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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is increasing in countries with high consumption of Western dietary patterns and rising obesity rates. We examined the hypothesis that specific dietary patterns reflecting hyperinsulinemia (empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia-EDIH), systemic inflammation (empirical dietary inflammatory pattern-EDIP), and postprandial glycemia (glycemic index-GI, glycemic load-GL) are associated with pancreatic cancer risk, including the potential modifying role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993-1998) food frequency questionnaires among 129,241 women, 50-79 years-old in the Women's Health Initiative. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for pancreatic cancer risk. RESULTS: During a median 19.9 years of follow-up, 850 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. We observed no association between dietary scores and pancreatic cancer risk overall. However, risk was elevated among participants with longstanding T2D (present >3 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis) for EDIH. For each 1 standard deviation increment in dietary score, the HRs (95%CIs) were: EDIH, 1.33(1.06-1.66); EDIP, 1.26(0.98-1.63); GI, 1.26(0.96-1.67); and GL, 1.23(0.96-1.57); though interactions were not significant (all Pinteraction >0.05). Separately, we observed inverse associations between GI, 0.86(0.76-0.96), Pinteraction=0.0068; and GL, 0.83 (0.73-0.93), Pinteraction=0.0075, with pancreatic cancer risk among normal-weight women. CONCLUSION: We observed no overall association between the dietary patterns evaluated and pancreatic cancer risk, although women with T2D appeared to have greater cancer risk. IMPACT: The elevated risk for hyperinsulinemic diets among women with longstanding T2D and the inverse association among normal-weight women warrant further examination.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent increasing trends in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly supports that early-life diet is involved in CRC development. However, data are lacking on the relationship with high sugar intake during early-life. METHODS: We prospectively investigated the association of adolescent simple sugar (fructose, glucose, added sugar, total sugar) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with CRC precursor risk in 33,106 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II who provided adolescent dietary information in 1998 and subsequently underwent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy between 1999 and 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for clustered data. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2,909 conventional adenomas (758 high-risk) and 2,355 serrated lesions were identified (mean age at diagnoses, 52.2±4.3 years). High sugar and SSB intake during adolescence was positively associated with risk of adenoma, but not serrated lesions. Per each 5% increment in calorie/day of total fructose intake, multivariable ORs were 1.17 (95% CI 1.05-1.31) for total and 1.30 (95% CI 1.06-1.60) for high-risk adenoma. By subsite, ORs were 1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.30) for proximal, 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.47) for distal, and 1.43 (95% CI 1.10-1.86) for rectal adenoma. Per 1 serving/day increment in SSB intake, ORs were 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.20) for total and 1.30 (95% CI 1.08-1.55) for rectal adenoma. Contrary to adolescent intake, sugar and SSB intake during adulthood was not associated with adenoma risk. CONCLUSIONS: High intake of simple sugars and SSBs during adolescence was associated with increased risk of conventional adenoma, especially rectal adenoma.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation may promote initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, but no studies have examined the association between inflammation in the period before diagnosis and pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 with survival among 492 participants from 5 large US prospective cohort studies who developed pancreatic cancer. Using an empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, we evaluated whether long-term proinflammatory diets were associated with survival among 1153 patients from 2 of the 5 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for death with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher prediagnostic levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 were individually associated with reduced survival (Ptrend = .03, .01, and .04, respectively). Compared to patients with a combined inflammatory biomarker score of 0 (all 3 markers levels below medians), those with a score of 3 (all 3 markers levels above medians) had a hazard ratio for death of 1.57 (95% confidence interval = 1.16 to 2.12; Ptrend = .003), corresponding to median overall survival times of 8 versus 5 months. Patients consuming the most proinflammatory diets (EDIP quartile 4) in the prediagnostic period had a hazard ratio for death of 1.34 (95% confidence interval = 1.13 to 1.59; Ptrend = .01), compared to those consuming the least proinflammatory diets (EDIP quartile 1). CONCLUSION: Prediagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers and long-term proinflammatory diets were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer survival.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-36, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413729

RESUMO

The long-term inflammatory impact of diet could potentially elevate the risk of periodontal disease through modification of systemic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate the associations between a food based, reduced rank regression (RRR) derived, empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and incidence of periodontitis. The study population was composed of 34,940 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, who were free of periodontal disease and major illnesses at baseline (1986). Participants provided medical and dental history through mailed questionnaires every 2 years, and dietary data through validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the associations between EDIP scores and validated self-reported incidence of periodontal disease over a 24-year follow-up period. No overall association between EDIP and the risk of periodontitis was observed; the hazard ratio comparing the highest EDIP quintile (most proinflammatory diet) to the lowest quintile was 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.89 -1.10, p-value for trend = 0.97). A secondary analysis showed that among obese non-smokers (i.e. never and former smokers at baseline), the hazard ratio for periodontitis comparing the highest EDIP quintile to the lowest was 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.98 -1.96, p-value for trend = 0.03). In conclusion, no overall association was detected between EDIP and incidence of self-reported periodontitis in the study population. From the subgroups evaluated EDIP was significantly associated with increased risk of periodontitis only among nonsmokers who were obese. Hence, this association must be interpreted with caution.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 707-714, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores assess the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of habitual dietary patterns, irrespective of the macronutrient content, and are based on plasma insulin response or inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) assess postprandial glycemic potential based on dietary carbohydrate content. We tested the hypothesis that dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, or hyperglycemia may influence type 2 diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993-1998) food frequency questionnaires among 73,495 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, followed through March 2019. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes risk. We also estimated multivariable-adjusted absolute risk of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: During a median 13.3 years of follow-up, 11,009 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed. Participants consuming the most hyperinsulinemic or proinflammatory dietary patterns experienced greater risk of type 2 diabetes; HRs (95% CI) comparing highest to lowest dietary index quintiles were EDIH 1.49 (1.32-1.68; P trend < 0.0001) and EDIP 1.45 (1.29-1.63; P trend < 0.0001). The absolute excess incidence for the same comparison was 220 (EDIH) and 271 (EDIP) cases per 100,000 person-years. GI and GL were not associated with type 2 diabetes risk: GI 0.99 (0.88-1.12; P trend = 0.46) and GL 1.01 (0.89-1.16; P trend = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in this diverse cohort of postmenopausal women suggest that lowering the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of the diet may be more effective in preventing type 2 diabetes than focusing on glycemic foods.

6.
Eur Urol ; 79(3): 405-412, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation are inter-related pathways that link diet with the risk of several chronic diseases. Evidence suggests that these pathways may also increase prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hyperinsulinemic diet and inflammatory diet are associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively followed 41 209 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014). Scores for two validated dietary patterns were calculated from food frequency questionnaires at baseline and updated every 4 yr. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Total, advanced, and lethal prostate cancer outcomes were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for associations between two empirical hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns-empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern-and prostate cancer risk estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During 28 yr of follow-up, 5929 incident cases of total prostate cancer, including 1019 advanced and 667 fatal, were documented. In multivariable-adjusted models, there was a 7% higher risk of advanced prostate cancer (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and a 9% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.18) per standard deviation (SD) increase in the hyperinsulinemic diet. When stratified by age, the hyperinsulinemic diet was associated with only earlier-onset aggressive prostate cancer (men under 65 yr), with per SD HRs of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.35) for advanced, 1.22 (1.04-1.42) for fatal, and 1.20 (1.04-1.38) for lethal. The inflammatory diet was not associated with prostate cancer risk in the overall study population, but was associated with earlier-onset lethal prostate cancer (per SD increase HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation may be potential mechanisms linking dietary patterns with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, particularly earlier-onset disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Avoiding inflammatory and hyperinsulinemic dietary patterns may be beneficial for the prevention of clinically relevant prostate cancer, especially among younger men.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 275-285, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428024

RESUMO

Most cohort studies have only a single physical activity (PA) measure and are thus susceptible to reverse causation and measurement error. Few studies have examined the impact of these potential biases on the association between PA and mortality. A total of 133,819 participants from Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014) reported PA through biennial questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PA and mortality using different analytic approaches comparing single (baseline, simple update = most recent) versus repeated (cumulative average) measures of PA and applying various lag times separating PA measurement and time at risk. Over 3.2 million person-years, we documented 47,273 deaths. The pooled multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality per 10 MET-hour/week was 0.95 (0.94-0.96) for baseline PA, 0.78 (0.77-0.79) for simple updated PA and 0.87 (0.86-0.88) for cumulative average PA in the range of 0-50 MET-hour/week. Simple updated PA showed the strongest inverse association, suggesting larger impact of reverse causation. Application of 2-year lag substantially reduced the apparent reverse causation (0.85 (0.84-0.86) for simple updated PA and 0.90 (0.89-0.91) for cumulative average PA), and 4-12-year lags had minimal additional effects. In the dose-response analysis, baseline or simple updated PA showed a J or U-shaped association with all-cause mortality while cumulative average PA showed an inverse association across a wide range of PA (0-150 MET-hour/week). Similar findings were observed for different specific mortality causes. In conclusion, PA measured at baseline or with short lag time was prone to bias. Cumulative average PA showed robust evidence that PA is inversely associated with mortality in a dose-response manner.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 789-796, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We prospectively examined the extent to which greater inflammatory and insulinemic potential of diet and lifestyle are associated with the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in two nationwide cohorts. METHODS: Five kinds of pattern scores, including the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and insulin resistance (EDIR), empirical lifestyle pattern score for hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) and insulin resistance (ELIR) were calculated. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 25.6 years among 119,316 participants, 142 incident HCC cases were documented. Higher adherence to EDIP (HR by comparing extreme tertiles: 2.03; 95% CI, 1.31-3.16; P trend = 0.001), EDIH (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.43; P trend = 0.02), and EDIR (HR, 1.62; 95% CI: 1.08-2.42; P trend = 0.02) was associated with increased risk of HCC. Likewise, participants with higher scores of ELIH (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.25-2.87; P trend = 0.001) and ELIR (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.34-3.14, P trend = 0.0004) had higher risk of developing HCC. Additional adjustment for diabetes mellitus and/or body mass index attenuated the magnitude of the associations, indicating that diabetes and/or adiposity may partly mediate the association of these patterns with HCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inflammation and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia are potential mechanisms linking dietary or lifestyle factors and HCC development. IMPACT: Inflammation and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may partly mediate the association of diet and other lifestyles with HCC development, and interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory and hyperinsulinemic diet and lifestyle may reduce HCC risk.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(19): 2181-2193, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Diet modulates inflammation; however, it remains unknown whether dietary patterns with higher inflammatory potential are associated with long-term CVD risk. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether proinflammatory diets are associated with increased CVD risk. METHODS: We prospectively followed 74,578 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2016), 91,656 women from the NHSII (1991-2015), and 43,911 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. The inflammatory potential of diet was evaluated using a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score that was pre-defined based on levels of 3 systemic inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: During 5,291,518 person-years of follow-up, we documented 15,837 incident CVD cases, including 9,794 coronary heart disease (CHD) cases and 6,174 strokes. In pooled analyses of the 3 cohorts, after adjustment for use of anti-inflammatory medications and CVD risk factors including body mass index, a higher dietary inflammatory potential, as indicated by higher EDIP scores, was associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] comparing the highest to lowest quintiles: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 1.46; p for trend <0.001), CHD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.56; p for trend <0.001), and stroke (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17- to 1.39; p for trend <0.001). These associations were consistent across cohorts and between sexes, and they remained significant after further adjustment for other dietary quality indices. In a subset of study participants (n = 33,719), a higher EDIP was associated with a higher circulating profile of proinflammatory biomarkers, lower levels of adiponectin, and an unfavorable blood lipid profile (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns with a higher proinflammatory potential were associated with higher CVD risk. Reducing the inflammatory potential of the diet may potentially provide an effective strategy for CVD prevention.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) duration on cancer incidence remains poorly understood. METHODS: We prospectively followed for cancer incidence 113 429 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1978-2014) and 45 604 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2014) who were free of diabetes and cancer at baseline. Cancer incidences were ascertained by review of medical records. RESULTS: In the multivariable-adjusted model incident, T2D was associated with higher risk of cancers in the colorectum, lung, pancreas, esophagus, liver, thyroid, breast, and endometrium. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.38) for colorectal cancer to 3.39 (95% CI = 2.24 to 5.12) for liver cancer. For both composite cancer outcomes and individual cancers, the elevated risks did not further increase after 8 years of T2D duration. The hazard ratio for total cancer was 1.28 (95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40) for T2D duration of 4.1-6.0 years, 1.37 (95% CI = 1.25 to 1.50) for 6.1-8.0 years, 1.21 (95% CI = 1.09 to 1.35) for 8.1-10.0 years, and 1.04 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.14) after 15.0 years. In a cross-sectional analysis, a higher level of plasma C-peptide was found among participants with prevalent T2D of up to 8 years than those without T2D, whereas a higher level of HbA1c was found for those with prevalent T2D of up to 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Incident T2D was associated with higher cancer risk, which peaked at approximately 8 years after diabetes diagnosis. Similar duration-dependent pattern was observed for plasma C-peptide. Our findings support a role of hyperinsulinemia in cancer development.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2675-2683, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proinflammatory and hyperinsulinemic diets are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 74,767 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2016), 90,786 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2017), and 39,442 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016). Using repeated measures of food-frequency questionnaires, we calculated empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) scores, which are food-based indices that characterize dietary inflammatory or insulinemic potential based on circulating biomarkers of inflammation or C-peptide. Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes were confirmed by validated supplementary questionnaires. RESULTS: We documented 19,666 incident type 2 diabetes cases over 4.9 million person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analyses, individuals in the highest EDIP or EDIH quintile had 3.11 times (95% CI 2.96-3.27) and 3.40 times (95% CI 3.23-3.58) higher type 2 diabetes risk, respectively, compared with those in the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for BMI attenuated the associations (hazard ratio 1.95 [95% CI 1.85-2.05] for EDIP and hazard ratio 1.87 [95% CI 1.78-1.98] for EDIH), suggesting adiposity partly mediates the observed associations. Moreover, individuals in both highest EDIP and EDIH quintiles had 2.34 times higher type 2 diabetes risk (95% CI 2.17-2.52), compared with those in both lowest quintiles, after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary inflammatory and insulinemic potential were associated with increased type 2 diabetes incidence. Findings suggest that inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are potential mechanisms linking dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes development.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 817, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) score is a validated food-based dietary score that assesses the ability of whole-food diets to predict plasma c-peptide concentrations. Although the EDIH has been extensively applied and found to be predictive of risk of developing major chronic diseases, its influence on cancer survival has not been evaluated. We applied the EDIH score in a large cohort of colorectal cancer patients to assess the insulinemic potential of their dietary patterns after diagnosis and determine its influence on survival outcomes. METHODS: We calculated EDIH scores to assess the insulinemic potential of post-diagnosis dietary patterns and examined survival outcomes in a sample of 1718 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. We also examined the influence of change in diet from pre- to post-diagnosis period, on mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, there were 1008 deaths, which included 272 colorectal cancer-specific deaths (27%). In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, colorectal cancer patients in the highest compared to lowest EDIH quintile, had a 66% greater risk of dying from colorectal cancer: HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03, 2.69; and a 24% greater risk of all-cause death: HR, 1.24; 95%CI, 0.97, 1.58. Compared to patients who consumed low insulinemic diets from pre- to post-diagnosis period, patients who persistently consumed hyperinsulinemic diets were at higher risk of colorectal cancer death (HR,1.51; 95%CI, 0.98, 2.32) and all-cause death (HR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.04, 2.64). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a hyperinsulinemic dietary pattern after diagnosis of colorectal cancer is associated with poorer survival. Interventions with dietary patterns to reduce insulinemic activity and impact survivorship are warranted.

13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 841-852, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655006

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is common in countries with affluent dietary patterns and represents a heterogeneous collection of subtypes with varying behavior. Reductionist strategies focusing on individual nutrients or foods have not clearly defined risk factors. We have developed mechanisms-based dietary patterns focusing upon inflammation and chronic insulin hypersecretion, processes that are hypothesized to impact prostate carcinogenesis. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer cohort, we calculated the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores from food frequency questionnaire data among 3,517 men and women who provided a blood sample at enrollment. We used these scores in multivariable-adjusted linear regression to validate EDIH and EDIP against relevant circulating biomarkers. In a separate sample of 49,317 men, we used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to evaluate associations of EDIH and EDIP with prostate cancer (total and subtypes) risk. Participants consuming the most hyperinsulinemic diets (EDIH quintile 5) had significantly higher concentrations of C-peptide, insulin, c-reactive protein, TNFα-R2, and lower adiponectin, than those in quintile 1. Similarly, participants consuming the most proinflammatory diets had significantly higher concentrations of IL6, TNFα-R2, C-peptide, insulin, and lower adiponectin. Men consuming hyperinsulinemic diets were at higher total prostate cancer risk: HRquintile5vs1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.23; P trend = 0.03, especially high-grade cancer: HRquintile5vs1, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; P trend = 0.06. The EDIP was not associated with prostate cancer risk. In summary, EDIH and EDIP predicted concentrations of known insulinemic and inflammatory biomarkers, and EDIH further predicted risk of future prostate cancer. Interventions to reduce the adverse role of hyperinsulinemic diets may be a means of prostate cancer prevention.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e207227, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602908

RESUMO

Importance: Interval breast cancers (IBCs) are cancers that emerge after a mammogram with negative results but before the patient's next scheduled screening. Interval breast cancer has a worse prognosis than cancers detected by screening; however, it is unknown whether the length of the interscreening period is associated with prognostic features and mortality. Objective: To compare the prognostic features and mortality rate of women with IBCs diagnosed within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years of a mammogram with negative results with the prognostic features and mortality rate of women with breast cancers detected by screening. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used mammography data, tumor characteristics, and patient demographic data from the Women's Health Initiative study, which recruited participants from 1993 to 1998 and followed up with participants for a median of 19 years. The present study sample for these analyses included women aged 50 to 79 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative study and includes data collected through March 31, 2018. There were 5455 incidents of breast cancer; only 3019 women compliant with screening were retained in analyses. Statistical analysis was performed from October 25, 2018, to November 24, 2019. Breast cancers detected by screening and IBCs were defined based on mammogram history, date of last mammogram, type of visit, and results of examination. Interval breast cancers were subdivided into those occurring within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years after the last protocol-mandated mammogram with negative results. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this study was breast cancer-specific mortality for each case of breast cancer detected by screening and IBCs detected within 1 year or between 1 and 2.5 years from a mammogram with negative results. Secondary outcomes included prognostic and tumor characteristics for each group. Comparisons between groups were made using the t test, the χ2 test, and Fine-Gray multivariable cumulative incidence regression analyses. Results: Among the 3019 participants in this analysis, all were women with a mean (SD) age of 63.1 (6.8) years at enrollment and 68.5 (7.1) years at diagnosis. A total of 1050 cases of IBC were identified, with 324 (30.9%) diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results and 726 (69.1%) diagnosed between 1 and 2.5 years after last mammogram with negative results. The remaining 1969 cases were breast cancers detected by screening. Interval breast cancers diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results had significantly more lobular histologic characteristics (13.0% vs. 8.1%), a larger tumor size (1.97 cm vs 1.43 cm), a higher clinical stage (28.4% vs 17.3% regional and 3.7% vs 0.6% distant), and more lymph node involvement (27.1% vs 17.0%) than cancers detected by screening. Unadjusted breast cancer-specific mortality hazard ratios were significantly higher for IBCs diagnosed within 1 year from a mammogram with negative results compared with breast cancers detected by screening (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.39-2.65). Higher breast cancer-specific mortality remained statistically significant for IBCs diagnosed within 1 year after adjusting for trial group, molecular subtype, waist to hip ratio, histologic characteristics, and either tumor size (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03-2.08) or lymph node involvement (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.01). However, significance was lost when tumor size and lymph node involvement were both included in the model (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.96-1.88). Interval breast cancers diagnosed between 1 and 2.5 years from a mammogram with negative results were not different from breast cancers detected by screening based on prognostic factors or mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Women with IBCs diagnosed within 1 year of negative mammogram results overall were associated with worse survival than women with breast cancers detected by screening. These differences in survival may be due to a uniquely aggressive biology among IBC cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618519

RESUMO

The dietary insulin index directly estimates the postprandial insulin secretion potential of foods, whereas the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinaemia (EDIH) assesses the insulinaemic potential of usual diets based on fasting plasma C-peptide, and is primarily reflective of insulin resistance. It is unknown whether these insulin-related indices are predictive of an integrated measure of insulin secretion. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included 293 non-diabetic men with 24-h urinary C-peptide data from the Men's Lifestyle Validation Study. EDIH, dietary insulin index and dietary insulin load were calculated using validated FFQ. We conducted multivariable-adjusted linear regression to estimate relative and absolute concentrations of 24-h urinary C-peptide. In multivariable-adjusted models, we found a significant positive association between all three insulin-related dietary indices and 24-h urinary C-peptide (P < 0·05). Relative concentrations of 24-h urinary C-peptide per 1-sd increase in insulin-related dietary indices were 1·12 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·23) for EDIH, 1·18 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·29) for dietary insulin index and 1·16 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) for dietary insulin load. When we further adjusted for BMI, the association was attenuated for EDIH, to 1·07 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·16), and remained unchanged for dietary insulin index and dietary insulin load. In conclusion, EDIH, dietary insulin index and dietary insulin load were predictive of integrated insulin secretion assessed by 24-h urinary C-peptide. Findings after adjustment for BMI appear to confirm the relation of EDIH to insulin resistance and dietary insulin index/load to insulin secretion; the respective constructs of the two dietary indices.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 586-594, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic gallstones cause high financial and disease burden for public health systems. The combined role of diet and other lifestyle factors has not been studied so far. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between an a priori defined healthy lifestyle score (HLS, including healthy diet, moderate alcohol and regular coffee intakes, never smoking, physical activity, and normal weight) and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease, and to estimate the proportion of cases potentially preventable by lifestyle modification. METHODS: We followed 60,768 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 40,744 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), both ongoing prospective cohort studies, from baseline (1986) until 2012. Symptomatic gallstone disease was self-reported and validated by review of medical records. The association between the HLS and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During 1,156,079 and 769,287 person-years of follow-up, respectively, 6946 women and 2513 men reported symptomatic gallstone disease. Comparing 6 with 0 points of the HLS, the multivariable HR of symptomatic gallstone disease was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.45) for women, and 0.17 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.43) for men. For individual lifestyle factors, multivariable and mutually adjusted partial population attributable risks (women and men) were 33% and 23% for BMI <25 kg/m2, 10% and 18% for ≥2 cups of coffee per day, 13% and 7% for moderate alcohol intake, 8% and 11% for a high Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, 9% and 5% for being physically active, and 1% and 5% for never smoking. The full population attributable risk percentage for all factors combined was 62% and 74%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from these large prospective studies indicate that adopting a healthy lifestyle, especially maintaining a healthy weight, can help to prevent a considerable proportion of symptomatic gallstone diseases.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2156-2163, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor lifestyles have been linked to insulin insensitivity/hyperinsulinemia, which may contribute to downstream changes such as inflammation and oxidative damage and the development of chronic diseases. As a biomarker of intracellular oxidative stress, leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been related to lifestyle factors including diet and weight. No epidemiologic study has examined the relation between combined insulinemic potential of lifestyle and mtDNA-CN. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association between Empirical Lifestyle Index for Hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) and leukocyte mtDNA-CN in US men and women. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 2835 white adults without cancers, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease at blood collection, including 2160 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 675 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. ELIH is an index based on plasma C-peptide that characterizes the insulinemic potential of lifestyle (diet, body weight, and physical activity). Relative mtDNA-CN in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by qPCR-based assay. RESULTS: We found a significant inverse association between ELIH and mtDNA-CN. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, absolute least squares means ± SDs of mtDNA-CN z score across ELIH quintiles in women were as follows: Q1: 0.14 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.04 ± 0.06; Q3: 0.008 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.06 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.006). Means ± SDs in men were as follows: Q1: 0.25 ± 0.09; Q2: 0.23 ± 0.09; Q3: 0.07 ± 0.09; Q4: 0.02 ± 0.09; and Q5: -0.04 ± 0.09 (P-trend = 0.007). Means ± SDs in all participants were as follows: Q1: 0.16 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.07 ± 0.05; Q3: 0.01 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.05 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemic lifestyles (i.e., higher ELIH) were associated with lower leukocyte mtDNA-CN among subjects without major diseases, suggesting that the difference in lifestyle insulinemic potential may be related to excessive oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Hiperinsulinismo , Leucócitos , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Estados Unidos
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between yogurt consumption and the risk of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and certain cancers, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the association between yogurt consumption and concentrations of plasma soluble CD14, a marker of gut barrier dysfunction. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 632 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1989-1990) and 444 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1993-1994) with soluble CD14 concentrations. We estimated yogurt consumption from food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to estimate the percentage difference (95% CI) of soluble CD14 concentrations by yogurt consumption. RESULTS: Among men, higher consumption was associated with a lower soluble CD14 concentration (at least 2 cups/week vs. non-consumers; unadjusted % difference: - 7.6%; 95% CI - 13.0%, - 2.1%; Ptrend = 0.003). The inverse association was slightly attenuated following multivariable adjustment (% difference: - 5.8%; 95% CI - 11.0%, - 0.1%; Ptrend = 0.01). For the same comparison, yogurt consumption was inverse, but not statistically significant associated with soluble CD14 concentration in women (% difference: - 1.2%; 95% CI - 5.6%, 3.5%; Ptrend = 0.64). In stratified analyses, the inverse association between yogurt consumption and the concentrations of soluble CD14 was slightly stronger in men who consumed alcohol at least 20 g/day. CONCLUSIONS: Higher yogurt consumption was associated with lower soluble CD14 concentrations, especially in men. Our findings suggest the strengthening of gut barrier function as a plausible mechanism for the observed inverse associations of yogurt consumption with gastrointestinal diseases and disorders involving other systems.

19.
Nutrition ; 79-80: 110843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) assesses the inflammatory potential of diet in the US population. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the EDIP to a Brazilian population. METHODS: Data from 19- to 75-y-old participants of two editions of the cross-sectional population-based Health Survey of Sao Paulo (HS-SP) were used to validate the EDIP (n = 269; HS-SP 2008), develop an EDIP adapted to a Sao Paulo population, the EDIP-SP (n = 441; HS-SP 2008), and replicate EDIP-SP results in an independent sample (n = 501; HS-SP 2015). Dietary data was assessed through two 24-h recalls and one validated food frequency questionnaire. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and nine other inflammatory biomarkers were determined. EDIP was tested for its association with the 10 inflammatory biomarkers. For development of the EDIP-SP, 21 food groups and their contributions to plasma CRP levels were modeled using a stepwise multiple linear regression adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: The EDIP was not associated with concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in a Brazilian population. The components of EDIP-SP were processed meats (ß = 0.27; P = 0.082), fruits and vegetables (ß = -0.12; P = 0.018), and rice and beans (ß = -0.27; P = 0.007). EDIP-SP significantly predicted dietary quality (ß = -6.1; P < 0.001) and its inflammatory potential was replicated among men (ß = 0.36; P = 0.01), but not among women (ß = 0.05; P = 0.82). CONCLUSION: EDIP was adapted to the Sao Paulo population. EDIP-SP, composed of high processed meat intake and low intake of fruits and vegetables, and rice and beans, constitutes an important tool to investigate dietary quality based on its inflammatory potential, in Brazilian populations.

20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 268-283, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Western dietary pattern (WD) is positively associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cancer, whereas the Prudent dietary pattern (PD) may be protective. Foods may influence metabolite concentrations as well as oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation, biological mechanisms associated with CAD and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the association of 2 derived dietary pattern scores with serum metabolites and identify metabolic pathways associated with the metabolites. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional association between each dietary pattern (WD, PD) and metabolites in 2199 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. With FFQ and factor analysis, we determined 2 dietary patterns consistent with WD and PD. Metabolites were measured with LC-tandem MS. Metabolite discovery among 904 WHI Observational Study (WHI-OS) participants was replicated among 1295 WHI Hormone Therapy Trial (WHI-HT) participants. We analyzed each of 495 metabolites with each dietary score (WD, PD) in linear regression models. RESULTS: The PD included higher vegetables and fruit intake compared with the WD with higher saturated fat and meat intake. Independent of energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other confounding variables, 45 overlapping metabolites were identified (WHI-OS) and replicated (WHI-HT) with an opposite direction of associations for the WD compared with the PD [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.05]. In metabolite set enrichment analyses, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens were positively enriched for association with WD [normalized enrichment score (NES) = 2.01, P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.005], and cholesteryl esters (NES = -1.77, P = 0.005, FDR P = 0.02), and phosphatidylcholines (NES = -1.72, P = 0.01, P = 0.03) were negatively enriched for WD. PE plasmalogens were positively correlated with saturated fat and red meat. Phosphatidylcholines and cholesteryl esters were positively correlated with fatty fish. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct metabolite signatures associated with Western and Prudent dietary patterns highlight the positive association of mitochondrial oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation with a WD and the inverse association with a PD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Verduras/metabolismo
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