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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118598, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560998

RESUMO

The self-assembly and gelation of low-methoxyl diluted alkali-soluble pectin (LM DASP) from pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference) was studied in water and salt solutions (NaCl and CaCl2, constant ionic strength) without pH adjustment at 20 °C. The samples at different LM DASP concentrations were characterized using rheological tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dual-angle dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. LM DASP from pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) showed gelling ability. The indices (aggregation index and shape factor) based on light scattering may be useful for the characterization of structural changes in polysaccharide suspension, particularly for the determination of a gel point. The results obtained may be important for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries where pectin is used as a texturizer, an encapsulating agent, a carrier of bioactive substances or a gelling agent.

2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443574

RESUMO

Natural extracts are a rich source of biomolecules that are useful not only as antioxidant drugs or diet supplements but also as complex reagents for the biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. The natural product components can act as strong reducing and capping substrates guaranteeing the stability of formed NPs. The current work demonstrates the suitability of extracts of Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, Salvia officinalis, Tilia cordata, Levisticum officinale, Aegopodium podagraria, Urtica dioica, Capsicum baccatum, Viscum album, and marine algae Porphyra Yezoensis for green synthesis of AgNPs. The antioxidant power of methanolic extracts was estimated at the beginning according to their free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH method and reducing power activity by CUPRAC and SNPAC (silver nanoparticle antioxidant capacity) assays. The results obtained by the CUPRAC and SNAPC methods exhibited excellent agreement (R2~0.9). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size, and zeta potential. The UV-vis absorption spectra showed a peak at 423 nm confirming the presence of AgNPs. The shapes of extract-mediated AgNPs were mainly spherical, spheroid, rod-shaped, agglomerated crystalline structures. The NPs exhibited a high negative zeta potential value in the range from -49.8 mV to -56.1 mV, proving the existence of electrostatic stabilization. FTIR measurements indicated peaks corresponding to different functional groups such as carboxylic acids, alcohol, phenol, esters, ethers, aldehydes, alkanes, and proteins, which were involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Among the examined extracts, green tea showed the highest activity in all antioxidant tests and enabled the synthesis of the smallest nanoparticles, namely 62.51, 61.19, and 53.55 nm, depending on storage times of 30 min, 24 h, and 72 h, respectively. In turn, the Capsicum baccatum extract was distinguished by the lowest zeta potential, decreasing with storage time from -66.0 up to -88.6 mM.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Química Verde , Picratos/química
3.
Food Chem ; 346: 128889, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388668

RESUMO

The present study aimed to prepare blue colored powders from an aqueous extract of cornflower petals. Low temperature (4 °C) aqueous extraction (1:20) and microencapsulation by freeze-drying were performed. A mixture of stabilizers (maltodextrin, guar gum, and lecithin) in a proportion of 10% to the amount of extract was used. The results indicated that the addition of 2% and 4% guar gum to maltodextrin (8-6%) significantly increased the efficiency of the process, but 4% guar gum caused the formation of amorphous particles; therefore, 2% guar gum addition was found to be the most optimal. The FT-IR and FT-Raman band characteristics for guar gum, lecithin, and maltodextrin dominated over those for anthocyanins contained in the powders made from cornflower petals. The blue powders had total phenolic content of 19.5-26.6 mg GAE/g DW. The antioxidant activity of the prepared powders measured by ABTS, CHEL, OH, and RED was high.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Centaurea/química , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Centaurea/metabolismo , Cor , Galactanos/química , Mananas/química , Fenóis/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Água/química
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 245: 116513, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718623

RESUMO

The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can exhibit different optical properties depending on their size and shape as a result of synthesis method and the stabilizer used. In this research the synthesis of AgNPs in the presence of nanocellulose obtained from carrot pomace was investigated. The influence of silver nitrate concentration, temperature and mechanical agitation on size and shape of AgNPs was studied. The mixing of reagents during synthesis, regardless temperature, led to obtain AgNPs of various sizes and shapes. It was confirmed by different colors of samples with absorbance maximum from 334 to 779 nm, the transmission electron microscopy images and dynamic light scattering results. In unmixed samples only spherical nanoparticles with absorbance maximum at 408 nm were observed. Obtained results have demonstrated that mechanical agitation and an appropriate silver nitrate concentration combined with stabilizing effect of nanocellulose allow to obtain AgNPs in different shapes and sizes.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Daucus carota/química , Excipientes/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Nitrato de Prata/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura
5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260337

RESUMO

In this research, it was proposed to use carrot cellulose nanofibrils (CCNF) isolated from carrot pomace modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a filler of polylactic acid (PLA) composites matrix. The new procedure was based on two steps: first, the preparation of nanocellulose modified with metal nanoparticles, and then the combination with PLA. Two concentrations-0.25 mM and 2 mM-of AgNO3 were used to modify CCNF. Then, PLA was mixed with the filler (CCNF/AgNPs) in two proportions 99:1 and 96:4. The influence of CCNF/AgNPs on mechanical, hydrophilic, thermal, and antibacterial properties of obtained nanocomposites was evaluated. The greatest improvement of mechanical properties was observed for composite containing CCNF with 2 mM of AgNPs, which obtained the lowest Young modulus and highest strain at break. The degradation temperature was lower for PLA with CCNF/AgNPs, but crystallization temperature wasn't influenced. The addition of CCNF/AgNPs also increased hydrophilicity. The transmission rates of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide also increased after the addition of CCNF/AgNPs to PLA. The antibacterial function against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was obtained after the addition of AgNPs but only at the contact surface with the material made, suggesting the lack of migration of nanoparticles from the composite.

6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847175

RESUMO

Nanocellulose, being a material with nanodimensions, is characterized by high tensile strength, high modulus of elasticity, low thermal expansion, and relatively low density, as well as exhibiting very good electrical conductivity properties. The paper presents the results of research on cement mortars with the addition of nanocrystals cellulose, applied in three different amounts (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) by weight of cement, including: physical and mechanical properties, frost resistance and resistance against the detrimental effect of salt, and microstructure examination (SEM). Along with an increase in amount of admixture, the weight loss following frost resistance and salt crystallization tests is reduced. Studies have shown that the addition of nanocrystalline cellulose improves the compressive and flexural strength by 27.6% and 10.9%, respectively. After 50 freezing and thawing (F-T) cycles for the mortars with 1.5% nanocellulose admixture, an improvement in frost resistance by 98% was observed. In turn, the sulfate crystallization tests indicated a 35-fold decrease in weight loss following 1.5% nanopolymer addition to the mortar.

7.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(3): 1316-1327, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956311

RESUMO

Gluten-free bread making success is closely linked to the biophysical behaviour of dough. Quality of these doughs is largely determined by the properties of their proteins and starch. This study aimed to explain, at the structural level the rheological behaviour of gluten-free rice-field bean dough compared to that of soft wheat. The conformational aspects of proteins and starch were studied using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Doughs of soft wheat, rice, field bean, mixture of rice-field bean flour and the same mixture where a portion of rice flour underwent hydrothermal treatment were studied. The results show that viscous and viscoelastic components of gluten-free doughs were changed by supplementation of rice with field bean flour. Most of gluten-free doughs possessed a higher storage modulus in comparison with soft wheat dough. Analysis of FT-IR spectra in the amide I region conveyed to find the differences relative to soft wheat flour dough showed that in non-gluten doughs the increase in ß-sheet content was observed at the expense of ß-turns. These results were confirmed by amide I deconvolution. Gluten-free doughs contained more ß-sheet structure as compared to soft wheat dough and less ß-turns inducing high structuralization level that characterized this type of dough matrix. Concerning starch, the supplementation with rice-field bean generated the reorganization of field bean and rice doughs starches approaching that of wheat dough.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 210: 186-195, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732753

RESUMO

Cellulose is the major polysaccharide of cell walls in every plant, making it one of the most abundant natural polymers on Earth. However, despite many decades of investigations, the supramolecular structure of cellulose and especially its variation in the cell walls of different plants have still not been fully revealed. In the present study, cellulose from the parenchymatic tissue of apple fruits and carrot roots was isolated, and nanocellulose was further prepared by high-intensity ultrasonication. AFM revealed that the obtained nanocellulose differed in dimension between the two plant species. Compared with carrot cellulose, whose nanocellulose was obtained in the form of whiskers, apple cellulose had longer and thinner nanofibrils. Both nanocellulose types also differed in terms of their crystalline structure. XRD data indicated that, compared with the apple cellulose, the carrot cellulose had a higher degree of crystallinity and larger crystallites. Moreover, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed differences between the cellulose types in terms of their methine environment, hydroxymethyl conformations and skeletal vibrations. Additionally, with respect to their mechanical properties, the less crystalline apple cellulose and nanocellulose films were more elastic than the stiffer carrot cellulose and nanocellulose films. The possible reason for such differences between the two cellulose types is related to differences in plant tissue morphology and function. During development, apple fruit cell walls must withstand increasing turgor, probably higher that in the case of carrot tissue; therefore, the cellulose scaffolding must be elastic and strong. On the other hand, carrot, a root vegetable, also has to be strong enough to penetrate the soil as well as for its own growth; thus, the cell wall and cellulose scaffold have to be stiff and tough. Thus the structure of nanocellulose depends not only on the treatment but also on the cellulose source.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Daucus carota/química , Malus/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Parede Celular/química , Daucus carota/citologia , Frutas/química , Malus/citologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Sonicação
9.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208921, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533027

RESUMO

This study was focused on analyzing the effects of dietary inclusion of raw chickpea seed as a replacement of soybean meal as a primary protein source on bone structure in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (n = 160) received in their diet either soybean meal (SBM) or raw chickpea seeds (CPS) as a primary protein source throughout the whole rearing period (n = 80 in each group). On the 42th day randomly selected chickens from each group (n = 8) were slaughtered. Collected tibiotarsus were subjected to examination of the biomechanical characteristics of bone mid-diaphysis, microstructure of the growth plate and articular cartilages; the analysis of mineral content and crystallinity of mineral phase, and the measurements of thermal stability of collagen in hyaline cartilage were also carried out. The inclusion of chickpea seeds resulted in increase of bone osteometric parameters (weight, length and mid-diaphysis cross-sectional area) and mechanical endurance (yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, Young modulus). However, when loads were adjusted to bone shape (yield and ultimate stress) both groups did not differ. Mineral density determined by means of densitometric measurements did not differ between groups, however the detailed analysis revealed the differences in the macro- and microelements composition. The results of FT-IR and XRD analyses showed no effect of diet type on mineral phase crystallinity and hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites size. In trabecular bone, the increase of real bone volume (BV/TV) and number of trabeculae was observed in the CPS group. Total thickness of articular cartilage was the same in both groups, save the transitional zone, which was thicker in the SBM group. The total thickness of the growth plate cartilage was significantly increased in the CPS group. The area of the most intense presence of proteoglycans was wider in the SBM group. The structural analysis of fibrous components of bone revealed the increase of fraction of thin, immature collagen content in articular cartilage, trabeculae and compact bone in the CPS group. The dietary inclusion of CPS affected the thermal stability of collagen, as decrease of net denaturation enthalpy was observed. This study showed a beneficial effect of CPS on the skeletal development, improving the overall bone development and the microarchitecture of cancellous bone. It suggests that CPS can be a promising replacement for SBM in broilers feeding in the aspect of animal welfare related to the development of the skeletal system.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cicer/química , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/química , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
J Sep Sci ; 41(15): 3129-3142, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897661

RESUMO

Spinacia oleracea L. extract was immobilized on an octadecyl-bonded silica surface to produce a new sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of trace amounts of metal ions from aqueous neutral samples. A measurement of the metal content has been performed by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The affinity of the investigated bivalent metal cations for the modified sorbent are in the order: Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Zn(II) ≈ Cd(II) ≈ Co(II). The quantum-chemically calculated chlorophyll-a-metal ion binding energies were consistent with the measured affinities of the corresponding metal ions to the investigated sorbent. The maximum sorption capacity obtained for Pb(II) was equal to 1.44 µmol/g. The value of lead uptake was significantly higher in comparison to the one reported for other sorbents and biosorbents. Immobilized chlorophyll a is responsible for a chelation process with stoichiometry 1:1 owing to the porphyrin rings, which was confirmed by the quantitative analysis performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The Toth adsorption isotherm model was applicable to the description of the adsorption process of either chlorophyll a or Pb(II). The structural analysis of sorbent was done using Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray detector.


Assuntos
Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Spinacia oleracea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Chumbo/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/síntese química
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100761

RESUMO

The new sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE), based on silica gel modified with a copper (II), was obtained and its application for phospholipids removal from the human plasma was tested. SPE column conditioning requirements, the volume of the plasma, the composition of the elution solvent were all established. The efficacy of the removal of phospholipids was compared for different methods such as standard protein precipitation or HybridSPE Phospholipid Ultra and HybridSPE-PPT. The sample clean-up was verified by mass spectrometry (MS) and by monitoring of chromatograms in the region between 190nm and 400nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FT-IR and confocal Raman microscopy were used to evaluating the silica gel modifications and to show the structure of lipids confined in the silica pores.


Assuntos
Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cobre/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Sílica Gel/química
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 119: 328-337, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942290

RESUMO

This study was aimed at discovering an impact of biochemical parameters (like content of cell wall polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid or activity of pectinolytic enzymes) on cell wall microstructure during physiological fruit development. Cell wall microstructure as well as changes in the polysaccharides distribution were examined by confocal Raman microscopy. Also there was a need to simultaneous usage of reference method which is immunolabeling. A tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv Cerise) has been selected to observe the changes taking place in the fruit cell wall as it recently has been recognized as a model species for exploring fruit development processes such as fruit formation and ripening. Our studies showed that chemical images allows to depict changes in spatial distribution of polysaccharides in plant cell wall (including the middle lamella area), thus this technique allows to observation of cell wall degradation during tomato ripening (mainly pectic polysaccharides degradation). It seems that high level of pectinolytic enzymes activity and increasing content of ascorbate and hence decrease of pectins content have a significant impact on spatial distribution of biopolymers in fruit cell wall.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 174: 970-979, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821155

RESUMO

The impact of the matrix polysaccharides on the cellulose microfibrils structure as well as on the mechanical properties of cell walls still remains an open question. Therefore, the aim of investigations was to determine the simultaneous influence of (i) different concentrations of pectins with constant concentration of xyloglucan, and (ii) different concentrations of xyloglucan with constant concentration of pectins on cellulose structure. Composites of bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter xylinus are considered to mimic natural plant cell walls. This investigation showed that the lower the ratio of xyloglucan to pectin was, the higher Young's modulus of BC composite was and also obtained cellulose microfibrils were thinner. The increasing concentration of xyloglucan to pectin also caused the drop down in microfibrils crystallinity degree with predominant structure of cellulose Iß. In that case, also the length of cellulose chains was growing and reaching the highest value among all BC composites.

14.
Food Chem ; 231: 51-60, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450023

RESUMO

FT-Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study changes in structure of gluten proteins and their thermal properties influenced by four dietary fibre polysaccharides (microcrystalline cellulose, inulin, apple pectin and citrus pectin) during development of a model dough. The flour reconstituted from wheat starch and wheat gluten was mixed with the polysaccharides in five concentrations: 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 18%. The obtained results showed that all polysaccharides induced similar changes in secondary structure of gluten proteins concerning formation of aggregates (1604cm-1), H-bonded parallel- and antiparallel-ß-sheets (1690cm-1) and H-bonded ß-turns (1664cm-1). These changes concerned mainly glutenins since ß-structures are characteristic for them. The observed structural changes confirmed hypothesis about partial dehydration of gluten network after polysaccharides addition. The gluten aggregation and dehydration processes were also reflected in the DSC results, while the TGA ones showed that gluten network remained thermally stable after polysaccharides addition.


Assuntos
Pão , Glutens , Polissacarídeos , Fibras na Dieta , Farinha , Amido , Triticum
15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 9(10)2017 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965797

RESUMO

A new fractionation process was developed to achieve valorization of fruit and vegetable pomaces. The importance of the residues from fruits and vegetables is still growing; therefore; the study presents the novel route of a fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Hence, the biorefinery process is expected to convert them into various by-products offering a great diversity of low-cost materials. The final product of the process is the cellulose of the biofuel importance. The study presents the novel route of the fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with a potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Therefore the aim of this paper was to present the novel route of the pomaces fraction and the characterization of residuals. Pomaces from apple, cucumber, carrot, and tomato were treated sequentially with water, acidic solution, alkali solution, and oxidative reagent in order to obtain fractions reach in sugars, pectic polysaccharides, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Pomaces were characterized by dry matter content, neutral detergent solubles, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Obtained fractions were characterized by the content of pectins expressed as galacturonic acid equivalent and hemicelluloses expressed as a xyloglucan equivalent. The last fraction and residue was cellulose characterized by crystallinity degree by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), microfibril diameter by atomic force microscope (AFM), and overall morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hemicelluloses content was similar in all pomaces. Moreover, all the materials were characterized by the high pectins level in extracts evaluated as galacturonic acid content. The lignins content compared with other plant biomasses was on a very low level. The cellulose fraction was the highest in cucumber pomace. The cellulose fraction was characterized by crystallinity degree, microfibril diameter, and overall morphology. Isolated cellulose had a very fine structure with relatively high crystalline index but small crystallites.

16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 154: 48-54, 2016 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577895

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to reveal the structural changes of cell wall polysaccharides' fractions during tomato fruit development by analysis of spectral data. Mature green and red ripe tomato fruit were taken into consideration. The FT-IR spectra of water soluble pectin (WSP), imidazole soluble pectin (ISP) and diluted alkali soluble pectin (DASP) contained bands typical for pectins. Whereas for KOH fraction spectra bands typical for hemicelluloses were present. The FT-IR spectra showed the drop down of esterification degree of WSP and ISP polysaccharides during maturation. The changes in polysaccharides structure revealed by spectra were the most visible in the case of pectic polysaccharides. The WSP and DASP fraction pectins molecules length were shortened during tomato maturation and ripening. Whereas the ISP fraction spectra analysis showed that this fraction contained rhamnogalacturonan I, but also for red ripe was rich in pectic galactan comparing with ISP fraction from mature green.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/citologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/citologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(5)2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171093

RESUMO

Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre-harvest development. Despite this, at the current state of development the BA method cannot be used as an indicator alone. Due to rather poor results for prediction in OHW the BA measurements should be supported by other destructive methods to compensate its low selectivity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Frutas , Malus
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(10): 2094-104, 2016 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26927821

RESUMO

Interactions between gluten proteins and dietary fiber supplements at the stage of bread dough formation are crucial in the baking industry. The dietary fiber additives are regarded as a source of polysaccharides and antioxidants, which have positive effects on human health. The fiber enrichment of bread causes a significant reduction in its quality, which is connected with changes in the structure of gluten proteins. Changes in the structure of gluten proteins and their thermal properties induced by seven commercial dietary fibers (fruit, vegetable, and cereal) were studied by FT-Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TGA), respectively. For this aim the bread dough at 500 FU consistency was made of a blend of wheat starch and wheat gluten as well as the fiber, the content of which ranged from 3 to 18% w/w. The obtained results revealed that all dietary fibers apart from oat caused similar changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins. The most noticeable changes were observed in the regions connected with hydrogen-bonded ß-sheets (1614 and 1684 cm(-1)) and ß-turns (1640 and 1657 cm(-1)). Other changes observed in the gluten structure, concerning other ß-structures, conformation of disulfide bridges, and aromatic amino acid microenvironment, depend on the fibers' chemical composition. The results concerning structural changes suggested that the observed formation of hydrogen bonds in the ß-structures can be connected with aggregation or abnormal folding. This hypothesis was confirmed by thermogravimetric results. Changes in weight loss indicated the formation of a more complex and strong gluten network.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Glutens/química , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise Espectral Raman , Termogravimetria , Triticum/química
19.
Planta ; 243(4): 935-45, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733465

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Du ring on-tree ripening, the pectin distribution changed from polydispersed in cell wall to cumulated in cell wall corners. During apple storage, the pectin distribution returned to evenly dispersed along the cell wall. The plant cell wall influences the texture properties of fruit tissue for example apples become softer during ripening and postharvest storage. This softening process is believed to be mainly connected with changes in the cell wall composition due to polysaccharides undergoing an enzymatic degradation. These changes in polysaccharides are currently mainly investigated via chemical analysis or monoclonal labeling. Here, we propose the application of Raman microscopy for evaluating the changes in the polysaccharide distribution in the cell wall of apples during both ripening and postharvest storage. The apples were harvested 1 month and 2 weeks before optimal harvest date as well as at the optimal harvest date. The apples harvested at optimal harvest date were stored for 3 months. The Raman maps, as well as the chemical analysis were obtained for each harvest date and after 1, 2 and 3 months of storage, respectively. The analysis of the Raman maps showed that the pectins in the middle lamella and primary cell wall undergo a degradation. The changes in cellulose and hemicellulose were less pronounced. These findings were confirmed by the chemical analysis results. During development changes of pectins from a polydispersed form in the cell walls to a cumulated form in cell wall corners could be observed. In contrast after 3 months of apple storage we could observe an substantial pectin decrease. The obtained results demonstrate that Raman chemical imaging might be a very useful tool for a first identification of compositional changes in plant tissue during their development. The great advantage Raman microspectroscopy offers is the simultaneous localization and identification of polysaccharides within the cell wall and plant tissue.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Malus/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Frutas/citologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Malus/química , Malus/citologia , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 196: 114-22, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593472

RESUMO

Fresh fruit is an important part of the diet of people all over the world as a significant source of water, vitamins and natural sugars. Nowadays it is also one of the main sources of dietary fibre. In fruit the dietary fibre is simply cell wall consisting essentially of polysaccharides. The aim of present study was to predict the contents of pectins, cellulose and hemicelluloses by partial least squares regression (PLS) analysis on the basis of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra of fruit cell wall residue. The second purpose was to analyse the composition of dietary fibre from fruit based on FT-IR spectral information in combination with chemometric methods (principle components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)). Additionally the contents of polysaccharides in studied fruits were determined by analytical methods. It has been shown that the analysis of infrared spectra and the use of multivariate statistical methods can be useful for studying the composition of dietary fibre.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
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