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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940892


PURPOSE: Metformin is the first-line antidiabetic drug and shown to reduce cardiovascular risk independent from its glucose lowering action. Particularly in poorly controlled diabetes, tissue factor (TF) is expressed in the vasculature and accounts for thromboembolic complications. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of metformin on TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a cohort of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin 8.39 ± 0.24%, 68.1 ± 2.6 mmol/mol, n = 46) of whom half of the individuals were treated with metformin and the other half did not receive metformin as part of an anti-diabetic combination therapy, we assessed TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation. In vitro, human monocytic cells (THP-1) were exposed to metformin and TF expression measured in the presence and absence of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or the AMPK inhibitor compound C. RESULTS: In the patients, metformin treatment was associated with lower levels of TF protein (241.5 ± 19 vs. 315.4 ± 25 pg/mL, p = 0.03) and reduced TF activity (408.9 ± 49 vs. 643.8 ± 47 U/mL, p = 0.001) compared with controls. Moreover, the patients on metformin showed lower levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)1 (26.6 ± 1.4 vs. 35.03 ± 3.1 ng/mL, p = 0.014) and higher expression of miR-126-3p/U6sno (11.39 ± 2.8 vs. 4.26 ± 0.9, p = 0.006), a known post-transcriptional down regulator of TF and VCAM1. In vitro, metformin dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TF expression in THP-1 cells. The AMPK activator AICAR alone lowered TF expression in THP-1, while the AMPK inhibitor compound C abrogated the metformin-dependent reduction in TF expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are the first to report that metformin is associated with reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity possibly explaining-at least in part-the vasculoprotective properties of metformin.

Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 20, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066445


BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic vascular inflammation leading to pathological expression of the thrombogenic full length (fl) tissue factor (TF) and its isoform alternatively-spliced (as) TF. Blood-borne TF promotes factor (F) Xa generation resulting in a pro-thrombotic state and cardiovascular complications. MicroRNA (miR)s impact gene expression on the post-transcriptional level and contribute to vascular homeostasis. Their distinct role in the control of the diabetes-related procoagulant state remains poorly understood. METHODS: In a cohort of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (n = 46) plasma levels of miR-181b were correlated with TF pathway activity and markers for vascular inflammation. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC)-1 and human monocytes (THP-1) were transfected with miR-181b or anti-miR-181b and exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Expression of TF isoforms, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM) 1 and nuclear factor (NF) κB nuclear translocation was assessed. Moreover, aortas, spleen, plasma, and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM)s of mice carrying a deletion of the first miR-181b locus were analyzed with respect to TF expression and activity. RESULTS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, plasma miR-181b negatively correlated with the procoagulant state as evidenced by TF protein, TF activity, D-dimer levels as well as markers for vascular inflammation. In HMEC-1, miR-181b abrogated TNFα-induced expression of flTF, asTF, and VCAM1. These results were validated using the anti-miR-181b. Mechanistically, we confirmed a miR-181b-mediated inhibition of importin-α3 (KPNA4) leading to reduced nuclear translocation of the TF transcription factor NFκB. In THP-1, miR-181b reduced both TF isoforms and FXa generation in response to LPS due to targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a principal inducer for TF in monocytes. Moreover, in miR-181-/- animals, we found that reduced levels of miR-181b were accompanied by increased TF, VCAM1, and KPNA4 expression in aortic tissue as well as increased TF and PTEN expression in spleen. Finally, BMDMs of miR-181-/- mice showed increased TF expression and FXa generation upon stimulation with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: miR-181b epigenetically controls the procoagulant state in diabetes. Reduced miR-181b levels contribute to increased thrombogenicity and may help to identify individuals at particular risk for thrombosis.

Coagulação Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , Tromboplastina/genética , Trombose/genética , Trombose/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , alfa Carioferinas/metabolismo
Eur Heart J ; 40(40): 3318-3332, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004144


AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pathological cardiac aging share a complex pathophysiology, including extracellular matrix remodelling (EMR). Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency is associated with EMR. The roles of PAR1 and PAR2 have not been studied in HFpEF, age-dependent cardiac fibrosis, or diastolic dysfunction (DD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies from patients with HFpEF (n = 14) revealed that a reduced cardiac PAR2 expression was associated with aggravated DD and increased myocardial fibrosis (r = -0.7336, P = 0.0028). In line, 1-year-old PAR2-knockout (PAR2ko) mice suffered from DD with preserved systolic function, associated with an increased age-dependent α-smooth muscle actin expression, collagen deposition (1.7-fold increase, P = 0.0003), lysyl oxidase activity, collagen cross-linking (2.2-fold increase, P = 0.0008), endothelial activation, and inflammation. In the absence of PAR2, the receptor-regulating protein caveolin-1 was down-regulated, contributing to an augmented profibrotic PAR1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)-dependent signalling. This enhanced TGF-ß/PAR1 signalling caused N-proteinase (ADAMTS3) and C-proteinase (BMP1)-related increased collagen I production from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). PAR2 overexpression in PAR2ko CFs reversed these effects. The treatment with the PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar, reduced cardiac fibrosis by 44% (P = 0.03) and reduced inflammation in a metabolic disease model (apolipoprotein E-ko mice). Patients with HFpEF with upstream PAR inhibition via FXa inhibitors (n = 40) also exhibited reduced circulating markers of fibrosis and DD compared with patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Protease-activated receptor 2 is an important regulator of profibrotic PAR1 and TGF-ß signalling in the heart. Modulation of the FXa/FIIa-PAR1/PAR2/TGF-ß-axis might be a promising therapeutic approach to reduce HFpEF.

Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 17(1): 34, 2018 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477147


BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic vascular disorder and presents a main risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. In particular, hyperglycaemia and inflammatory cytokines induce vascular circulating tissue factor (TF) that promotes pro-thrombotic conditions in diabetes. It has recently become evident that alterations of the post-transcriptional regulation of TF via specific microRNA(miR)s, such as miR-126, contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. The endothelial miR-19a is involved in vascular homeostasis and atheroprotection. However, its role in diabetes-related thrombogenicity is unknown. Understanding miR-networks regulating procoagulability in diabetes may help to develop new treatment options preventing vascular complications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma of 44 patients with known diabetes was assessed for the expression of miR-19a, TF protein, TF activity, and markers for vascular inflammation. High miR-19a expression was associated with reduced TF protein, TF-mediated procoagulability, and vascular inflammation based on expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte count. We found plasma expression of miR-19a to strongly correlate with miR-126. miR-19a reduced the TF expression on mRNA and protein level in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) as well as TF activity in human monocytes (THP-1), while anti-miR-19a increased the TF expression. Interestingly, miR-19a induced VCAM expression in HMEC. However, miR-19a and miR-126 co-transfection reduced total endothelial VCAM expression and exhibited additive inhibition of a luciferase reporter construct containing the F3 3'UTR. CONCLUSIONS: While both miRs have differential functions on endothelial VCAM expression, miR-19a and miR-126 cooperate to exhibit anti-thrombotic properties via regulating vascular TF expression. Modulating the post-transcriptional control of TF in diabetes may provide a future anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.

Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Epigênese Genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Tromboplastina/genética , Trombose/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células THP-1 , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 36(6): 1263-71, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27127202


OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus involves vascular inflammatory processes and is a main contributor to cardiovascular mortality. Notably, heightened levels of circulating tissue factor (TF) account for the increased thrombogenicity and put those patients at risk for thromboembolic events. Here, we sought to investigate the role of micro-RNA (miR)-driven TF expression and thrombogenicity in diabetes mellitus. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Plasma samples of patients with diabetes mellitus were analyzed for TF protein and activity as well as miR-126 expression before and after optimization of the antidiabetic treatment. We found low miR-126 levels to be associated with markedly increased TF protein and TF-mediated thrombogenicity. Reduced miR-126 expression was accompanied by increased vascular inflammation as evident from the levels of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and fibrinogen, as well as leukocyte counts. With optimization of the antidiabetic treatment miR-126 levels increased and thrombogenicity was reduced. Using a luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated miR-126 to directly bind to the F3-3'-untranslated region, thereby reducing TF expression both on mRNA and on protein levels in human microvascular endothelial cells as well as TF mRNA and activity in monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating miR-126 exhibits antithrombotic properties via regulating post-transcriptional TF expression, thereby impacting the hemostatic balance of the vasculature in diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hemostasia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Trombose/sangue , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Tromboplastina/genética , Trombose/genética , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue