was high and homogeneous in all states of Brazil. However, the analysis according to municipalities (counties) showed greater spatial heterogeneity. As for completeness of information in SINASC, kappa coefficients were statistically different from zero for all the tested variables (p < 0.001), and marginal distributions of all the variables were similar in the two databases. Gestational age was the variable with the worst agreement, with a kappa value of 0.461. The indicator that describes the inconsistencies, measured by the sum of the square of the differences between the reported and expected prematurity rates by birthweight bracket, showed the highest value in the North of Brazil and the lowest in the South, pointing to geographic inequalities in measurement of gestational age.


Resumen: En este trabajo, se evalúa cuantitativa y cualitativamente la información del Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos (SINASC) de Brasil. La cobertura de la información por municipio se estimó por la razón entre nacidos vivos informados y estimados. Para la evaluación de la calidad de la información del SINASC, se efectuó la relación del sistema con la base de datos del estudio Nacer no Brasil, 2011-2012 y se estimaron los coeficientes kappa de concordancia. En 2013, la cobertura de la información fue alta y homogénea en todas las unidades de la Federación. No obstante, el análisis por municipio brasileño presentó mayor heterogeneidad espacial. En cuanto a la calidad de cumplimentación de la información del SINASC, los coeficientes kappa de concordancia fueron estadísticamente diferentes de cero para todas las variables probadas (p < 0,001) y las distribuciones marginales para todas las variables consideradas fueron semejantes en las dos bases de datos. La edad gestacional fue la variable que mostró peor concordancia, con valor de kappa de 0,461. El indicador que describe las inconsistencias, medido por la suma del cuadrado de las diferencias entre los porcentajes de prematuridad informados y esperados por franja de peso al nacer, tuvo el valor más alto en la región Norte y el menor en la Sur, apuntando desigualdades geográficas en la medición de la edad gestacional.

15.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.1): e190002, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042210

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. Methodology: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. Results: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). Discussion: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. Conclusion: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


RESUMO Introdução: O método de amostragem Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) tem sido utilizado em inquéritos com populações-chave sob maior risco de infecção pelo HIV, como as mulheres trabalhadoras do sexo (MTS). Este artigo tem o objetivo de descrever a implementação do RDS entre MTS em 12 cidades brasileiras em 2016. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo de vigilância biológica e comportamental realizado em 12 cidades brasileiras, com amostra mínima de 350 MTS em cada cidade. Foram realizados testes para infecções por HIV, sífilis, hepatites B e C, e aplicou-se questionário sociocomportamental. Resultados: Participaram 4.328 MTS. Para a análise dos dados, foi elaborada uma ponderação amostral considerando o tamanho da rede de cada participante; recomenda-se que o desenho complexo de amostragem por RDS e o efeito de homofilia sejam considerados. Discussão: Apesar de o RDS ser fundamentado em pressupostos estatísticos para obtenção de uma amostra probabilística e possibilitar estimação de parâmetros estatísticos, ele vem sendo repensado a cada nova aplicação. Na análise dos dados na totalidade da amostra, os estimadores mostraram-se robustos e coerentes aos encontrados em 2009. Entretanto, constataram-se grandes variações por cidade. Conclusão: O tamanho amostral alcançado foi de grande relevância para avaliar avanços e identificar problemas a respeito da prevenção e assistência às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Ressalta-se a necessidade de pensar estudos RDS com maior tempo e recursos para implementação, o que poderia permitir um melhor desenvolvimento das redes.

16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.1): e190006, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042214

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Knowing the factors associated with periodic HIV testing among female sex workers (FSW) is essential to expand testing coverage and to broaden programs of treatment as prevention. Methods: We used data from 4,328 FSWs recruited by the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. Data analysis considered the complex sampling design. The prevalence of HIV testing in the last year and periodic HIV test were estimated. Factors associated with regular HIV testing were identified through logistic regression models. Results: The testing coverage in the last year was 39.3%. Only 13.5% of FSW reported having performed a periodic HIV test in the last year. Among the factors associated with the higher probability of HIV testing in the last year were a better level of education, living with a partner, working indoors, consistent use of condoms, and regular use of public and private health services stood out. Discussion: Periodic HIV testing allows early diagnosis and immediate treatment of cases, reducing the chances of spreading the infection to the population. However, factors such as stigma and discrimination hinder the use of regular health services. Conclusion: It is necessary to expand awareness campaigns, especially among FSWs with low educational level and greater vulnerability, in order to broaden the perception of risk and the importance of periodic testing, in addition to encouraging regular health care.


RESUMO Introdução: Conhecer os fatores associados ao teste periódico de HIV no grupo de mulheres trabalhadoras do sexo (MTS) é fundamental para expandir a cobertura de testagem e ampliar os programas de tratamento como prevenção. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados de 4.328 MTS recrutadas pela metodologia respondent-driven sampling (RDS) em 12 cidades brasileiras em 2016. A análise de dados considerou o desenho complexo de amostragem. Foram estimadas as prevalências de realização do teste de HIV no último ano e do teste periódico. Através de modelos de regressão logística foram identificados fatores associados à testagem regular de HIV. Resultados: A cobertura de teste no último ano foi de 39,3%. Apenas 13,5% das MTS relataram ter realizado teste periódico de HIV no último ano. Entre os fatores associados à maior probabilidade de realização de teste de HIV no último ano, destacaram-se o melhor nível de instrução, o fato de morar com companheiro, trabalhar em lugares fechados, o uso consistente de preservativo, e o uso regular de serviço de saúde público e privado. Discussão: A realização periódica de teste de HIV possibilita o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento imediato dos casos, reduzindo as chances de disseminação da infecção na população. Entretanto, fatores como estigma e discriminação dificultam o uso regular de serviços de saúde. Conclusão: É necessário expandir campanhas de conscientização, sobretudo entre as MTS de baixo nível de instrução e maior vulnerabilidade, a fim de ampliar a percepção de risco e da importância da testagem periódica, além de incentivar os cuidados regulares de saúde.

17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.1): e190009, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042215

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . Method: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. Results: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. Discussion: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


RESUMO Introdução: O conhecimento do comportamento sexual de risco entre jovens tem sido amplamente reconhecido como ferramenta-chave para controlar a propagação do HIV. Este artigo tem o objetivo de retratar o comportamento de risco dos conscritos do Exército brasileiro à infecção pelo HIV segundo as macrorregiões brasileiras. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados de 37.282 conscritos, entre 17 e 22 anos, durante apresentação ao Exército em 2016. Estimaram-se as prevalências de HIV autorreferida e medida por exame laboratorial, além de indicadores de comportamento de risco, por macrorregiões geográficas. Resultados: Dos conscritos que compuseram a amostra, 75% relatou já ter iniciado atividade sexual, e a média de idade de início foi de aproximadamente 15 anos. O uso do preservativo variou de acordo com o tipo de parceria sexual, sendo menor na relação com parceiros(as) fixos(as) e maior nas parcerias menos estáveis. A prevalência da infecção pelo HIV medida através do diagnóstico laboratorial foi de 0,12% no Brasil, sendo mais prevalente na região Norte (0,24%). O consumo de álcool e drogas ilícitas foi maior na região Sul. Discussão: O estudo permitiu observar o monitoramento do comportamento de risco à infecção pelo HIV entre os jovens brasileiros. O menor uso de preservativo quando a parceria sexual é considerada estável pode estar contribuindo para aumentar o número de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de campanhas de divulgação para os jovens sobre práticas de sexo seguro, além da ampliação da oferta de testagem nessa população.

18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042219

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: É amplamente reconhecido que elevada concentração de renda prevalece no Brasil e que a posição socioeconômica dos segmentos sociais exerce influência nas condições de vida e saúde, incluindo a qualidade da alimentação. Objetivo: Medir a magnitude das desigualdades sociais no perfil da qualidade alimentar da população brasileira. Método: Analisaram-se dados da amostra de 60.202 adultos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013. Foram estimadas as prevalências de indicadores de qualidade alimentar segundo sexo, raça/cor, renda, escolaridade e posse de plano de saúde. Razões de prevalência foram estimadas por meio de regressão múltipla de Poisson. Resultados: Maior prevalência de consumo de alimentos saudáveis foi verificada no sexo feminino, entre os brancos e no grupo de melhor nível socioeconômico. Entretanto,para alguns alimentos considerados não saudáveis, como doces, sanduíches, salgados e pizzas, também foi observada maior prevalência nos segmentos sociais mais favorecidos, nas mulheres e nos brancos, expressando a concomitância de escolhas alimentares saudáveis e não saudáveis. Desigualdade de maior magnitude foi observada quanto à comparação do consumo de leite desnatado e semidesnatado segundo renda (razão de prevalência - RP=4,48). Conclusão: Além de expressiva desigualdade social no perfil alimentar dos brasileiros, foram detectados perfis mistos, incluindo alimentos saudáveis e não saudáveis, sinalizando a necessidade de monitoramento e de intervenções de promoção de alimentação saudável que levem em conta as desigualdades sociais e as contradições no consumo alimentar.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. Objective: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. Method: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. Results: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. Conclusion: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.

19.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190003.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042221

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever valores de referência para exames laboratoriais de hemograma da população adulta brasileira segundo os resultados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) estratificados por sexo, faixa etária e cor da pele. Métodos: A amostra foi constituída inicialmente de 8.952 adultos. Para determinar os valores de referência, excluíram-se indivíduos com doenças prévias e os outliers. Valores médios, desvio padrão e limites foram estratificados por sexo, faixa etária e cor da pele. Resultados: Para glóbulos vermelhos, os homens apresentaram valor médio de 5,0 milhões por mm3 (limites: 4,3-5,8) e as mulheres 4,5 milhões por mm3 (limites: 3,9-5,1). Valores de hemoglobina entre homens exibiram média de 14,9 g/dL (13,0-16,9) e entre mulheres de 13,2 g/dL (11,5-14,9). A média dos glóbulos brancos entre os homens foi de 6.142/mm3 (2.843-9.440) e entre as mulheres de 6.426/mm3 (2.883-9.969). Outros parâmetros mostraram valores próximos entre os sexos. Com relação a faixas etárias e cor da pele, valores médios, desvio padrão e limites dos exames apontaram pequenas variações. Conclusão: Os valores de referência hematológicos com base em inquérito nacional permitem a definição de limites de referência específicos por sexo, idade e cor da pele. Os resultados aqui expostos podem contribuir para o estabelecimento de melhores evidências e critérios para o cuidado, diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe reference values for blood counts obtained from laboratory tests in the Brazilian adult population according to laboratory results from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), by gender, age group and skin color. Methods: The initial sample consisted of 8,952 adults. To determine the reference values, individuals with prior diseases and outliers were excluded. Mean values, standard deviation and limits were stratified by gender, age group and skin color. Results: For red blood cells, men presented a mean value of 5.0 million per mm3 (limits: 4.3-5.8) and women, 4.5 million per mm3 (limits: 3.9-5.1). Hemoglobin levels were higher among men with a mean of 14.9 g/dL (13.0-16.9), and in women, 13.2 g/dL (11.5-14.9). The mean number of white blood cells among men was 6.142/mm3 (2.843-9.440) and 6.426/mm3 (2.883-9.969) for women. Other parameters showed close values between the genders. Regarding age groups and skin color, mean values, standard deviation and limits of the exams presented small variations. Conclusion: Hematological reference values based on the national survey allow for the establishment of specific reference limits for gender, age and skin color. The results presented here may contribute to the establishment of better evidence and criteria for the care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190004.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042227

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: O artigo teve o objetivo de descrever a metodologia de coleta dos dados dos exames laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Metodologia: Foi selecionada uma subamostra de 25% dos setores censitários, obedecendo à estratificação da amostra da PNS, com probabilidade inversamente proporcional à dificuldade de coleta. A coleta de sangue e urina dos moradores selecionados para entrevista individual foi realizada nos domicílios por um agente de laboratório. Por conta das dificuldades encontradas no trabalho de campo,a amostra não atingiu número suficiente em alguns estratos da pesquisa, então para a análise dos dados foi proposto procedimento de pós-estratificação. Resultados: A coleta de material biológico foi realizada em 8.952 indivíduos. Os exames realizados foram: hemoglobina glicada; colesterol total; colesterol LDL; colesterol HDL; sorologia para dengue; hemograma série vermelha (eritograma) e série branca (leucograma); cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) para diagnóstico de hemoglobinopatias; e creatinina. Na urina, estimativa de excreção de potássio, sal, sódio e creatinina. A base de dados dos exames laboratoriais foi ponderada e disponibilizada para os usuários no site da PNS da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, sem necessidade de autorização prévia para uso. Conclusão: A subamostra total coletada é de grande valia, pois permitiu estabelecer parâmetros de referência nacionais adequados às características sociodemográficas e geográficas da população brasileira, fornecendo informações relevantes e complementares para a análise da situação de saúde do Brasil.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: This article aims at describing the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde- PNS) methodology of collecting laboratory exams data. Methodology: A subsample of 25% of the census tracts was selected, according to the stratification of the PNS sample, with a probability inversely proportional to the difficulty of collection. The collection of blood and urine was done in the households by a laboratory agent, among residents selected for individual interview. Due to the difficulties found in the field work, the sample did not reach the minimum expected number in some strata, and a post-stratification procedure was proposed for the data analysis. Results: The collection of biospecimens was performed in 8,952 individuals. Laboratory tests were: glycated hemoglobin; total cholesterol; LDL cholesterol; HDL cholesterol; serology for dengue; red blood cell count (erythrogram) and white series count (leukogram); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies; creatinine. Theexcretion of potassium, salt and sodium and creatinine was estimated in the urine. The database of laboratory exams was weighed and made publicly available on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation's PNS website and can be accessed without prior authorization. Conclusion: The total subsample of laboratory exams is of great value, since it allowed us to establish national reference parameters adequate to sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the Brazilian population, providing relevant and complementary information for the analysis of the health situation of Brazil.

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