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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the optimal type of breast reconstruction and the time interval to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) associated with lower complications in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 300 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy with breast reconstruction and PMRT at our institution from 2000 to 2017. Reconstruction types included autologous flaps (AR), single-stage-direct-to-implant and two-stages expander/implant (TE/I). The primary endpoint was the rate of reconstruction complications including infection, skin and fat necrosis. Subgroup analysis compared rates of capsular contracture, implant rupture, implant exposure and overall implant failure in single-stage-direct-to-implant to TE/I. The secondary endpoint was identifying the time interval between surgery with immediate implant-based reconstruction and PMRT associated with lower probability of implant failure. Logistic regression models, Kaplan-Meier estimates and Polynomial regression were used to assess endpoints. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 43.5 months. 29.3%, 28.3% and 42.4% of the cohort had AR, TE/I and single-stage-direct-to-implant D, respectively. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate of complications was 14.0%, 29.7% and 19.4% for AR, TE/I and single-stage-direct-to-implant, respectively (Log rank p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed significant association between TE/I and higher risk of infection (OR 8.1, p = 0.009) compared to AR, while single-stage-direct-to-implant and AR were comparable (OR 3.2, p = 0.2). On subgroup analysis, TE/I was significantly associated with higher rates of implant failure. The mean wait time to deliver PMRT after immediate reconstruction with no adjuvant chemotherapy was 8.4 and 10.7 weeks in single-stage-direct-to-implant and TE/I, respectively (p < 0.005). Delivering PMRT after 8 weeks of surgery yielded 10% probability of reconstruction failure in single-stage-direct-to-implant versus 40% in TE/I. CONCLUSION: In comparison to two stages reconstruction, single-stage-direct-to-implant following neoadjuvant chemotherapy has lower complications and offers timely delivery of PMRT.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 130-146, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580130

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus that has never been identified in humans before. COVID-19 caused at the time of writing of this article, 2.5 million cases of infections in 193 countries with 165,000 deaths, including two-third in Europe. In this context, Oncology Departments of the affected countries had to adapt quickly their health system care and establish new organizations and priorities. Thus, numerous recommendations and therapeutic options have been reported to optimize therapy delivery to patients with chronic disease and cancer. Obviously, while these cancer care recommendations are immediately applicable in Europe, they may not be applicable in certain emerging and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this review, we aimed to summarize these international guidelines in accordance with cancer types, making a synthesis for daily practice to protect patients, staff and tailor anti-cancer therapy delivery taking into account patients/tumour criteria and tools availability. Thus, we will discuss their applicability in the LMICs with different organizations, limited means and different constraints.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362657

RESUMO

Existing literature which is changing practice should be scrutinised, in the interest of all women at risk for lymphoedema after breast cancer (BC). Bundred et al.'s prospective, multicentre trial of 1100 women made several solid findings, and novel screening recommendations presented may assist in incorporating lymphoedema screening into standard of care.

5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(1): 224, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277920
6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(3): 449-454, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective trial of proton therapy for breast cancer revealed an increased rib fracture rate of 7%, which is higher than the expected rate based on the literature on photon therapies. We aim to evaluate the hypothesis that the increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at the distal edge of proton beams is the cause. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We combined the cohort from the prospective clinical trial and a retrospective cohort from a database. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to recalculate the physical dose and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd). The first 10 ribs and fracture areas in patients with fractures were contoured and deformably registered. The LETd-weighted dose was used as a surrogate for biological effectiveness and compared with the conventional fixed RBE of 1.1. Dose to 0.5 cm3 of the ribs (D0.5) was selected to analyze the dose-response relationship using logistic regression. We chose an alpha/beta ratio of 3 to calculate the biological effective dose in Gy3(RBE). RESULTS: Thirteen of 203 patients in the cohorts exhibited a total of 25 fractures. The LETd in fractured areas is increased (6.1 ± 2.0 keV/µm, mean ± standard deviation), suggesting possible end-of-range radiobiological effects with increased RBE. The D0.5 of the fractured ribs is 80.3 ± 9.4 Gy3(RBE) with a generic factor of 1.1 and is relatively low compared with historical photon results. On the other hand, the D0.5 of the fractured ribs is 100.0 ± 12.5 Gy3(RBE) using the LETd-based model with a dose-response curve that is more consistent with historical photon data. CONCLUSIONS: The increased rib fracture rate seen in our trial is probably associated with the increased LETd and RBE at the distal edge of proton beams. This phenomenon warrants further investigation and possible integration of LETd into treatment planning and optimization in proton therapy.

7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(3): 437-448, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334035

RESUMO

Regional nodal irradiation has gained interest in recent years with the publication of several important randomized trials and the availability of more conformal techniques. Target volume delineation represents a critical step in the radiation planning process. Adequate coverage of the microscopic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes must be weighed against exposure of critical structures such as the heart and lungs. Among available guidelines for delineating the clinical target volume for the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology guidelines are the most widely used internationally. These guidelines have been formulated based on anatomic boundaries of areas historically covered in 2-dimensional field-based radiation therapy but have not been validated by patterns-of-failure studies. In recent years, an important body of data has emerged from mapping studies documenting patterns of local and regional recurrence. We aim to review, discuss, and compare contouring guidelines for breast cancer radiation therapy in the context of contemporary data on locoregional relapse to improve their implementation in modern practice.

8.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 514-524, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare single-stage direct-to-implant (DTI) immediate reconstruction to the commonly used 2-stages expander and implant (TE/I) or autologous reconstruction with focus on postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) setting. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed the charts of 1,286 patients who underwent 1,814 breast reconstructions at our institution with and without PMRT from 1997 to 2017. Patients were divided into 6 groups according to type of reconstruction and PMRT status. Primary objective was reconstruction complications defined solely on surgical reintervention operative notes such as infection, skin necrosis, and fat necrosis across all groups. Implant-related complications such as capsular contracture, implant rupture or exposure, or implant failure were compared between TE/I and DTI. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate 5-year cumulative incidence of complications. The secondary objective was to compare the 3 reconstruction types in settings of immediate reconstruction followed by PMRT on multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Among 1286 patients, 41.1% (N = 529/1286) received PMRT. Among 1814 reconstructed breasts, autologous, single-stage, and TE/I represented 18.7%, 34.8%, and 46.2%, respectively. With no PMRT, the 5-year cumulative incidence of any reconstruction complication was 11.1%, 12.6%, and 19.5% for autologous, DTI, and TE/I reconstructions, respectively. The addition of PMRT resulted in 5-year cumulative incidence of 15.1%, 18.2%, and 36.8%, respectively. The multivariable analysis showed that DTI was associated with lesser complications compared with TE/I, whereas no significant difference was noted between DTI and autologous. CONCLUSIONS: Single-stage DTI reconstruction had significantly lower complication rates than TE/I with and without PMRT. Single-stage complication rates were not significantly different from autologous complication rates in PMRT settings. Single-stage reconstruction may offer a valuable option for patients receiving PMRT.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Dispositivos para Expansão de Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções/epidemiologia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mamoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e025556, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A broad range of stakeholders have called for randomised evidence on the potential clinical benefits and harms of proton therapy, a type of radiation therapy, for patients with breast cancer. Radiation therapy is an important component of curative treatment, reducing cancer recurrence and extending survival. Compared with photon therapy, the international treatment standard, proton therapy reduces incidental radiation to the heart. Our overall objective is to evaluate whether the differences between proton and photon therapy cardiac radiation dose distributions lead to meaningful reductions in cardiac morbidity and mortality after treatment for breast cancer. METHODS: We are conducting a large scale, multicentre pragmatic randomised clinical trial for patients with breast cancer who will be followed longitudinally for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, health-related quality of life and cancer control outcomes. A total of 1278 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer will be randomly allocated to receive either photon or proton therapy. The primary outcomes are major cardiovascular events, defined as myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for unstable angina, heart failure, valvular disease, arrhythmia or pericardial disease. Secondary endpoints are urgent or unanticipated outpatient or emergency room visits for heart failure, arrhythmia, valvular disease or pericardial disease. The Radiotherapy Comparative Effectiveness (RadComp) Clinical Events Centre will conduct centralised, blinded adjudication of primary outcome events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The RadComp trial has been approved by the institutional review boards of all participating sites. Recruitment began in February 2016. Current version of the protocol is A3, dated 08 November 2018. Dissemination plans include presentations at scientific conferences, scientific publications, stakeholder engagement efforts and presentation to the public via lay media outlets. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02603341.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(30): 2778-2785, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton beam radiation therapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer who require regional nodal irradiation. METHODS: Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer who required postoperative RT to the breast/chest wall and regional lymphatics and who were considered suboptimal candidates for conventional RT were eligible. The primary end point was the incidence of grade 3 or higher radiation pneumonitis (RP) or any grade 4 toxicity within 3 months of RT. Secondary end points were 5-year locoregional failure, overall survival, and acute and late toxicities per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.0). Strain echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers were obtained before and after RT to assess early cardiac changes. RESULTS: Seventy patients completed RT between 2011 and 2016. Median follow-up was 55 months (range, 17 to 82 months). Of 69 evaluable patients, median age was 45 years (range, 24 to 70 years). Sixty-three patients (91%) had left-sided breast cancer, two had bilateral breast cancer, and five had right-sided breast cancer. Sixty-five (94%) had stage II to III breast cancer. Sixty-eight (99%) received systemic chemotherapy. Fifty (72%) underwent immediate reconstruction. Median dose to the chest wall/breast was 49.7 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) and to the internal mammary nodes, 48.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness), which indicates comprehensive coverage. Among 62 surviving patients, the 5-year rates for locoregional failure and overall survival were 1.5% and 91%, respectively. One patient developed grade 2 RP, and none developed grade 3 RP. No grade 4 toxicities occurred. The unplanned surgical re-intervention rate at 5 years was 33%. No significant changes in echocardiography or cardiac biomarkers after RT were found. CONCLUSION: Proton beam RT for breast cancer has low toxicity rates and similar rates of disease control compared with historical data of conventional RT. No early cardiac changes were observed, which paves the way for randomized studies to compare proton beam RT with standard RT.

13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(1): 155-164, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Giving an additional radiation dose to the incision or chest wall has been a practice, but it has never been studied in a randomized setting, and it might lead to inferior cosmetic outcomes. This study aims to evaluate whether delivery of a chest wall boost (CWB) to the mastectomy scar or chest wall is independently associated with reconstruction complications and to assess its disease control efficacy in the setting of breast reconstruction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 746 patients with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy, breast reconstruction, and PMRT; all underwent treatment at our institution during 1997 to 2016. Various reconstruction techniques were used among this cohort including autologous reconstruction, single-stage direct-to-implant reconstruction, and 2-stage tissue expander implant. Cohorts were divided by administration of CWB. The primary objective was comparing the rate of reconstruction complications including skin necrosis, fat necrosis and infection between groups. Subgroup analysis for patients with implant-based reconstruction was performed to evaluate the effect of CWB on implant-related complications such as capsular contracture, implant exposure, and implant failure. The secondary objective was comparison of the cumulative incidence of local failure between groups overall and within clinically high-risk subgroups. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. Most clinicopathologic features were well balanced between the 379 (51%) patients who received CWB and the 367 (49%) who did not. On multivariate analysis, CWB was significantly associated with infection, skin necrosis, and implant exposure. For implant reconstruction patients, CWB independently increased risks of implant failure. CWB administration was not associated with local tumor control benefits, even in high-risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that omission of chest wall boost in postmastectomy radiation improves breast reconstruction outcomes without compromising local tumor control.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Parede Torácica/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Cicatriz/patologia , Cicatriz/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Necrose , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Falha de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seroma/etiologia , Dispositivos para Expansão de Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(4): 45-50, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients undergoing external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) receive permanent tattoos to aid with daily setup alignment and verification. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging and two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging-based matching to surgical clips, tattoos may not be necessary to ensure setup accuracy. We compared the accuracy of conventional tattoo-based setups to a patient setup without tattoos. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients receiving APBI at our institution from July 10, 2017 to February 13, 2018 were identified. All patients received tattoos per standard of care. Ten patients underwent setup using tattoos for initial positioning followed by surface imaging and 2D matching of surgical clips. The other ten patients underwent positioning using surface imaging followed by 2D matching without reference to tattoos. Overall setup time and orthogonal x-ray-based shifts after surface imaging per fraction were recorded. Shift data were used to calculate systematic and random error. RESULTS: Among ten patients in the "no tattoo" group, the average setup time per fraction was 6.83 min vs 8.03 min in the tattoo cohort (P < 0.01). Mean 3D vector shifts for patients in the "no tattoo" group were 4.6 vs 5.9 mm in the "tattoo" cohort (P = NS). Mean systematic errors in the "no tattoo" group were: 1.2 mm (1.5 mm SD) superior/inferior, 0.5 mm (1.6 mm SD) right/left, and 2.3 mm (1.9 mm SD) anterior/posterior directions. Mean systematic errors in the "tattoo" group were: 0.8 mm (2.2 mm SD) superior/inferior, 0.3 mm (2.5 mm SD) right/left, and 1.4 mm (4.4 mm SD) anterior/posterior directions. The random errors in the "no tattoo" group ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mm vs 1.2 to 1.7 mm in the "tattoo" group. CONCLUSIONS: Using both surface imaging and 2D matching to surgical clips provides excellent accuracy in APBI patient alignment and setup verification with reduced setup time relative to the tattoo cohort. Skin-based tattoos may no longer be warranted for patients receiving external beam APBI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia/prevenção & controle , Tatuagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(3): 649-658, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated development of edema in patients receiving PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 160 patients receiving targeted therapy with PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 inhibitors to treat MBC (n = 160; 185 treatment occurrences). Clinicopathologic data, treatment details, and edema incidence were recorded. RESULTS: Edema incidence was 43.1% (69/160) overall and 25.6% (41/160) in the upper extremity ipsilateral to the treated breast. In 185 therapy regimens administered, 6.8% of patients on a PI3K inhibitor, 8.8% of patients on an mTOR inhibitor, and 9.2% of patients on a CDK4/6 inhibitor experienced new onset or worsened preexisting upper extremity edema. Further, 9.1% of patients on a PI3K inhibitor, 18.8% of patients on an mTOR inhibitor, and 10.5% of patients on a CDK4/6 inhibitor experienced new onset or worsened preexisting edema elsewhere in the body. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, beyond the established breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) risk factors [axillary lymph node dissection (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.69, p = 0.020), regional lymph node irradiation (OR 6.47, p < 0.001), and body-mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR 3.46, p = 0.006)], a relative decrease in serum albumin after 3 months of treatment increased risk of developing edema (OR 2.07, p = 0.062). Neither duration nor type of therapy were significant risk factors for edema. CONCLUSION: PI3K/mTOR/CDK4/6 inhibitors may influence the development of edema, which may cause or exacerbate progression of BCRL in patients with MBC. The varied incidence of edema between therapeutic regimens warrants vigilant monitoring of patients treated with these therapies, especially those at high risk of developing BCRL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Linfedema/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 179-185, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with Her2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab have higher rates of cardiotoxicity (CT). Left-breast radiation might increase the risk for CT from cardiac exposure to radiation. The goal of our study is to evaluate the contribution of radiotherapy (RT) in the development of CT in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients were treated with RT and trastuzumab from 2000 to 2014. The RT plans for left-side disease were recalled from archives. The heart, each chamber, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) were independently contoured. New dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated. Their serial left-ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) were studied. CT for left and right side were compared using Fisher's exact test. The DVH data were correlated with the predefined cardiac events using actuarial Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the right sided, the left-side cases showed statistically significant development of arrhythmia (14.2%) versus (< 1%) (p < 0.001). Cardiac ischemia was found in 10 patients in left and one patient in right side (p = 0.011). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and LAD was significantly associated with decrease in LVEF by > 10% (p = 0.037, p = 0.023 and p = 0.049, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated for left-sided lesions, there were no significant differences in EF decline. However, there was a higher rate of ischemia and arrhythmia compared to those with right-sided disease. The EUD index of LV, RV, and LAD could be considered as a parameter to describe the risk of radiation-induced CT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(1): 62-70, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165125

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine when the risk of lymphedema is highest after treatment of breast cancer and which factors influence the time course of lymphedema development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2005 and 2017, 2171 women (with 2266 at-risk arms) who received surgery for unilateral or bilateral breast cancer at our institution were enrolled. Perometry was used to objectively assess limb volume preoperatively, and lymphedema was defined as a ≥10% relative arm-volume increase arising >3 months postoperatively. Multivariable regression was used to uncover risk factors associated with lymphedema, the Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate lymphedema incidence, and the semiannual hazard rate of lymphedema was calculated. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4 years, the overall estimated 5-year cumulative incidence of lymphedema was 13.7%. Significant factors associated with lymphedema on multivariable analysis were high preoperative body mass index, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and regional lymph node radiation (RLNR). Patients receiving ALND with RLNR experienced the highest 5-year rate of lymphedema (31.2%), followed by those receiving ALND without RLNR (24.6%) and sentinel lymph node biopsy with RLNR (12.2%). Overall, the risk of lymphedema peaked between 12 and 30 months postoperatively; however, the time course varied as a function of therapy received. Early-onset lymphedema (<12 months postoperatively) was associated with ALND (HR [hazard ratio], 4.75; P < .0001) but not with RLNR (HR, 1.21; P = .55). In contrast, late-onset lymphedema (>12 months postoperatively) was associated with RLNR (HR, 3.86; P = .0001) and, to a lesser extent, ALND (HR, 1.86; P = .029). The lymphedema risk peaked between 6 and 12 months in the ALND-without-RLNR group, between 18 and 24 months in the ALND-with-RLNR group, and between 36 and 48 months in the group receiving sentinel lymph node biopsy with RLNR. CONCLUSIONS: The time course for lymphedema development depends on the breast cancer treatment received. ALND is associated with early-onset lymphedema, and RLNR is associated with late-onset lymphedema. These results can influence clinical practice to guide lymphedema surveillance strategies and patient education.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Excisão de Linfonodo , Irradiação Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gland Surg ; 7(4): 379-403, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175055

RESUMO

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a negative sequela of breast cancer treatment, and well-established risk factors include axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and regional lymph node radiation (RLNR). BCRL affects approximately 1 in 5 patients treated for breast cancer, and it has a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life after breast cancer treatment, serving as a reminder of previous illness. This paper is a comprehensive review of the current evidence regarding BCRL risk factors, precautionary guidelines, prospective screening, early intervention, and surgical and non-surgical treatment techniques. Through establishing evidence-based BCRL risk factors, researchers and clinicians are better able to prevent, anticipate, and provide early intervention for BCRL. Clinicians can identify patients at high risk and utilize prospective screening programs, which incorporate objective measurements, patient reported outcome measures (PROM), and clinical examination, thereby creating opportunities for early intervention and, accordingly, improving BCRL prognosis. Innovative surgical techniques that minimize and/or prophylactically correct lymphatic disruption, such as axillary reverse mapping (ARM) and lymphatic-venous anastomoses (LVAs), are promising avenues for reducing BCRL incidence. Nonetheless, for those patients with BCRL who remain unresponsive to conservative methods like complete decongestive therapy (CDT), surgical treatment options aiming to reduce limb volume or restore lymphatic flow may prove to be palliative or corrective. It is only through a strong team-based approach that such a continuum of care can exist, and a multidisciplinary approach to BCRL screening, intervention, and research is therefore strongly encouraged.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(1): 83-91, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite increasing emphasis on screening and early intervention for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), there is marked heterogeneity in diagnostic methodology, including for volumetric measures. This retrospective study compared two volumetric modalities, perometry and simulated circumferential tape measurement (anatomic- and interval-based), for BCRL detection. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2017, 287 female patients with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for BCRL by perometry and the relative volume change (RVC) formula. Circumferential measurement was performed by sampling at five anatomic landmark-based points or 4-cm intervals from pairs of perometer arm diameter measurements. Volumetric conversion was by a frustum model. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare segmental volume differences. Confusion matrix analysis was performed for each circumferential measurement technique against perometry. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 34.7 months over 4 postoperative visits. There was no difference in total arm volume comparing any of the circumferential measurement techniques to perometry. Landmark-based methods significantly underestimated upper arm volume (mean difference - 207 mL [- 336, - 78 mL]) and overestimated forearm volume (mean difference + 170 mL [+ 105, + 237 mL]). Landmark-based methods had greater sensitivity and specificity compared to 4-cm interval methods for detection of both RVC ≥ 10 and 5-10%. Landmark-based methods were comparable to perometry for detection of RVC ≥ 10%, but sensitivity was only 63.2-66.7% for RVC 5-10%. CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggested the superiority of anatomic landmark-based circumferential tape measurement compared to interval-based methods, while generating questions about the underestimation of upper arm volume and overestimation of forearm volume of circumferential tape measurement compared to perometry.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/fisiopatologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/etiologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(1): 209-215, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify predictors of poor mammography surveillance outcomes based on clinico-pathologic features. METHODS: This study was HIPAA compliant and IRB approved. We performed an electronic medical record review for a cohort of women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage I or II invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy who developed subsequent in-breast treatment recurrence (IBTR) or contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Poor surveillance outcome was defined as second breast cancer not detected by surveillance mammography, including interval cancers (diagnosed within 365 days of surveillance mammogram with negative results) and clinically detected cancers (diagnosed without a surveillance mammogram in the preceding 365 days). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify predictors of poor mammography surveillance outcome, including patient and primary tumor characteristics, breast density, mode of primary tumor detection, and time to second cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: 164 women met inclusion criteria (65 with IBTR, 99 with CBC); 124 had screen-detected second cancers. On univariate analysis, poor surveillance outcome (n = 40) was associated with age at primary cancer diagnosis < 50 years (p < 0.0001), AJCC stage II primary cancers (p = 0.007), and heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, age < 50 years at primary breast cancer diagnosis remained a significant predictor of poor surveillance outcome (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Women younger than age 50 at primary breast cancer diagnosis are at risk of poor surveillance mammography outcomes, and may be appropriate candidates for more intensive clinical and imaging surveillance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico
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