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1.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 24(4): 892-905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating adverse events associated with antidepressant treatments in adolescents is important given the concerns about increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in this age group. The aim of this study is to investigate adverse and serious adverse events associated with the treatment of anxiety (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-only, CBT-plus-placebo, and CBT-plus-fluoxetine) in anxious school-refusing adolescents. METHODS: A side-effect symptom checklist was completed by participants prior to commencing treatment and during treatment (weekly/fortnightly). RESULTS: CBT-plus-fluoxetine was well tolerated and not associated with higher levels of adverse events than the other treatments. Adverse events in all groups decreased over time, and the only adverse event distinct to fluoxetine was nausea. Baseline anxiety predicted higher levels of adverse events. There was one suicide attempt in the CBT-plus-placebo group but no statistically significant difference in suicide attempts between groups. Participants with a comorbid depressive disorder were more likely to report self-injury ideation but not suicidal ideation compared with those who did not have comorbid depressive disorder. Frequency of suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury was significantly lower in the CBT-plus-fluoxetine group compared with the CBT-only group. Frequency of self-injury ideation was significantly lower in the CBT-plus-fluoxetine group compared with both other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the treatments were well tolerated and fluoxetine plus CBT appeared to be protective against suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, and self-injury ideation in this sample.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Adolesc ; 64: 146-154, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475011

RESUMO

This study assessed the psychometric properties of two visual analogue scales of irritability, known as the Cranky Thermometers (CT), in both an Australian community secondary-school sample (N = 164) and a sample of adolescents with a depressive disorder (N = 127). The first scale Cranky Now measures current irritability, and the second, Cranky Two Weeks, measures peak irritability within the last two weeks. CT scores were significantly higher in adolescents with major depressive disorder than in the school sample and showed improvement following treatment for depression. Positive associations were found between CT and irritability scores as determined by Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (not irritable, sub-threshold, threshold irritability) and Affective Reactivity Index scores. Results suggest that the CTs are rapidly administered, have promising psychometric properties and demonstrate utility in measuring irritability in clinical and community settings.


Assuntos
Humor Irritável , Escala Visual Analógica , Adolescente , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 122(2): 97-117, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257246

RESUMO

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience significant difficulties in attention, learning, executive functions, and behavioral regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training may remediate these impairments. In a double blind controlled trial, 76 children with IDD (4-11 years) were randomized to either an attention training (n = 38) or control program (n = 38). Both programs were completed at home over a 5-week period. Outcome measures assessed literacy, numeracy, executive functioning, and behavioral/emotional problems, and were conducted at baseline, post-training, and 3-month follow-up. No training effects were observed at post-training; however, children in the training group showed greater improvements in numeracy skills at the 3-month follow-up. These results suggest that attention training may be beneficial for children with IDD; however, the modest nature of the intervention effects indicate that caution should be taken when interpreting clinical significance.


Assuntos
Logro , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Atenção , Instrução por Computador , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Educação Especial/métodos , Função Executiva , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Austrália , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Psicometria , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/psicologia
4.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 48(3): 485-497, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485100

RESUMO

This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo. All treatments were well tolerated; with one suicide-attempt in the CBT + placebo group. All groups improved significantly on primary (school attendance) and secondary outcome measures (anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and clinician-rated global functioning); with gains largely maintained at 6-months and 1-year. Few participants were anxiety disorder free after acute treatment. During the follow-up period anxiety and depressive disorders continued to decline whilst school attendance remained stable, at around 54 %. The only significant between-group difference was greater adolescent-reported treatment satisfaction in the CBT + fluoxetine group than the CBT alone group. These results indicate the chronicity of school refusal, and the need for future research into how to best improve school attendance rates.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Fóbicos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Arch Suicide Res ; 21(4): 610-620, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726519

RESUMO

In this study we examined the relative risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) associated with a history of physical and sexual abuse/assault, poor attachment relationships, and poor emotion regulation among adolescents. A total of 2,637 adolescents (aged 12-15 years) completed questionnaires at 3 time-points: baseline, 12, and 24 months later. Across the study, 9.4% reported a history of NSSI. Each of past or recent abuse/assault, poor attachment relationships, and poor emotion regulation was associated with NSSI. We also observed a potential "high-risk" group among those reporting recent sexual abuse or assault. Knowledge of abuse history, recent sexual assault, attachment, and emotion regulatory ability will enable clinicians to assist adolescents in avoiding some of the more negative outcomes of these, including NSSI.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Apego ao Objeto , Autocontrole , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
6.
Dev Sci ; 20(6)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649816

RESUMO

Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms. In addition, parents and teachers completed rating scales of inattention and hyperactivity. Concurrent associations between attention abilities and early literacy and numeracy skills were also examined. Children completed measures of receptive vocabulary, phonological abilities and cardinality skills. As expected, the results indicated that all groups had relatively comparable levels of inattentive/hyperactive behaviours as rated by parents and teachers. However, the extent of visual attention deficits varied as a result of group; namely children with DS had poorer visual search and vigilance abilities than children with ASD and NSID. Further, significant associations between visual attention difficulties and poorer literacy and numeracy skills were observed, regardless of group. Collectively the findings demonstrate that in children with IDD who present with homogenous behavioural attention difficulties, at the cognitive level, subtle profiles of attentional problems can be delineated.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Escalas de Wechsler
7.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 57(12): 1380-1389, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience heightened attention difficulties which have been linked to poorer cognitive, academic and social outcomes. Although, increasing research has focused on the potential of computerised cognitive training in reducing attention problems, limited studies have assessed whether this intervention could be utilised for those with IDD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a computerised attention training programme in children with IDD. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, children (n = 76; IQ < 75) aged 4-11 years were assigned to an adaptive attention training condition or a nonadaptive control condition. Both conditions were completed at home over a 5-week period and consisted of 25 sessions, each of 20-min duration. Outcome measures (baseline, posttraining and 3-month follow-up) assessed core attention skills (selective attention, sustained attention and attentional control) and inattentive/hyperactive behaviour. RESULTS: Children in the attention training condition showed greater improvement in selective attention performance compared to children in the control condition (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI 0.02, 0.45). These improvements were maintained 3 months after training had ceased (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.04, 0.48). The attention training programme was not effective in promoting improvements in sustained attention, attentional control or inattentive/hyperactive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that attention training may enhance some aspects of attention (selective attention) in children with IDD, but the small to medium effect sizes indicate that further refinement of the training programme is needed to promote larger, more global improvements.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0157667, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people with intellectual disability exhibit substantial and persistent problem behaviours compared with their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to compare changes in emotional and behavioural problems for young people with intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome as they transition into adulthood in two different Australian cohorts. METHODS: Emotional and behavioural problems were measured over three time points using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) for those with Down syndrome (n = 323 at wave one) and compared to those with intellectual disability of another cause (n = 466 at wave one). Outcome scores were modelled using random effects regression as linear functions of age, Down syndrome status, ability to speak and gender. RESULTS: DBC scores of those with Down syndrome were lower than those of people without Down syndrome indicating fewer behavioural problems on all scales except communication disturbance. For both groups disruptive, communication disturbance, anxiety and self-absorbed DBC subscales all declined on average over time. There were two important differences between changes in behaviours for these two cohorts. Depressive symptoms did not significantly decline for those with Down syndrome compared to those without Down syndrome. The trajectory of the social relating behaviours subscale differed between these two cohorts, where those with Down syndrome remained relatively steady and, for those with intellectual disability from another cause, the behaviours increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: These results have implications for needed supports and opportunities for engagement in society to buffer against these emotional and behavioural challenges.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Comportamento , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 57: 18-28, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348856

RESUMO

Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adolescente , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(6): 2054-2063, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861716

RESUMO

Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months with DSM-IV PDD or developmental delay. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) data was assigned to DSM-5 subdomains. Children displaying the required symptomatology were classified with DSM-5 ASD. DSM-IV clinical diagnoses were compared to DSM-5 classifications. Using combined ADI-R/ADOS information, sensitivity was .84 and specificity was .54. Comorbid behaviour and emotional problems were significantly lower in children with PDD that did not meet DSM-5 criteria.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Sintomas Afetivos/classificação , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/classificação , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Diseases ; 4(1)2016 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933389

RESUMO

In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group). Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self) were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.

12.
Australas Psychiatry ; 23(3): 249-53, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined changes in body mass index (BMI), anorectic cognitions, and psychological distress following day program treatment. METHODS: Participants were 42 female patients from the Monash Health Butterfly eating disorder day program, with anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting type (n = 35) or AN binge-eating/purging type (n = 7), ranging from 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: Participants' BMI increased significantly over time. Higher motivation at intake predicted a greater increase in BMI over time, compared to those with lower motivation at intake. There were also significant reductions in drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, anxiety, and depression scores, and improved motivation following two, four and six months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide further evidence that day programs can assist in weight restoration and improvements in psychological aspects of AN in adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Hospital Dia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 169(2): 182-7, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25983069

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome. Changes in behaviors were measured using validated items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). The results indicate that, while verbal aggression shows no evidence of diminishing with age, physical aggression, and temper tantrums decline with age before 19 years for people with Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and William syndrome; and after 19 years for people with Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings offer a somewhat more optimistic outlook for people with an intellectual disability than has previously been suggested. Research is needed to investigate the mechanisms predisposing people with PWS to persistence of temper tantrums and physical aggression into adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Problema , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Agressão , Austrália , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Temperamento , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia
14.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 120(2): 91-109, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25715180

RESUMO

Difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are thought to be as common among children with intellectual disability (ID) as they are in children without ID. Despite this, there is a lack of scales to specifically assess ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with ID. This article describes the development and evaluation of a teacher-completed measure; the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability (SAID). A community survey of 176 teachers of children 5-13 years of age, with ID at all levels of impairment indicated that the T-SAID is a reliable and valid measure. Integrating this scale with neuropsychological and clinical research holds exciting promise for enhancing our understanding of the nature of attention difficulties within populations with ID.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino
15.
J Atten Disord ; 19(1): 72-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22851209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between motor performance and social-communicative impairment in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT). METHOD: An upper limb Fitts' aiming task was used as a measure of motor performance and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of social-communicative/autistic impairment in the following groups: ADHD-CT (n = 11) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 10). RESULTS: Children with ADHD-CT displayed greater variability in their movements, reflected in increased error variance over repeated aiming trials compared with TD controls. Motor performance variability was associated with social-communicative deficits in the ADHD-CT but not in the TD group. CONCLUSION: Social-communicative impairments further complicate the clinical picture of ADHD-CT; therefore, further research in this area is warranted to ascertain whether a particular pattern of motor disturbance in children with ADHD-CT may be clinically useful in identifying and assessing children with a more complex ADHD presentation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Comunicação , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/complicações , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Braço/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/diagnóstico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Escalas de Wechsler
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2232-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980612

RESUMO

Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms. Thirty individuals with PWS aged 12-30 years participated in an 18-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants received 8 weeks of oxytocin and 8 weeks of placebo with a minimum 2-week washout period. The first 11 participants received the following oxytocin doses: 24 IU (twice daily) B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 18 IU B.I.D for participants 13-15 years. The dose was increased for the remaining 18 participants to 40 IU B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 32 IU B.I.D for 13-15 years. Measures used to assess changes were standardized well-accepted measures, including the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Monitor, Parent, Teacher, and Adult; The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; The Dykens Hyperphagia questionnaire; Reading The Mind in the Eyes Test; Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Movie Stills. Oxytocin had little impact on any measure. The only significant difference found between the baseline, oxytocin, and placebo measures was an increase in temper outbursts (P = 0.023) with higher dose oxytocin. The lack of effect of oxytocin nasal spray may reflect the importance of endogenous release of oxytocin in response to exogenous oxytocin.


Assuntos
Sprays Nasais , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Criança , Demografia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 44(12): 3006-15, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915930

RESUMO

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood. Social outcomes in relation to community inclusion and living skills were examined, including the predictive role of a range of individual factors and the environment (socio-economic disadvantage). Overall, the degree of community inclusion and living skills was restricted for the majority, and while childhood IQ was an important determinant of these outcomes, it was not the sole predictor. The implications of these findings in relation to interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Características de Residência , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 44(7): 1535-45, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24337829

RESUMO

The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.16 years with a mean IQ score of 90.21 (SD = 18.82). The results provide evidence for the concurrent and criterion validity of the ERSSQ Parent form, and the concurrent validity of the ERSSQ Teacher form. The clinical and theoretical implications are discussed, including the necessity of ratings across multiple contexts and the potential use of the ERSSQ in identifying individuals most in need of intervention and for planning and assessing the outcomes of social skills interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Psicometria
19.
Cogn Emot ; 28(6): 1110-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341852

RESUMO

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions. The ASD group showed poorer overall performance in identifying anger and disgust and were disadvantaged by dynamic (relative to static) stimuli when presented with sad expressions. Among both groups, however, dynamic stimuli appeared to improve recognition of anger. This research provides further evidence of specific impairment in the recognition of negative emotions in ASD, but argues against any broad advantages associated with the use of dynamic displays.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 28(4): 303-13, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24213962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common, persistent complaint following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Effective treatment is not well established. OBJECTIVE: .The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 4 weeks of light therapy for fatigue in patients with TBI. METHODS: We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled study of 4-week, 45 min/morning, home-based treatment with short wavelength (blue) light therapy (λmax = 465 nm, 84.8 µW/cm(2), 39.5 lux, 1.74 × 10(14) photons/cm(2)/s) compared with yellow light therapy (λmax = 574 nm, 18.5 µW/cm(2), 68 lux, 1.21 × 10(12) photons/cm(2)/s) containing less photons in the short wavelength range and a no treatment control group (n = 10 per group) in patients with TBI who self-reported fatigue and/or sleep disturbance. Assessments of fatigue and secondary outcomes (self-reported daytime sleepiness, depression, sleep quality, and sustained attention) were conducted over 10 weeks at baseline (week -2), midway through and at the end of light therapy (weeks 2 and 4), and 4 weeks following cessation of light therapy (week 8). RESULTS: After controlling age, gender, and baseline depression, treatment with high-intensity blue light therapy resulted in reduced fatigue and daytime sleepiness during the treatment phase, with evidence of a trend toward baseline levels 4 weeks after treatment cessation. These changes were not observed with lower-intensity yellow light therapy or no treatment control conditions. There was also no significant treatment effect observed for self-reported depression or psychomotor vigilance performance. CONCLUSIONS: Blue light therapy appears to be effective in alleviating fatigue and daytime sleepiness following TBI and may offer a noninvasive, safe, and nonpharmacological alternative to current treatments.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fótons , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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