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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(20): 22778-22788, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338494


Devices driven by above-equilibrium "hot" electrons are appealing for photocatalytic technologies, such as in situ H2O2 synthesis, but currently suffer from low (<1%) overall quantum efficiencies. Gold nanostructures excited by visible light generate hot electrons that can inject into a neighboring semiconductor to drive electrochemical reactions. Here, we designed and studied a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure of Au nanoparticles on a ZnO/TiO2/Al film stack, deposited through room-temperature, lithography-free methods. Light absorption, electron injection efficiency, and photocatalytic yield in this device are superior in comparison to the same stack without Al. Our device absorbs >60% of light at the Au localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak near 530 nm-a 5-fold enhancement in Au absorption due to critical coupling to an Al film. Furthermore, we show through ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy that the Al-coupled samples exhibit a nearly 5-fold improvement in hot-electron injection efficiency as compared to a non-Al device, with the hot-electron lifetimes extending to >2 ps in devices photoexcited with fluence of 0.1 mJ cm-2. The use of an Al film also enhances the photocatalytic yield of H2O2 more than 3-fold in a visible-light-driven reactor. Altogether, we show that the critical coupling of Al films to Au nanoparticles is a low-cost, lithography-free method for improving visible-light capture, extending hot-carrier lifetimes, and ultimately increasing the rate of in situ H2O2 generation.

Adv Mater ; 32(23): e1906478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347620


Above-equilibrium "hot"-carrier generation in metals is a promising route to convert photons into electrical charge for efficient near-infrared optoelectronics. However, metals that offer both hot-carrier generation in the near-infrared and sufficient carrier lifetimes remain elusive. Alloys can offer emergent properties and new design strategies compared to pure metals. Here, it is shown that a noble-transition alloy, Aux Pd1- x , outperforms its constituent metals concerning generation and lifetime of hot carriers when excited in the near-infrared. At optical fiber wavelengths (e.g., 1550 nm), Au50 Pd50 provides a 20-fold increase in the number of ≈0.8 eV hot holes, compared to Au, and a threefold increase in the carrier lifetime, compared to Pd. The discovery that noble-transition alloys can excel at hot-carrier generation reveals a new material platform for near-infrared optoelectronic devices.

Iran J Microbiol ; 4(1): 3-7, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22783454


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In December 2010 four, lions and one tiger died at the Tehran zoo. Out of all samples, Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of Glanders) was isolated just from ulcer sample of the tiger which was imported to Iran from Russia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One nasal swab from a tiger and fifteen blood samples with anticoagulant belonging to one tiger and fourteen lions (four dead lions and eleven live lions) were collected and were inoculated directly onto the selective media. The isolate was identified by morphological and biochemical and API BBL tests and PCR using specific primers (Bma- IS407-flip). The standard (Razi Type Culture Collection RTCC: 2375) and tiger isolates were inoculated into 2 guinea pigs. All residue solipeds and carnivores were checked by Malleination test and Complement Fixation (CF) Test respectively. RESULTS: One isolate of B. mallei was isolated from tiger's nasal swab. Both of B.mallei strains were recovered from inoculated animals. All of solipeds were negative by malleination test, however, 11 lions including 4 dead and 7 live lions out of 14 lions were positive in CF test for Glanders and all were put down by the authorities. CONCLUSION: Active surveillance of Glanders is essential for solipeds, especially it's more important while being used to feed valuable carnivores like lions and tigers. Therefore, a reliable test like malleination must be carried out twice (first before transferring and one month after quarantine). Both test results should be negative for use for feeding.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 14(3): 239-44, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21048623


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gabapentin (GBP) administration on mice fetuses. METHODS: This study was carried out in Birjand University of Medical Sciences during 2008. Thirty Balb/c pregnant mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: 2 experimental groups that received 25 mg/kg (I) and 50 mg/kg (II) of GBP intraperitoneally for the first 15 days of pregnancy, and a control group that received normal saline. External observations of day 18 fetuses and skeleton double staining were performed. RESULTS: Both experimental groups showed similar disorders that can be categorized as the following: 1) decrease of fetal body weight and increase of fetal resorption, 2) macroscopic malformations, and 3) skeletal malformations. Fetal body weights were significantly lower, and fetus resorptions were significantly higher in both treated groups compared to the control group. Macroscopic malformations included exencephaly, limbs defects, brachygnathia, vertebral column deformity, and fetuses with severe retarded growth. Skeletal malformations included delayed ossification, scoliosis, calvaria deformity, and mandibular hypoplasia. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that GBP can induce previously unreported severe malformations if it is used continuously during the implantation, neurulation, and organogenesis stages of pregnancy. Therefore, it is suggested that great caution should be exercised in using GBP during the early stages of pregnancy until further studies are performed to better understand these effects.