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1.
Vet Res Forum ; 12(3): 297-304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815840

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplement on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and reproductive parameters in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) supplementing 110 g per day of fat (control), 2) supplementing 120 g per day of rumen-protected CLA. The diets were formulated to be nutritionally isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period started 21 days pre-calving and continued until 60 days in milk (DIM). Treatments had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). The CLA treatment increased milk yield (3.04 kg per day and milk lactose concentration, but decreased milk fat concentration and, short and medium chain fatty acids concentrations. No treatment differences were observed in milk protein concentration, milk energy output and net energy balance. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), estradiol and progesterone were higher in CLA treated cows when compared to cows fed on the control diet. Serum beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentration was reduced in cows fed on the CLA treatment. Days to first insemination and days open were not different between the two treatment groups. Cows fed on the CLA supplement had increased conception rate from the first service. The results indicated that cows fed on diets supplemented with CLA produced milk with decreased milk fat concentration whereas some related cow blood serum metabolic parameters associated with reproductive response were increased and resulted in an increased conception rate from the first service.

2.
J Control Release ; 333: 91-106, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774120

RESUMO

The bioprinting technique with specialized tissue production allows the study of biological, physiological, and behavioral changes of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues in response to pharmacological compounds in personalized medicine. To this end, to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs before entering the clinical setting, tissue engineered 3D scaffolds containing breast cancer and derived from the especially patient, similar to the original tissue architecture, can potentially be used. Despite recent advances in the manufacturing of 3D bioprinted breast cancer tissue (BCT), many studies still suffer from reproducibility primarily because of the uncertainty of the materials used in the scaffolds and lack of printing methods. In this review, we present an overview of the breast cancer environment to optimize personalized treatment by examining and identifying the physiological and biological factors that mimic BCT. We also surveyed the materials and techniques related to 3D bioprinting, i.e, 3D bioprinting systems, current strategies for fabrication of 3D bioprinting tissues, cell adhesion and migration in 3D bioprinted BCT, and 3D bioprinted breast cancer metastasis models. Finally, we emphasized on the prospective future applications of 3D bioprinted cancer models for rapid and accurate drug screening in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
3.
Talanta ; 223(Pt 1): 121704, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303154

RESUMO

The rapid outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) around the world is a tragic and shocking event that demonstrates the unpreparedness of humans to develop quick diagnostic platforms for novel infectious diseases. In fact, statistical reports of diagnostic tools show that their accuracy, specificity and sensitivity in the detection of COVID hampered by some challenges that can be eliminated by using nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we aimed to present an overview on the most important ways to diagnose different kinds of viruses followed by the introduction of nanobiosensors. Afterward, some methods of COVID-19 detection such as imaging, laboratory and kit-based diagnostic tests are surveyed. Furthermore, nucleic acids/protein- and immunoglobulin (Ig)-based nanobiosensors for the COVID-19 detection infection are reviewed. Finally, current challenges and future perspective for the development of diagnostic or monitoring technologies in the control of COVID-19 are discussed to persuade the scientists in advancing their technologies beyond imagination. In conclusion, it can be deduced that as rapid COVID-19 detection infection can play a vital role in disease control and treatment, this review may be of great help for controlling the COVID-19 outbreak by providing some necessary information for the development of portable, accurate, selectable and simple nanobiosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nanotecnologia , Humanos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Talanta ; 217: 121091, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498898

RESUMO

Nanobiosensors have played a key role as portable devices in the rapid breast cancer diagnosis and in clinical medicine like point-of-care devices. However, understanding biomarkers and nanomaterials is crucial for improving the performance of nanobiosensors for all stages of different diseases or treatment. Therefore, this study not only investigates the effect of biomarkers and nanomaterials such as metallic, carbon structures and quantum dot on the accuracy of nanobiosensors for early detection of breast cancer, but also exhibits how they are used in vivo and in vitro and their application in point-of-care devices for personalized cancer diagnosis. Afterwards, application of fluidics and microchips as point-of-care nanobiosensors in the early detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer diagnosis was discussed. Furthermore, the integration of nanobiosensors in nanomotors platforms for the treatment of breast cancer was overviewed. Finally, the ongoing challenges and future trends on the detection limit of nanobiosensors, their application in point-of-care clinical diagnostics and the approaches implemented for their improvements by highlighting the successful reports on the revolution of personalized diagnostics were surveyed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Nanotecnologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Talanta ; 212: 120782, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113545

RESUMO

Development of optical nanobiosensors has emerged as one of the most important bioresearch areas of interest over the past decades especially in the modern innovations in the design and utilization of sensing platforms. The application of nanobiosensors has been accelerated with the introduction of plasmonic NPs, which overcome the most of the limitations in the case of conventional optical nanobiosensors. Since the plasmonic AuNPs-based nanobiosensors provide high potential achievements to develop promising platforms in fully integrated multiplex assays, some well-developed investigations are clearly required to improve the current technologies and integration of multiple signal inputs. Therefore, in this literature, we summarized the performance and achievements of optical nanobiosensors according to plasmonic rules of AuNPs, including SPR, LSPR, SERS and chiroptical phenomena. Also, we investigated the effects of the physicochemical properties of AuNPs such as size, shape, composition, and assembly on the plasmonic signal propagation in AuNPs-based nanobiosensors. Moreover, we presented an overview on the current state of plasmonic AuNPs-based nanobiosensors in the biomedical activities. Besides, this paper looks at the current and future challenges and opportunities of ongoing efforts to achieve the potential applications of AuNPs-based optical plasmonic nanobiosensors in integration with other nanomaterials. Taken together, the main focus of this paper is to provide some applicable information to develop current methodologies in fabrication of potential AuNPs-based nanobiosensors for detection of a wide range of analytes.

6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3803-3810, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats, fed to ruminant animals, have been observed to improve reproductive function. Sunflower oil is one of the richest sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), over 60% of which is linoleic acid (C18:2). With regard to recommendations for increased consumption of PUFAs, special emphasis has been given to the importance of consuming more antioxidants to prevent lipid peroxide formation. This study evaluated the effects of dietary n-6 PUFAs and vitamin C (VC) in rams - in particular, on semen quality, blood metabolites, sperm lipids and overall fertility. RESULTS: Diets supplemented with SFO and VC increased the proportion of motile sperms and their progressive motility improved (P < 0.01). Rams fed a diet containing SFO had an increased proportion of sperms with normal acrosomes in their semen samples (P < 0.01). The highest levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) enzyme were found in control rams (2.60 U mL-1 ). Feeding SFO significantly affected blood triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05). Diets containing SFO increased the proportion of C18:2c, C20:4, C20:3 and C22 in the sperm lipid composition (P < 0.05). Semen of SFO and VC-fed rams was more fertile than that of control rams when it was artificially inseminated to ewes. CONCLUSION: Feeding rams with supplemental SFO and VC increased semen quality and improved fertility rates. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Sêmen/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen
7.
Vet Res Forum ; 6(1): 41-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992250

RESUMO

The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p < 0.05). For all citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p < 0.16). Dry matter (DM) digestibility contents of LE and LI were the highest (p < 0.02). The NDF digestibility was the highest (p < 0.05) in LI and GP, while the lowest (p < 0.03) values of ADF digestibility were observed in LI and LE. According to the results of the present study, carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

8.
Iran J Public Health ; 44(2): 228-37, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25905057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a global health problem in the world. Probiotic food has anti-diabetic property. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glucose and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 diabetic patients aged 35 to 65 years.Patients were randomly and equally (n=30) assigned to consume either probiotic fermented milk (kefir) or conventional fermented milk (dough) for 8 weeks. Probiotic group consumed 600 ml/day probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria and control group consumed 600 ml/day conventional fermented milk.Blood samples tested for fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline and end of the study. RESULTS: The comparison of fasting blood glucose between two groups after intervention was statistically significant (P=0.01). After intervention, reduced HbA1C compared with the baseline value in probiotic fermented milk group was statistically significant (P=0.001), also the HbA1C level significantly decreased in probiotic group in comparison with control group (P=0.02) adjusting for serum levels of glucose, baseline values of HbA1c and energy intake according to ANCOVA model. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol levels were not shown significant differences between and within the groups after intervention. CONCLUSION: Probiotic fermented milk can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetes.

9.
Vet Res Forum ; 5(1): 43-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25568691

RESUMO

The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE) was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30%) and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%). Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g(-1)DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to PE increased (p < 0.05) gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements.

10.
Vet Res Forum ; 3(1): 5-11, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25653739

RESUMO

The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL(-1), raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL(-1) and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL(-1) of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisy(II) and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for Daisy(II) OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM(®) Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), Daisy(II) and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation.

11.
ISRN Vet Sci ; 2011: 780540, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23738107

RESUMO

The effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on in vitro gas production characteristics, organic matter digestibility (OMD), and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of some grape yield byproducts were investigated. The gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 h of incubation. The gas production profiles in triplicate fitted with equation Y = A (1 - e(-ct)). The data was analyzed using completely randomized design. Total phenol (TP) and total tannin (TT) contents were highest for raisin waste (RW). The TP content (g/kg DM) ranged from 30.1 in grape pomace (GP) to 96.3 in RW, which also had the higher TT (72.1 g/kg DM). The potential gas production (a + b) of DGB, GP, and RW were 239.43, 263.49, and 208.22 mL/g DM, respectively. In the absence of PEG and PVP, rate constant of gas production (c) for GP was highest among the feedstuffs (0.1073 mL/h), but in presence of PEG or PVP, RW had highest fraction (c) among the feedstuffs. Addition of PEG and PVP inactivated effects of tannins and increased gas production, ME, NE1, OMD, and VFA in grape yield byproducts. Addition of PEG and PVP could overcome adverse effects of tannins on nutrient availability as indicated by gas production parameters.

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