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Materials (Basel) ; 15(10)2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35629485


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a conventional material used to construct rigid pavement that emits large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) during its manufacturing process, which is bad for the environment. It is also claimed that OPC is susceptible to acid attack, which increases the maintenance cost of rigid pavement. Therefore, a fly ash based geopolymer is proposed as a material for rigid pavement application as it releases lesser amounts of CO2 during the synthesis process and has higher acid resistance compared to OPC. This current study optimizes the formulation to produce fly ash based geopolymer with the highest compressive strength. In addition, the durability of fly ash based geopolymer concrete and OPC concrete in an acidic environment is also determined and compared. The results show that the optimum value of sodium hydroxide concentration, the ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid for fly ash based geopolymer are 10 M, 2.0, and 2.5, respectively, with a maximum compressive strength of 47 MPa. The results also highlight that the durability of fly ash based geopolymer is higher than that of OPC concrete, indicating that fly ash based geopolymer is a better material for rigid pavement applications, with a percentage of compressive strength loss of 7.38% to 21.94% for OPC concrete. This current study contributes to the field of knowledge by providing a reference for future development of fly ash based geopolymer for rigid pavement applications.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073169


This study intended to address the problem of damaged (collapsed, cracked and decreased soil strength) road pavement structure built on clay soil due to clay soil properties such as low shear strength, high soil compressibility, low soil permeability, low soil strength, and high soil plasticity. Previous research reported that ground granulated blast slag (GGBS) and fly ash can be used for clay soil stabilizations, but the results of past research indicate that the road pavement construction standards remained unfulfilled, especially in terms of clay's subgrade soil. Due to this reason, this study is carried out to further investigate soil stabilization using GGBS and fly ash-based geopolymer processes. This study investigates the effects of GGBS and ratios of fly ash (solid) to alkaline activator (liquid) of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, and 3:1, cured for 1 and 7 days. The molarity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the ratio of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was fixed at 10 molar and 2.0 weight ratio. The mechanical properties of the soil stabilization based geopolymer process were tested using an unconfined compression test, while the characterization of soil stabilization was investigated using the plastic limit test, liquid limit test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the highest strength obtained was 3.15 MPA with a GGBS to alkaline activator ratio of 1.5 and Na2SiO3 to NaOH ratio of 2.0 at 7 days curing time. These findings are useful in enhancing knowledge in the field of soil stabilization-based geopolymer, especially for applications in pavement construction. In addition, it can be used as a reference for academicians, civil engineers, and geotechnical engineers.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652863


The demand for durable, resistant, and high-strength structural material has led to the use of fibers as reinforcing elements. This paper presents an investigation into the inclusion of chopped steel wool fibers (CSWFs) in cement to form a high-flexural strength cementitious composite matrix (CCM). CSWFs were used as the primary reinforcement in CCM at increments of 0.5 wt%, from 0.5-6 wt%, with ratios of cement to sand of 1:1.5 and water to cement of 0.45. The inclusion of CSWFs resulted in an excellent optimization of the physicomechanical properties of the CCM, such as its density (2.302 g/cm3), compressive strength (61.452 MPa), and maximum flexural strength (10.64 MPa), all of which exceeded the performances of other reinforcement elements reported in the literature.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374466


In recent years, research and development of geopolymers has gained significant interest in the fields of repairs and restoration. This paper investigates the application of a geopolymer as a repair material by implementation of high-calcium fly ash (FA) as a main precursor, activated by a sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. Three methods of concrete substrate surface preparation were cast and patched: as-cast against ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC), with drilled holes, wire-brushed, and left as-cast against the OPCC grade 30. This study indicated that FA-based geopolymer repair materials (GRMs) possessed very high bonding strength at early stages and that the behavior was not affected significantly by high surface treatment roughness. In addition, the investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy have revealed that the geopolymer repair material became chemically bonded to the OPC concrete substrate, due to the formation of a C-A-S-H gel. Fundamentally, the geopolymer network is composed of tetrahedral anions (SiO4)4- and (AlO4)5- sharing the oxygen, which requires positive ions such as Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+, Ba2+, NH4+, and H3O+. The availability of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at the surface of the OPCC substrate, which was rich in calcium ions (Ca2+), reacted with the geopolymer; this compensated the electron vacancies of the framework cavities at the bonding zone between the GRM and the OPCC substrate.