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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(5): 1671-1684, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257197

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The multiple derivative lines (MDLs) characterized in this study offer a promising strategy for harnessing the diversity of wild emmer wheat for durum and bread wheat improvement. Crop domestication has diminished genetic diversity and reduced phenotypic plasticity and adaptation. Exploring the adaptive capacity of wild progenitors offer promising opportunities to improve crops. We developed a population of 178 BC1F6 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) lines by crossing and backcrossing nine wild emmer wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) accessions with the common durum wheat cultivar 'Miki 3'. Here, we describe the development of this population, which we named as multiple derivative lines (MDLs), and demonstrated its suitability for durum wheat breeding. We genotyped the MDL population, the parents, and 43 Sudanese durum wheat cultivars on a Diversity Array Technology sequencing platform. We evaluated days to heading and plant height in Dongola (Sudan) and in Tottori (Japan). The physical map length of the MDL population was 9 939 Mb with an average of 1.4 SNP/Mb. The MDL population had greater diversity than the Sudanese cultivars. We found high gene exchange between the nine wild emmer accessions and the MDL population, indicating that the MDL captured most of the diversity in the wild emmer accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified three loci for days to heading on chromosomes 1A and 5A in Dongola and one on chromosome 3B in Tottori. For plant height, common genomic loci were found on chromosomes 4A and 4B in both locations, and one genomic locus on chromosome 7B was found only in Dongola. The results revealed that the MDLs are an effective strategy towards harnessing wild emmer wheat diversity for wheat genetic improvement.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499189

RESUMO

Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of bread wheat, is a storehouse of genetic diversity that can be used for wheat improvement. This species consists of two main lineages (TauL1 and TauL2) and one minor lineage (TauL3). Its morpho-physiological diversity is large, with adaptations to a wide ecological range. Identification of allelic diversity in Ae. tauschii is of utmost importance for efficient breeding and widening of the genetic base of wheat. This study aimed at identifying markers or genes associated with morpho-physiological traits in Ae. tauschii, and at understanding the difference in genetic diversity between the two main lineages. We performed genome-wide association studies of 11 morpho-physiological traits of 343 Ae. tauschii accessions representing the entire range of habitats using 34,829 DArTseq markers. We observed a wide range of morpho-physiological variation among all accessions. We identified 23 marker-trait associations (MTAs) in all accessions, 15 specific to TauL1 and eight specific to TauL2, suggesting independent evolution in each lineage. Some of the MTAs could be novel and have not been reported in bread wheat. The markers or genes identified in this study will help reveal the genes controlling the morpho-physiological traits in Ae. tauschii, and thus in bread wheat even if the plant morphology is different.

3.
Breed Sci ; 67(3): 248-256, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744178

RESUMO

Heat stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. In this study, we aimed to select heat-tolerant plants from a multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) population and evaluate their agronomic and physiological traits. We selected six tolerant plants from the population with the background of the cultivar 'Norin 61' (N61) and established six MNH (MSD population of N61 selected as heat stress-tolerant) lines. We grew these lines with N61 in the field and growth chamber. In the field, we used optimum and late sowings to ensure plant exposure to heat. In the growth chamber, in addition to N61, we used the heat-tolerant cultivars 'Gelenson' and 'Bacanora'. We confirmed that MNH2 and MNH5 lines acquired heat tolerance. These lines had higher photosynthesis and stomata conductance and exhibited no reduction in grain yield and biomass under heat stress compared to N61. We noticed that N61 had relatively good adaptability to heat stress. Our results indicate that the MSD population includes the diversity of Aegilops tauschii and is a promising resource to uncover useful quantitative traits derived from this wild species. Selected lines could be useful for heat stress tolerance breeding.

4.
Breed Sci ; 63(5): 450-60, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24757384

RESUMO

Adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures could be improved by introducing alien genes from wild relatives. We evaluated the responses of wheat-Leymus racemosus chromosome introgression lines to high temperature to determine their potentiality for developing improved wheat cultivars. Introgression lines and their parent Chinese Spring were evaluated in a growth chamber at the seedling stage and in the field at the reproductive stage in two heat-stressed environments in Sudan. Optimum and late planting were used to ensure exposure of the plants to heat stress at the reproductive stage. The results revealed the impact of several Leymus chromosomes in improving wheat adaptation and tolerance to heat. Three lines possessed enhanced adaptation, whereas two showed high heat tolerance. Two addition lines showed a large number of kernels per spike, while one possessed high yield potential. Grain yield was correlated negatively with the heat susceptibility index, days to heading and maturity and positively with kernel number per spike and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride assay under late planting. The findings suggest that these genetic stocks could be used as a bridge to introduce the valuable Leymus traits into a superior wheat genetic background, thus helping maximize wheat yield in heat-stressed environments.

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