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2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594169

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is used to diagnose Cushing's disease (CD) when dexamethasone-suppression and CRH tests, and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are negative or give discordant results. However, IPSS is an invasive procedure and its availability is limited. OBJECTIVE: To test a noninvasive diagnostic strategy associated with 100% positive predictive value (PPV) for CD. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Two university hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 167 patients with CD and 27 patients with ectopic ACTH-syndrome investigated between 2001 and 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Performance of a strategy involving the CRH and desmopressin tests with pituitary MRI followed by thin-slice whole-body computed tomography (CT) scan in patients with inconclusive results. RESULTS: Using thresholds of a cortisol increase > 17% with an ACTH increase > 37% during the CRH test and a cortisol increase > 18% with an ACTH increase > 33% during the desmopressin test, the combination of both tests gave 73% sensitivity and 98% PPV of CD. The sensitivity and PPV for pituitary MRI were 71% and 99%, respectively. CT scan identified 67% EAS at presentation with no false-positives. The PPV for CD was 100% in patients with positive responses to both tests, with negative pituitary MRI and CT scan. The Negative Predictive Value was 100% in patients with negative responses to both tests, with negative pituitary MRI and positive CT scan. Using this strategy, IPPS could have been avoided in 47% of patients in whom it is currently recommended. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with expert radiologic interpretation, the non-invasive algorithm studied significantly reduces the need for IPSS in the investigation of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-256412

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 101427, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448594

RESUMO

The European society of endocrinology, in association with the European network for the study of adrenal tumors, published recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas in 2016. A thorough and critical analysis of the literature was performed to establish evidence-based recommendations and expert suggestions with the aim of avoiding 'over-diagnosis' and 'over-treatment' and to reduce unnecessary investigations, surgery and follow-up. The purpose of this review is to reconsider several recommendations that are open to debate, such as imaging of adrenal incidentalomas, diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, diagnosis and treatment of autonomous cortisol-secreting tumors, investigations of bilateral AI and follow-up of non-operated AIs, based on studies published after the release of the recommendations.

7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380475

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 1 (FHH1), related to heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene, is the main differential diagnosis for primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of our study was to describe clinical characteristics of adult patients living in France with a genetically confirmed FHH1. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This observational, retrospective, multicentre study included 77 adults, followed up in 32 clinical departments in France, with a genetic FHH1 diagnosis between 2001 and 2012. RESULTS: Hypercalcaemia was diagnosed at a median age of 53 years [IQR: 38-61]. The diagnosis was made after clinical manifestations, routine analysis or familial screening in 56, 34 and 10% of cases, respectively, (n = 58; data not available for 19 patients). Chondrocalcinosis was present in 11/51 patients (22%), bone fractures in 8/56 (14%) and renal colic in 6/55 (11%). The median serum calcium was 2.74 mmol/L [IQR: 2.63-2.86 mmol/L], the median plasma parathyroid hormone level was 4.9 pmol/L [3.1-7.1], and the median 24-hour urinary calcium excretion was 2.8 mmol/24 hours [IQR: 1.9-4.0]. Osteoporosis (dual X-ray absorptiometry) or kidney stones (renal ultrasonography) were found in 6/38 patients (16%) and 9/32 patients (28%), respectively. Fourteen patients (18%) underwent parathyroid surgery; parathyroid adenoma was found in three patients (21%) and parathyroid hyperplasia in nine patients (64%). No correlation between genotype and phenotype was established. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study demonstrates that FHH1 clinical characteristics can be atypical in 33 patients (43%). Clinicians should be aware of this rare differential diagnosis in order to adopt an appropriate treatment strategy.

9.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(2): 101381, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035797

RESUMO

Overt Cushing's syndrome is a severe condition responsible for multiple comorbidities and increased mortality. Effective treatment is essential to reduce mortality, improve comorbidities and long-term quality of life. Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line and most effective treatment to normalize cortisol secretion. Adjunctive symptomatic treatments of co-morbidities are often necessary both during the active phase of the disease and for persisting co-morbidities after cessation of hypercortisolism. Second-line treatments include various pharmacological treatments, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiotherapy of corticotroph tumors. The choice of these treatments is complex, must be performed in a multidisciplinary expert team to be individualized for each patient, and use a shared decision-making approach.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carney Complex (CNC) is a rare multiple endocrine and nonendocrine neoplasia syndrome. Manifestations and genotype-phenotype correlations have been described by retrospective studies, but no prospective study evaluating the occurrence of the different manifestations has been available so far. METHODS: This multicenter national prospective study included patients with CNC, primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD), or a pathogenic PRKAR1A mutation; after a full initial workup, participants were followed for 3 years with annual standardized evaluation. RESULTS: The cohort included 70 patients (50 female/20 male, mean age 35.4 ± 16.7 years, 81% carrying PRKAR1A mutation). The initial investigations allowed identification of several manifestations. At the end of the 3-year follow-up, the newly diagnosed manifestations of the disease were subclinical acromegaly in 6 patients, bilateral testicular calcifications in 1 patient, and cardiac myxomas in 2 patients. Recurrences of cardiac myxomas were diagnosed in 4 patients during the 3-year follow-up study period. Asymptomatic abnormalities of the corticotroph and somatotroph axis that did not meet criteria of PPNAD and acromegaly were observed in 11.4% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Patients carrying the PRKAR1A c.709-7del6 mutation had a mild phenotype. CONCLUSION: This study underlines the importance of a systematic follow-up of the CNC manifestations, especially a biannual screening for cardiac myxoma. By contrast, regular screening for the other manifestations after a first extensive workup could be spread out, leading to a lighter and more acceptable follow-up schedule for patients. These are important results for recommendations for long-term management of CNC patients.

11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(4): R29-R58, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999619

RESUMO

Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is rare but is frequently a severe condition because of the intensity of the hypercortisolism that may be dissociated from the tumoral condition. EAS should often be considered as an endocrine emergency requiring an emergency response both in terms of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions. Patient management is complex and necessitates dual skills, in the diagnosis and treatment of CS and in the specific management of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Therefore, initial management should be performed ideally by experienced endocrinology teams in collaboration with specialized hormonal laboratory, modern imaging platforms and intensive care units. Diagnostic procedures vary according to the endocrine and tumoral contexts but should be reduced to a minimum in intense hypercortisolism. Preventive and curative treatments of cortisol-induced comorbidities, non-specific management of hypercortisolism and etiological treatments should be considered simultaneously. Therapeutic strategies vary according to (1.) the intensity of hypercortisolism, the general condition of the patient and associated comorbidities and (2.) the tumoral status, ranging from resectable ACTH secreting tumors to non-resectable metastatic endocrine tumors or occult tumors. The ideal treatment is complete excision of the ACTH-secreting tumor that can be performed rapidly or after preoperative preparation using cortisol-lowering drugs. When this is not possible, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed by a multidisciplinary experienced team in a personalized perspective and include variable combinations of pharmacological agents, bilateral adrenalectomy and non-specific tumoral interventions. Here we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic strategies including the modern, currently available tools and emphasize on the operational effectiveness of care.


Assuntos
Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/terapia , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Endocrinologia/métodos , Humanos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(2): 207-217, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804965

RESUMO

Objective: Monitoring of patients with Cushing's disease on cortisol-lowering drugs is usually performed with urinary free cortisol (UFC). Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) has an established role in screening for hypercortisolism and can help to detect the loss of cortisol circadian rhythm. Less evidence exists regarding the usefulness of LNSC in monitoring pharmacological response in Cushing's disease. Design: Exploratory analysis evaluating LNSC during a Phase III study of long-acting pasireotide in Cushing's disease (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01374906). Methods: Mean LNSC (mLNSC) was calculated from two samples, collected on the same days as the first two of three 24-h urine samples (used to calculate mean UFC [mUFC]). Clinical signs of hypercortisolism were evaluated over time. Results: At baseline, 137 patients had evaluable mLNSC measurements; 91.2% had mLNSC exceeding the upper limit of normal (ULN; 3.2 nmol/L). Of patients with evaluable assessments at month 12 (n = 92), 17.4% had both mLNSC ≤ULN and mUFC ≤ULN; 22.8% had mLNSC ≤ULN, and 45.7% had mUFC ≤ULN. There was high variability in LNSC (intra-patient coefficient of variation (CV): 49.4%) and UFC (intra-patient CV: 39.2%). mLNSC levels decreased over 12 months of treatment and paralleled changes in mUFC. Moderate correlation was seen between mLNSC and mUFC (Spearman's correlation: ρ = 0.50 [all time points pooled]). Greater improvements in systolic/diastolic blood pressure and weight were seen in patients with both mLNSC ≤ULN and mUFC ≤ULN. Conclusion: mUFC and mLNSC are complementary measurements for monitoring treatment response in Cushing's disease, with better clinical outcomes seen for patients in whom both mUFC and mLNSC are controlled.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/metabolismo , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/etiologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/urina , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Saliva/química , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Endocrine ; 67(1): 243-251, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564038

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is valuable in staging of neuroendocrine tumors by comparison with the conventional imaging defined by the combination of computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. METHODS: This study concerned the patients included in the multicenter prospective study NCT02786303 with the following inclusion criteria: well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or of unknown primary, and computed tomography, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy performed within 6 weeks. Results of the conventional imaging were compared with those of magnetic resonance imaging. Discrepancies between the conventional imaging and magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated by reviewing medical records. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (17 men and 14 women) were prospectively included. Complete concordance between the magnetic resonance imaging and the conventional imaging results was observed in 25 patients and discrepancies in 6. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging detected more liver lesions than the conventional imaging did but standard imaging set was more effective in the detection of bone and peritoneum lesions than magnetic resonance imaging. Detecting more lesions had no impact on therapeutic management. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion weighted may be a valuable alternative to computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Further studies should compare whole-body MRI to the 68Ga PET/CT.

16.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(1): 28-50, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637482

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with proven clinical value in oncology. PET/CT indications are continually evolving with fresh advances made through research. French practice on the use of PET in oncology was framed in recommendations based on Standards-Options-Recommendations methodology and coordinated by the French federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNLCC). The recommendations were originally issued in 2002 followed by an update in 2003, but since then, a huge number of scientific papers have been published and new tracers have been licenced for market release. The aim of this work is to bring the 2003 version recommendations up to date. For this purpose, a focus group was set up in collaboration with the French Society for Nuclear Medicine (SFMN) to work on developing good clinical practice recommendations. These good clinical practice recommendations have been awarded joint French National Heath Authority (HAS) and French Cancer Institute (INCa) label status-the stamp of methodological approval. The present document is the outcome of comprehensive literature review and rigorous appraisal by a panel of experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons and imaging specialists. These data were also used for the EANM referral guidelines.

17.
Neurosurgery ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of various neoplasms has been described in patients with acromegaly, and there is evidence to suggest that growth factors are risk factors for the development of meningiomas. OBJECTIVE: To study if patients with acromegaly are more at risk for developing intracranial meningiomas. METHODS: We conducted an observational study on 221 consecutive acromegalic patients recruited between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, and 357 consecutive patients with a nonsomatotropic pituitary adenoma recruited between March 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016, in our institution. Patients underwent a gadolinium-enhanced 3D T1 brain magnetic resonance imaging to look for meningiomas. The proportion of meningiomas was compared between the 2 groups, and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was computed from the incidence rates of meningiomas observed in the population of acromegalic patients and compared to that of the general population given by the local registry of central nervous system tumors. RESULTS: Patients with acromegaly had a significant risk for developing intracranial meningiomas as compared to patients without acromegaly (7.7% vs 2.2%, P = .005, OR = 3.45 [1.46; 8.15]). There was a significant increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas in patients with acromegaly (SIR = 126 [25; 367]) as compared to the general population. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests strongly that patients with acromegaly are more at risk for developing intracranial meningiomas.

18.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 80 Suppl 1: S1-S9, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606056

RESUMO

Immunotherapy and opioids treatment are new causes of secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI). Prevalence of SAI with immunotherapy is more frequent with combined therapy (8% vs 4 to 10% with CTLA4 blocking antibody and 1% with PD1 blocking antibody). Although hypophysitis are more frequently observed with CTLA4 blocking antibody, some cases of Isolated SAI have been reported in patients treated by PD1 blocking antibody. SAI could be transient, requiring long-term monitoring. The use of opioid analgesics is increasing in many countries, thus becoming a public health problem. Prevalence of opioid-related SAI is unclear but recent prospective studies reveal a prevalence between 5 and 20%. The main risk factor to develop this pathology is morphine-equivalent daily dose. Diagnosis relies on 8.00 am plasma cortisol measurement and cortisol increase after Synacthen® administration. Recent cortisol immuno-assays, in agreement with mass spectrometry, give lower reference values, encouraging reevaluation of the current cut-off of 500 nmol/L. New modified-release hydrocortisone preparations have been recently developed to better mimic the physiological cortisol rhythm and to improve compliance in adrenocortical deficient patients. Nowadays, continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion seems to be a unique replacement therapy allowing adequate circadian biorhythm but should be restricted to specific patients due to the complexity of this substituting strategy. © 2019 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Cet article fait partie du numéro supplément Les Must de l'Endocrinologie 2019 réalisé avec le soutien institutionnel de Ipsen-Pharma.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/tendências , Terapias em Estudo , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/etiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Doença Iatrogênica , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 461-472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480014

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/mortalidade , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/etiologia , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Endocr Connect ; 8(10): 1383-1394, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518993

RESUMO

Purpose: Little data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of switching to Pasireotide-LAR monotherapy in acromegaly patients with partial resistance to first-generation somatostatin agonists (1gSRL) who require combination treatment with cabergoline or pegvisomant. Method: In this monocentric prospective study within a tertiary university hospital, 15 consecutive acromegalic adults partially resistant to 1gSRL treated with octreotide LAR or lanreotide SR, and cabergoline (n = 4, 3.5 mg/week) or pegvisomant (n = 11, median dose 100 mg/week), were switched to Pasireotide-LAR (8 with 40 mg/month; 7 with 60 mg/month). Immunohistochemical expression level of SSTR5 and the granulation pattern of nine somatotroph adenomas were retrospectively determined to test for a correlation with the therapeutic efficacy of Pasireotide-LAR. Results: Median IGF-1 concentration at the first evaluation (median 3 months) was similar to baseline (1.0 vs 1.1 ULN). 11/15 patients had IGF-1 levels ≤1.3 ULN before and after the switch but individual changes were variable. Hyperglycemia was frequent and greater in diabetic patients. 7/15 patients stopped Pasireotide-LAR due to lack of control of IGF-1 or intolerance. 8/15 patients received Pasireotide-LAR for a median of 29 months with IGF-1 levels ≤1.3 ULN and acceptable glucose tolerance (median HbA1c 6.1%). Two patients required initiation of oral antidiabetic treatment. The intensity of SSTR5 expression and the granulation pattern of adenomas were of limited value for the prediction of Pasireotide-LAR effectiveness. Conclusion: Pasireotide-LAR may represent a suitable therapeutic alternative in a subset of acromegalic patients requiring combination therapy involving a 1gSRL.

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