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1.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 15-20, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422229

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients living with glaucoma and receiving care in a tertiary eye center in Zimbabwe. Method: A hospital-based retrospective study of clinical records of glaucoma patients from January 2014 to December 2018. The study involved collating demographic information of patients, visual acuities, (VA) intraocular pressure, (IOP), cup-to-disc ratios, (CDRs), average retinal nerve fibers thickness, (RNFL), cup volume, cup-to-disc area, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, (VCDR), rim area, disc area, glaucoma hemifield test, visual field indices and the management of glaucoma. Results: Nine thousand one hundred and eighty-five (9,185) folders were retrieved. Out of these, 432 (4.7%) qualified for the study and were analyzed. There were 267 (61.8%) males and 165 (38.2%) females. The mean age (± Standard deviation, SD) of the patients was 62.66 ± 15.94 years, (range 10 - 110 years). The means visual acuity (VA): OD =1.30 ± 1.06 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution, (logMAR), OS = 1.33 ± 1.06 logMAR; IOP: OD = 29.51 ± 12.89 mmHg, OS: 29.17 ± 12.59 mmHg; CDRs: OD = 0.91 ± 0.14 D, OS = 0.92 ± 0.14 D; and the average RNFL thickness was 72.76 ± 18.26 µm and 71.24 ± 23.17 µm in the right and left eye respectively. The mainstay of treatment was medication only. Conclusion: There were more males than females receiving glaucoma care at the tertiary level. Glaucoma cases included juveniles but the mean age was mostly the elderly. It was characterized by high IOPs, large CDRs, and thin RNFL suggestive of late presentation.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Glaucoma/terapia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(1): 515-523, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402940

RESUMO

Purpose: Microbial contamination of orthodox ophthalmic preparations poses a serious threat to the user by causing ocular infections. There is no such information about unorthodox ophthalmic preparations in a medical pluralistic system such as Ghana. The aim of this study was to assess unorthodox ophthalmic medications on the Ghanaian market for possible microbial contaminations. Methods: Unorthodox ophthalmic preparations were collected across different herbal and homeopathic outlets in Ghana. A total of 27 samples were collected from the ten (10) regions in Ghana. The samples were inoculated in different culture media (Plate count Agar, Blood Agar, MacConkey Agar, Saboraud Dextrose Agar). The microorganisms isolated were identified using standard microbiological procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility was done to determine whether they were resistant or susceptible strains. Results: All the samples were contaminated with bacteria and the majority were contaminated with fungus. A total of forty-eight bacteria spp. was isolated thus seven different types namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilli spp., Serrati spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp. and Shigella spp. with Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant bacteria. For fungi, a total of eleven fungi species thus four different types namely: Cephalosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Cercosporium spp. and Clasdosporium spp. with the predominant fungi being Penicillium spp. Per the class of preparations, 15 contaminants were isolated from ten (10) anti-inflammatory preparations. The fungi were all susceptible to both Ketoconazole and Fluconazole but the bacteria were resistant to all the conventional antibiotics except Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: Unorthodox ophthalmic preparations found on the Ghanaian market are contaminated with bacteria and fungi of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Ceratite/microbiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/normas , Antibacterianos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Gana , Humanos
3.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 25(sup1): 79-85, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in each local government area (LGA) of Benue State, Nigeria. METHODS: Two-stage cluster sampling was used to conduct a series of 23 population-based prevalence surveys. LGAs were the evaluation units surveyed. In each LGA, 25 households were selected in each of 25 clusters, and individuals aged 1 year and above resident in those households were invited to be examined for trachoma. Data on access to water and sanitation were also collected at household level. RESULTS: A total of 91,888 people were examined from among 93,636 registered residents across the 23 LGAs. The LGA-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9 year olds ranged from 0.3% to 5.3%. Two LGAs had TF prevalences of 5.0-9.9%. The LGA-level prevalence of trichiasis in ≥15-year-olds ranged from 0.0% to 0.35%. Access to improved drinking water sources ranged from 0% in Gwer West to 99% in Tarka, while access to improved sanitation ranged from 1% in Gwer West to 92% in Oturkpo. CONCLUSION: There is a need for public health-level interventions against trachoma in three LGAs of Benue State.


Assuntos
Saneamento/normas , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tracoma/etiologia , Triquíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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