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1.
Health Econ Rev ; 11(1): 39, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care systems are under extreme pressure. This study analyzed health care resource use (HCRU) and costs in patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 and aimed to estimate the one-year direct medical cost of the disease in Turkey. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March and July 2020 in a tertiary hospital (n = 1056) in Istanbul. Patient demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics at admission, comorbidities, disease severity, and costs from a payer perspective were evaluated using the microcosting method. The results include LOS, hospital costs, and univariate and generalized linear models to investigate influencing factors. The data were extrapolated to provide a country-level estimate. RESULTS: The mean length of stay was 9.1 days (SD 6.9). The mean length of stay was 8.0 days (4.7) for patients hospitalized in wards versus 14.8 days (SD 12.0) for patients hospitalized in the ICU. In univariate analysis, several factors, including O2 therapy (+ 3.7 days), high CRP > 41.8 mg/L (+ 3.8 days), and elevated ferritin (+ 3.5), were found to be associated with a longer LOS (p < 0.05). The direct annual medical cost of COVID-19 was estimated at PPP$ 2.1 billion. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a direct medical burden that corresponds to 2.0% of the government health expenditures and 0.8 per thousand of Turkey's gross domestic product (GDP). CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the impact of this pandemic in terms of HCRU and costs to the health care system can help design strategies to manage the pandemic.

2.
Adv Ther ; 38(9): 4935-4948, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of remdesivir compared to other existing therapies (SoC) in Turkey to treat COVID-19 patients hospitalized with < 94% saturation and low-flow oxygen therapy (LFOT) requirement. METHODS: We compared remdesivir as the treatment for COVID-19 with the treatments in the Turkish treatment guidelines. Analyses were performed using data from 78 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with SpO2 < 94% who received LFOT in a tertiary healthcare facility. COVID-19 episode costs were calculated for 78 patients considering the cost of modeled remdesivir treatment in the same group from the payer's perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was calculated for remdesivir versus the SoC for the population identified. For Turkey, a reimbursement threshold value between USD 8599 (1 × per capita gross domestic product-GDP) and USD 25.797 (3 × GDP) per QALY was used. RESULTS: In the remdesivir arm, the length of hospital stay (LOS) was 3 days shorter than the SOC. The low ventilator requirement in the remdesivir arm was one factor that decreased the QALY disutility value. In patients who were transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) from the ward, the mean LOS was 17.3 days (SD 13.6), and the mean cost of stay was USD 155.3/day (SD 168.0), while in patients who were admitted to ICU at baseline, the mean LOS was 13.1 days (SD 13.7), and the mean cost of stay was USD 207.9/day (SD 133.6). The mean cost of episode per patient was USD 3461.1 (SD 2259.8) in the remdesivir arm and USD 3538.9 (SD 3296.0) in the SOC arm. Incremental QALYs were estimated at 0.174. Remdesivir treatment was determined to be cost saving vs. SoC. CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir, which results in shorter LOS and lower rates of intubation requirements in ICU patients than existing therapies, is associated with higher QALYs and lower costs, dominating SoC in patients with SpO2 < 94% who require oxygen support.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Oxigênio , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia
3.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(3): 342-356, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416801

RESUMO

Limited data exists to date on the predictors for the development of pneumonia in patients with mild and moderate coronavirus (COVID-19). In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics and clinical findings of mild and moderate COVID-19 and to determine the risk factors for the development of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients admitted to the pandemic outpatient clinic of a university hospital. A total of 414 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were included. Of these, 220 (53.1%) were male, the mean age was 38.3 ± 12.7. Median duration of hospital admission from the onset of symptoms was three days (0-11). Of the confirmed COVID-19 cases, 154 (37.2%) had a history of family contact and the most common symptoms were weakness (68.4%), myalgia (61.8%), headache (56.5%), loss of smell (45.2%), loss of taste (43.2%) and anorexia (42.8%). Among females, weakness (p= 0.016), headache (p= 0.008), sore throat (p= 0.032), nausea (p= 0.003), anorexia (p= 0.045), loss of taste (p= 0.005) and loss of smell (p<0.001) were more common. Loss of taste (47.6% vs. 25%, p<0.001) and loss of smell (50% vs. 26.3%, p<0.001) were more common in patients with under the age of 50 and cough (43.4% vs. 29.3%, p= 0.003) was more common in patients with above the age of 40. Among 46 (11.1%) patients with asymptomatic COVID-19, there was no significant difference (p= 0.500) between the genders. Pneumonia was detected in 150 (43.8%) of 339 patients who underwent thorax computed tomography. In the univariate analysis; advanced age (p<0.001, odds ratio (OR)= 1.44), obesity (p<0.001 OR= 2.5), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 6.19), fever at first admission (p= 0.002, OR= 2.02), cough (p<0.001, OR= 3.26), shortness of breath (p<0.001, OR= 23.37), weakness (p= 0.042, OR= 1.63), anorexia (p= 0.009, OR= 1.79) and elevation of D-dimer (p= 0.014, OR= 1.92) were associated with the development of pneumonia. In multivariate analysis, obesity (p= 0.005, OR= 2.69), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 5.43), cough at first admission p= 0.017, OR= 2.16) and shortness of breath (p= 0.008, OR= 16.22) was determined as an independent risk factor for the development of pneumonia. CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001) values among 108 (26.1%) patients with a body-mass index(BMI) >30 were high, and 60.9% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001) . CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p= 0.010) values were low, lymphocyte count (p= 0.001) was high among 106 (25.6%) active smokers, and 15.6% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001). Of the patients reported with persistent symptoms, 25.9% had loss of smell, 25% had weakness, and 23.1% had loss of taste on the seventh day; 21.1% had loss of smell, 21.1% had myalgia, and 19.7% had loss of taste on the 14th day. During their follow-up, the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was studied in 286 patients for control purposes. The median time of being negative for COVID-19 PCR test was eight days (3-56). In conclusion, symptoms may last longer than 14 days in 20- 30% of patients presenting with mild-moderate clinical findings. In addition, obesity should be considered as an important risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Obes Facts ; 14(5): 481-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this was to describe the predictors of mortality related to COVID-19 infection and to evaluate the association between overweight, obesity, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: We included the patients >18 years of age, with at least one positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Patients were grouped according to body mass index values as normal weight <25 kg/m2 (Group A), overweight from 25 to <30 kg/m2 (Group B), Class I obesity 30 to <35 kg/m2 (Group C), and ≥35 kg/m2 (Group D). Mortality, clinical outcomes, laboratory parameters, and comorbidities were compared among 4 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference among study groups in terms of mortality. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation requirement was higher in group B and D than group A, while it was higher in Group D than Group C (Group B vs. Group A [p = 0.017], Group D vs. Group A [p = 0.001], and Group D vs. Group C [p = 0.016]). Lung involvement was less common in Group A, and presence of hypoxia was more common in Group D (Group B vs. Group A [p = 0.025], Group D vs. Group A [p < 0.001], Group D vs. Group B [p = 0.006], and Group D vs. Group C [p = 0.014]). The hospitalization rate was lower in Group A than in the other groups; in addition, patients in Group D have the highest rate of hospitalization (Group B vs. Group A [p < 0.001], Group C vs. Group A [p < 0.001], Group D vs. Group A [p < 0.001], Group D vs. Group B [p < 0.001], and Group D vs. Group C [p = 0.010]). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with overweight and obesity presented with more severe clinical findings. Health-care providers should take into account that people living with overweight and obesity are at higher risk for COVID-19 and its complications.

5.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(8): 1429-1440, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess antibody response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with immune-mediated diseases (IMD) among hospital workers and people aged 65 and older. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied 82 hospital workers with IMD (mean age: 42.2 ± 10.0 years) and 300 (mean age: 41.7 ± 9.9 years) controls. Among + 65 aged population, we studied 22 (mean age: 71.4 ± 4.5 years) patients and 47 controls (mean age: 70.9 ± 4.8 years). All study subjects had a negative history for COVID-19. Sera were obtained after at least 21 days following the second vaccination. Anti-spike IgG antibody titers were measured quantitatively using a commercially available immunoassay method. RESULTS: Patients with IMD were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies than healthy controls both among the hospital workers (92.7% vs 99.7%, p < 0.001) and elderly population (77.3% vs 97.9%, p = 0.011). Among patients with IMD, those using immunosuppressive or immune-modulating drugs (64/75, 85.3%) were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies compared to those off treatment (29/29, 100%) (p = 0.029). Additionally, a negative association between age and the antibody titer categories among patients (r = - 0.352; p < 0.001) and controls (r = - 0.258; p < 0.001) were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospital workers, the vast majority of patients with IMD and immunocompetent controls developed a significant humoral response following the administration of the second dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. This was also true for the elderly population, albeit with lower antibody titers. Immunosuppressive use, particularly rituximab significantly reduced antibody titers. Antibody titers were significantly lower among those aged ≥ 60 years both in patient and control populations. Whether these individuals should get a booster dose warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinação em Massa , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/diagnóstico , Esquemas de Imunização , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(9): 1329-1335, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), characterized by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the course of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been suggested as the major cause of mortality. Tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against human IL-6 receptor, poses a therapeutic option for the treatment of CRS leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome in coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study to reveal the outcome of COVID-19 patients on tocilizumab and proposed "the Cerrahpasa-PREDICT score", a new clinical scoring system using clinical and laboratory parameters that would help predicting the 28-day mortality of COVID-19 patients receiving tocilizumab. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients (median age: 59 years) were included of whom 75.8% were male. Tocilizumab use significantly improved clinical and laboratory parameters. The 28-day mortality rate on tocilizumab was 16.1%. The Cerrahpasa-PREDICT score, consisting of platelet counts, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels, SO2R and the time from symptom onset to tocilizumab administration had a positive predictive value of 94.5% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for anticipating 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 should closely be monitored for the signs of hyperinflammation. We showed that administration of tocilizumab early in the course of the disease (prior to ICU admission) resulted in a favorable outcome. Close monitoring usually aids identifying patients who would benefit from tocilizumab. In this regard, the Cerrahpasa-PREDICT score might serve as a practical tool for estimating the 28-day mortality in COVID-19 patients who received tocilizumab and would facilitate timely recognition of fatal cases to be evaluated for other therapeutic options.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(10): 2161-2170, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963928

RESUMO

Mortality due to K. pneumoniae bacteremia is on rise, particularly in regions with high rates of carbapenem and colistin resistance. We aimed to define risk factors for colistin resistance and its impact on mortality. Patients diagnosed with "carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp)" bacteremia between 2014 and 2018 were divided into two groups as "colistin susceptible (ColS)" and "colistin resistant (ColR)" based on broth microdilution method. Retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare characteristics and outcomes. Multiple logistic regression model was used to define independent risk factors for acquired colistin resistance and Cox proportional hazard model for 28-day mortality. A total of 82 patients (39 ColS and 43 ColR) were included. Mean age was 61.5 years, and 50 (61%) were male. Colistin resistance was significantly increased with duration of hospital stay (p = 0.007) and prior colistin use (p = 0.007). Overall, the 28-day mortality rate was 66%. Age (p = 0.014) and colistin resistance significantly increased 28-day (p = 0.009) mortality. Microbiological response to treatment within 7 days favors survival. PFGE analysis revealed an outbreak with K. pneumoniae ST78 and ST45 clones. Patients treated with combined antimicrobials had significantly lower 28-day mortality (p = 0.045) in comparison to monotherapy. However, types of combinations did not show significant superiority on each other. Colistin resistance increases 28-day mortality in CRKp bacteremia. Although combined regimens are more effective than monotherapy, existing antibacterial combinations have no apparent superiority to each other. New treatment options are pivotal.

8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 228-230, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785243

RESUMO

Candidaauris, draws attention as a new emerging antifungal resistant pathogen, leading to healthcare-associated infections and outbreaks. This is the first report of C. auris fungemia in a 81-year-old patient, confirmed by sequential analysis, from Turkey. Although the source of the isolate could not be identified, its spread in the hospital has been taken under control by effective infection control measures.

9.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(6): 1105-1114, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccination against COVID-19 emerges as an effective strategy for combating the pandemic. While many of our patients with rheumatic diseases (RD) wonder whether it is safe to get the vaccine, vaccine hesitancy is rising among the general population. We assessed the willingness to get vaccination and its probable predictors among patients with RD compared to healthcare workers and a sample from the general population. METHODS: We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey in a cross-sectional design in 3 groups of participants just before the mass vaccination program in Istanbul, Turkey. The questionnaire sought socio-demographic variables, COVID-19 related risk factors, willingness to get vaccination, and concerns and thoughts about vaccine. COVID-19 anxiety scale (CAS) was also evaluated. RESULTS: We studied in total 732 patients with RD (Group 1), 763 individuals representing general population (Group 2) and 320 hospital workers (Group 3). Dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19 was found in 4.9%, 3.8% and 4.1%, in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Of the patients with RD, 29.2% were willing to be vaccinated, 19.0% were unwilling and 51.8% were undecided. These were somewhat similar among the general population (yes: 34.6%, no: 23.3% and unsure: 42.1%), with significantly less undecided individuals (p < 0.001). On the other hand, hospital workers were significantly more willing (yes: 52.5%, no: 20.9% and unsure: 26.6%) (p < 0.001). Main concerns were probable side effects, unknown scientific results and having no trust. Being male, older age, working in a hospital, not having contracted COVID-19 and high scores on CAS were found to be independently associated with willingness. CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of vaccine acceptance among patients with RD, as well as general population sampling is worrying. Healthcare policies should aim to implement communication, promote confidence and increase demand for COVID-19 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/psicologia
10.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(6): 562-569, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) is a recommended and widely used regimen for HIV infection. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of E/C/F/TAF in people living with HIV (PLWH), who are either treatment-naïve or switched from any tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimen. For switched patients, we aimed to determine the impact of switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to TAF on lipid profile and kidney functions. METHODS: ACTHIV-IST Study Group produced a database, and five dedicated HIV centres in Istanbul entered data of PLWH who switched from any TDF-containing regimen to E/C/F/TAF and treatment-naïve patients who were initiated with the E/C/F/TAF regimen between January 2017 and December 2019. Clinical findings, viral parameters, lipid studies, renal function tests, adverse events and adherence to the treatment were recorded in this prospective observational study. RESULTS: The study included a total of 614 switched and treatment-naïve patients. Of 430 treatment-experienced patients, 89% (382) were men, and the mean age was 42 ± 12 years. Among them, 47% (181/382) self-identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). The median duration of HIV diagnosis was 54 ± 29 months. The median duration of E/C/F/TAF use was 20 ± 36 months and that of previous treatment was 23 ± 18 months. HIV-RNA was undetectable at baseline and month 12 in 84.1% (360/428) and 86.1% (328/381) of patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean CD4 counts were 708 ± 287 cells/µL and 802 ± 305 cells/µL at baseline and month 12, respectively (p < 0.001). Serum creatinine levels remained stable during the treatment period. Mean total cholesterol levels at baseline and month 12 were 172 and 211 mg/dL (p < 0.01), LDL-cholesterol 104 and 138 mg/dL (p < 0.01), HDL-cholesterol 39 and 49 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and triglycerides 134 and 174 mg/dL (p < 0.01), respectively. The treatment was generally well tolerated. Eight patients discontinued the therapy (drug interaction: 3; lost to follow-up: 1; pregnancy: 1; pulmonary tuberculosis: 1; side effect: 1; patient's decision: 1). Of 184 treatment-naïve patients, 88% (162) were men, and the mean age was 36.5± 12 years. Among them, 50% (81/162) self-identified as MSM. The mean duration of HIV infection was 21.6 ± 17.1 months. The mean duration of E/C/F/TAF use was 16 ± 4 months. HIV-RNA was undetectable at baseline and month 12 in 1% and 89.1% of patients, respectively. Mean CD4 counts at baseline and month 12 were 469 ± 223 cells/µL and 740 ± 298 cells/µL, respectively. During the treatment period, creatinine levels remained stable. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and also HDL-cholesterol levels increased. Mean total cholesterol levels at baseline and month 12 were 167 and 211 mg/dL (p < 0.01), LDL-cholesterol 108 and 143 mg/dL (p < 0.01), HDL-cholesterol 41 and 47 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and triglycerides 136 and 172 mg/dL, respectively (p < 0.01). The treatment was generally well tolerated. Three patients discontinued the therapy (drug interaction: 1; non-responder: 1; patient's decision: 1). CONCLUSION: Starting with or switching to E/C/F/TAF in PLWH effectively suppresses HIV infection, is associated with an increase in CD4 cell count and is well tolerated in a real-life setting. Renal functions remained stable during the treatment. E/C/F/TAF use was associated with an increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with an increase in HDL-cholesterol levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Alanina , Cobicistat , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Quinolonas , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 148, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-fifth of COVID-19 patients are seriously and critically ill cases and have a worse prognosis than non-severe cases. Although there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19, early recognition and supportive treatment may reduce the mortality. The aim of this study is to develop a functional nomogram that can be used by clinicians to estimate the risk of in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized and treated for COVID-19 disease, and to compare the accuracy of model predictions with previous nomograms. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 709 patients who were over 18 years old and received inpatient treatment for COVID-19 disease. Multivariable Logistic Regression analysis was performed to assess the possible predictors of a fatal outcome. A nomogram was developed with the possible predictors and total point were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 709 patients treated for COVID-19, 75 (11%) died and 634 survived. The elder age, certain comorbidities (cancer, heart failure, chronic renal failure), dyspnea, lower levels of oxygen saturation and hematocrit, higher levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase and ferritin were independent risk factors for mortality. The prediction ability of total points was excellent (Area Under Curve = 0.922). CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram developed in this study can be used by clinicians as a practical and effective tool in mortality risk estimation. So that with early diagnosis and intervention mortality in COVID-19 patients may be reduced.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Nomogramas , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 325-333, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935158

RESUMO

Candidemia is a nosocomial infection mostly found in critically ill patients. Our objectives were to evaluate the change in distribution and resistance profile of Candida spp. isolated from candidemic patients in our intensive care unit over two 5-year periods spanning 15 years and to evaluate the risk factors. Records from the microbiology laboratory were obtained, from January 2004 to December 2008 and from January 2013 to December 2017, retrospectively. Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test and evaluated according to EUCAST breakpoints. A total of 210 candidemia cases occurred; 238 Candida spp. were isolated in 197 patients (58.8% male; mean age, 59.2 ± 19.6 years). The most predominant risk factor was central venous catheter use. Species distribution rates were 32%, 28%, 17%, and 11% for C. albicans (n = 76), C. parapsilosis (n = 67), C. glabrata (n = 40), and C. tropicalis (n = 27), respectively. Resistance rate to anidulafungin was high in C. parapsilosis over both periods and increased to 73% in the second period. Fluconazole showed a remarkable decrease for susceptibility in C. parapsilosis (94 to 49%). The prevalence of MDR C. parapsilosis (6%/33%) and C. glabrata (0%/44%) increased in the second period. We observed a predominance of non-albicans Candida spp., with C. parapsilosis being the most frequent and C. glabrata infections presenting with the highest mortality. High level of echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis and increasing prevalences of MDR C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata seem emerging challenges in our institution.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data have suggested the presence of a reciprocal relationship between COVID-19 and kidney function. To date, most studies have focused on the effect of COVID-19 on kidney function, whereas data regarding kidney function on the COVID-19 prognosis is scarce. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the association between eGFR on admission and the mortality rate of COVID-19. METHODS: We recruited 336 adult consecutive patients (male: 57.1%, mean age: 55.0±16.0 years) that were hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital. Data were collected from the electronic health records of the hospital. On admission, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI formula. Acute kidney injury was defined according to the KDIGO criteria. Binary logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between eGFR on admission and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. RESULTS: Baseline eGFR was under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 in 61 patients (18.2%). Acute kidney injury occurred in 29.2% of the patients. In-hospital mortality rate was calculated as 12.8%. Age-adjusted and multivariate logistic regression analysis (p: 0.005, odds ratio: 0.974, CI: 0.956-0.992) showed that baseline eGFR was independently associated with mortality. Additionally, age-adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed a higher mortality rate in patients with an eGFR under 60 mL/min/1.73m2. CONCLUSIONS: On admission eGFR seems to be a prognostic marker for mortality in patients with COVID-19. We recommend that eGFR be measured in all patients on admission and used as an additional tool for risk stratification. Close follow-up should be warranted in patients with a reduced eGFR.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
14.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(12): 1359-1368, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707605

RESUMO

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis. PEG-interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFNα-2a) is the only effective treatment but its long-term clinical impact is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome after 48 weeks of pegylated interferon alpha-2a therapy. We performed a retrospective follow-up study of the Hep-Net-International-Delta-Hepatitis-Intervention-Study 1 (HIDIT-I trial). Patients had received 48 weeks of treatment with either PEG-IFNα-2a plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (Group I), PEG-IFNα-2a alone (Group II) or adefovir dipivoxil alone (Group III). Liver-related complications were defined as liver-related death, liver transplantation, liver cancer and hepatic decompensation defined as development of Child-Pugh scores B or C or an increase in Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores of five or more points in relation to baseline values. Patients were considered for further analysis when they were retreated with PEG-IFNα-2a. Follow-up data (at least 1 visit beyond post-treatment week 24) were available for 60 patients [Group I, (n = 19), Group II (n = 20), Group III (n = 21)]. Mean time of follow-up was 8.9 (1.6 - 13.4) years. 19 patients were retreated with IFN-based therapy: 42% (n = 8) in PEG-IFNα-2a arms and 58% (n = 11) in the adefovir only arm. Clinical complications on long-term follow-up occurred in 17 patients and were associated with nonresponse to therapy and baseline cirrhosis. The annual event-free survival rate in patients with cirrhosis vs noncirrhotic patients at year 5 and 10 was 70% vs 91% and 35% vs 76%. Long-term follow-up of a large randomized clinical trial suggests that off-treatment HDV RNA response to PEG-IFNα-2a treatment leads to improved clinical long-term outcome.

15.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1925-1932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564194

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship is of major importance in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). In this study, we aimed to investigate the trends in resistance and the relationship with mortality rates in patients with FN. The single-center surveillance data of inpatients with FN and diagnosed as microbiologically confirmed bloodstream infections (BSIs) between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 950 episodes in 552 patients with BSIs were analyzed. Of whom, 55.9% were male, the median age was 43 years, and 35.6% had acute myeloid leukemia. In total, 1016 microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures. Gram-negatives accounted for 42.4% (n = 403) of the episodes. Among Gram-negatives, Enterobacteriaceae accounted for 346 (86%) (E. coli, n = 197; 34% extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) producers, and Klebsiella spp., n = 120; 48.3% ESBL producers). Also, 24 (20.0%) of Klebsiella spp. had carbapenemase activity. There were 6 (5.0%) colistin-resistant Klebsiella spp. Thirteen (26.5%) of Pseudomonas spp. and 17 (60.7%) of Acinetobacter spp. had carbapenemase activity. There were 2 (5.6%) colistin-resistant Acinetobacter spp. The 30-day mortality rates were 12.0%, 21.5%, 34.6%, and 29.0% in BSIs due to Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial, fungal, and polymicrobial etiology respectively (p = 0.001). BSIs with ESBL-producing (p = 0.001) isolates, carbapenem (p < 0.001), and colistin-resistant isolates (p < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality risk. The tremendous rise in resistance rates among Gram-negatives is dreadfully related to increasing mortality and leads to sharp shifts toward extreme restrictions of unnecessary antibiotic uses. Antimicrobial stewardship in patients with FN requires vigilance and tailoring of treatment upon local surveillance data.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Neutropenia Febril , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neutropenia Febril/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia Febril/microbiologia , Neutropenia Febril/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/microbiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(7): 2085-2094, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474885

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection has a heterogenous disease course; it may be asymptomatic or causes only mild symptoms in the majority of the cases, while immunologic complications such as macrophage activation syndrome also known as secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, resulting in cytokine storm syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome, may also occur in some patients. According to current literature, impairment of SARS-CoV-2 clearance due to genetic and viral features, lower levels of interferons, increased neutrophil extracellular traps, and increased pyroptosis and probable other unknown mechanisms create a background for severe disease course complicated by macrophage activation syndrome and cytokine storm. Various genetic mutations may also constitute a risk factor for severe disease course and occurrence of cytokine storm in COVID-19. Once, immunologic complications like cytokine storm occur, anti-viral treatment alone is not enough and should be combined with appropriate anti-inflammatory treatment. Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of immunologic complications will decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection, which requires the collaboration of infectious disease, lung, and intensive care unit specialists with other experts such as immunologists, rheumatologists, and hematologists.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antirreumáticos/classificação , Antirreumáticos/imunologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/etiologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo para o Tratamento
18.
AIDS Care ; 32(8): 1045-1051, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449413

RESUMO

HIV/AIDS-related stigma remains a crucial public health problem in the world. Unfortunately, health provider staffs such as nurses and physicians are the major source of stigmatization and discrimination against peoples living with HIV (PLHIVs) including in Turkey. The aim of this study was to assess HIV-related stigma towards to PLHIV by nurses and physicians and to examine related factors. Descriptive Assessment Form and the HIV-Related Stigma Scale used for data collection. The study consisted of 405 health workers including 251 nurses and 154 physicians. Over 86% of physicians and 69.3% of nurses had no specific education about HIV. More than 11% of the nurses and 8.4% of the physicians expressed that HIV can be transmitted with handshaking or breathing in a shared environment. Fear-driven stigma was significantly different by age, education, occupation, and work experience. Over 14% of the discrimination (Adjusted R 2 = .14 F(15-389) = 4.46 P = .000), and 10% of the disclosure were explained by the variables (Adjusted R 2 = .10 F(15-389) = 4.29 P = .000). The discrimination dimension had a strong positive relationship with the knowledge of HIV transmission modes. In our view, if physicians and nurses receive adequate and comprehensive training on HIV including stigma, the formations of stigma may be prevented and may not develop.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(3): 276-282, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281636

RESUMO

Background: Cancer is responsible for elevated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality but there are insufficient data about cancer in HIV-positive patients in Turkey. Aims: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and mortality of cancer among people living with HIVand AIDS patients in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2016, people living with HIVand AIDS patients were enrolled in this study by the ACTHIV-IST Study Group, which consists of 5 centres to follow-up HIV-positive patients in Istanbul. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). Results: Among 1872 patients, 37 (1.9%) were diagnosed with concurrent cancer. Eleven patients were diagnosed during follow-up; the prevalence of cancer among people living with HIVand AIDS patients was 2.6%. Among 48 cancer patients, 35 patients had ADCs, and 32 of them were diagnosed at their first hospital admission. There were 1007 late presenters and 39 of them had cancer (29 were ADCs). The most prevalent NADCs were gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and pulmonary cancers. NADCs were mostly diagnosed during follow-up of patients. The mortality of this group was significantly higher than that of patients with ADCs (53.9% vs 22.9%). Conclusions: These results indicate the importance of cancer screening at diagnosis and during follow-up of HIV infection. A detailed physical examination contributes to diagnosis of the most prevalent ADCs (Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), especially in late presenters. For NADCs, individual risk factors should be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Turquia/epidemiologia
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