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J Chromatogr A ; 1501: 99-106, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434709


A target analysis method for the sensitive and discriminative determination of the nerve agent hydrolysis products alkyl methylphosphonic acids as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives was developed using a combination of selectable one- and two-dimensional (1D/2D) GC-MS, and applied to the analysis of samples with significant interfering matrices. After sample drying, the alkylmethylphosphonic acids and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) were converted to TBDMS derivatives by addition of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide with heating, and subjected to 1D/2D GC-MS. The apparatus consisted of an initial low thermal mass DB-5 column and a second DB-17 column together with an electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, offering simple and flexible switching between one- and two-dimensional GC-MS analysis in a single GC-MS system. Using 1D/2D GC-MS, analytes that do not co-elute with matrix components can be separated using 1D GC mode alone. Only those parts of the chromatogram that are negatively affected by the co-elution of matrix components need to be transferred and separated with 2D GC. Quantitation can be performed by a combination of both separations and mass spectrometric detection. The TBDMS derivatives of ethyl-, isopropyl-, isobutyl-, pinacolyl-, and cyclohexyl-MPA (cHMPA) and MPA itself were well separated within 3min and determined in 1D GC-MS mode with detection limits of around 10ng/ml of reaction mixture (except for the cHMPA derivative, whose mass spectrum contained noisy background peaks). In 2D-GC-MS mode, where each 0.04min elution window from the 1D GC was subjected to heart-cut (H/C) and transferred to the second column after back-flushing the first column, the peak for the cHMPA TBDMS derivative was isolated and afforded a clean mass spectrum within 6min. The recoveries of all the derivatives on 2D GC from 1D GC were estimated to be over 66%, and the detection limits were around 10ng/ml of reaction mixture. In the presence of urine extract, the target compounds were not detected as separated peaks in 1D GC-MS mode (except for isobutyl-MPA), and quantification based on extracted ion monitoring could not be achieved. However, 2D GC-MS of the H/C fractions of the target derivatives gave single peaks with well-defined mass spectra, and the recoveries of the derivatives were over 70% except for cHMPA (31% at 1.25µg/ml). Phosphonic acids could be detected at less than 60ng/ml. Sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid also negatively affected the determination of alkyl methylphosphonic acid TBDMS derivatives in 1D GC-MS, and the MPA-TBDMS-derivative peak was completely obscured by the large sulfuric-acid-derivative peak. However, under 1D/2D GC-MS conditions, baseline separation of the MPA derivative and sulfuric acid derivative was achieved, enabling highly sensitive MPA detection at 20ng/ml.

Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrólise , Estrutura Molecular
Anal Chim Acta ; 865: 39-52, 2015 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25732583


The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman, tabun and nitrogen mustards were higher. Some CWA simulants and organic solvents gave the ion peaks eluting at the similar positions of the CWAs, resulting in false positive alarms.

Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Temperatura , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Pressão , Volatilização