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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198626


Human stem-cell factor (hSCF) stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells by binding to the c-Kit receptor. Various applications of hSCF require the efficient and reliable production of hSCF. hSCF exists in three forms: as two membrane-spanning proteins hSCF248 and hSCF229 and truncated soluble N-terminal protein hSCF164. hSCF164 is known to be insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli cytoplasm, requiring a complex refolding procedure. The activity of hSCF248 has never been studied. Here, we investigated novel production methods for recombinant hSCF164 and hSCF248 without the refolding process. To increase the solubility of hSCF164, maltose-binding protein (MBP) and protein disulfide isomerase b'a' domain (PDIb'a') tags were attached to the N-terminus of hSCF164. These fusion proteins were overexpressed in soluble form in the Origami 2(DE3) E. coli strain. These solubilization effects were enhanced at a low temperature. His-hSCF248, the poly-His tagged form of hSCF248, was expressed in a highly soluble form without a solubilization tag protein, which was unexpected because His-hSCF248 contains a transmembrane domain. hSCF164 was purified using affinity and ion-exchange chromatography, and His-hSCF248 was purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified proteins stimulated the proliferation of TF-1 cells. Interestingly, the EC50 value of His-hSCF248 was 1 pg/mL, 100-fold lower than 9 ng/mL hSCF164. Additionally, His-hSCF248 decreased the doubling time, increased the proportion of S and G2/M stages in the cell cycle, and increased the c-Myc expression at a 1000-fold lower concentration than hSCF164. In conclusion, His-hSCF248 was expressed in a soluble form in E. coli and had stronger activity than hSCF164. The molecular chaperone, MBP, enabled the soluble overexpression of hSCF164.

Fator de Células-Tronco/biossíntese , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Fator de Células-Tronco/química
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204265


Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is overexpressed in many malignant tumors. The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has been approved for treating HER2-positive early and metastatic breast cancers. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), a bacterial toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, consists of an A-domain with enzymatic activity and a B-domain with cell binding activity. Recombinant immunotoxins comprising the HER2(scFv) single-chain Fv from trastuzumab and the PE24B catalytic fragment of PE display promising cytotoxic effects, but immunotoxins are typically insoluble when expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, and thus they require solubilization and refolding. Herein, a recombinant immunotoxin gene was fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) and overexpressed in a soluble form in E. coli. Removal of the MBP yielded stable HER2(scFv)-PE24B at 91% purity; 0.25 mg of pure HER2(scFv)-PE24B was obtained from a 500 mL flask culture. Purified HER2(scFv)-PE24B was tested against four breast cancer cell lines differing in their surface HER2 level. The immunotoxin showed stronger cytotoxicity than HER2(scFv) or PE24B alone. The IC50 values for HER2(scFv)-PE24B were 28.1 ± 2.5 pM (n = 9) and 19 ± 1.4 pM (n = 9) for high HER2-positive cell lines SKBR3 and BT-474, respectively, but its cytotoxicity was lower against MDA-MB-231 and MCF7. Thus, fusion with MBP can facilitate the soluble expression and purification of scFv immunotoxins.

ADP Ribose Transferases , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas , Exotoxinas , Imunotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única , Fatores de Virulência , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/genética , Imunotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067755


Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a member of the colony-stimulating factor (CSF) family, which functions to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and other hematopoietic lineages such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, or macrophages. These proteins have thus generated considerable interest in clinical therapy research. A current obstacle to the prokaryotic production of human GM-CSF (hGM-CSF) is its low solubility when overexpressed and subsequent complex refolding processes. In our present study, the solubility of hGM-CSF was examined when combined with three N-terminal fusion tags in five E. coli strains at three different expression temperatures. In the five E. coli strains BL21 (DE3), ClearColi BL21 (DE3), LOBSTR, SHuffle T7 and Origami2 (DE3), the hexahistidine-tagged hGM-CSF showed the best expression but was insoluble in all cases at each examined temperature. Tagging with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the b'a' domain of protein disulfide isomerase (PDIb'a') greatly improved the soluble overexpression of hGM-CSF at 30 °C and 18 °C. The solubility was not improved using the Origami2 (DE3) and SHuffle T7 strains that have been engineered for disulfide bond formation. Two conventional chromatographic steps were used to purify hGM-CSF from the overexpressed PDIb'a'-hGM-CSF produced in ClearColi BL21 (DE3). In the experiment, 0.65 mg of hGM-CSF was isolated from a 0.5 L flask culture of these E. coli and showed a 98% purity by SDS-PAGE analysis and silver staining. The bioactivity of this purified hGM-CSF was measured at an EC50 of 16.4 ± 2 pM by a CCK8 assay in TF-1 human erythroleukemia cells.

Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/isolamento & purificação , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose/metabolismo , Células Procarióticas/metabolismo , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico , Solubilidade