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1.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 912-917, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600140

RESUMO

AIMS: It has been generally accepted that open fractures require early skeletal stabilization and soft-tissue reconstruction. Traditionally, a standard gauze dressing was applied to open wounds. There has been a recent shift in this paradigm towards negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes in patients with open tibial fractures receiving standard dressing versus NPWT. METHODS: This multicentre randomized controlled trial was approved by the ethical review board of a public sector tertiary care institute. Wounds were graded using Gustilo-Anderson (GA) classification, and patients with GA-II to III-C were included in the study. To be eligible, the patient had to present within 72 hours of the injury. The primary outcome of the study was patient-reported Disability Rating Index (DRI) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment using 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-12), wound infection rates at six weeks and nonunion rates at 12 months. Logistic regression analysis and independent-samples t-test were applied for secondary outcomes. Analyses of primary and secondary outcomes were performed using SPSS v. 22.0.1 and p-values of < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients were randomized between January 2016 and December 2018. Overall 206 (49.04%) patients underwent NPWT, while 214 (50.95%) patients were allocated to the standard dressing group. There was no statistically significant difference in DRI at 12 months between NPWT and standard dressing groups (mean difference 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.08 to 1.1; p = 0.581). Regarding SF-12 scores at 12 months follow-up, there was no significant difference at any point from injury until 12 months (mean difference 1.4; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.9; p = 0.781). The 30-day deep infection rate was slightly higher in the standard gauze dressing group. The non-union odds were also comparable (odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.45; p = 0.685). CONCLUSION: Our study concludes that NPWT therapy does not confer benefit over standard dressing technique for open fractures. The DRI, SF-12 scores, wound infection, and nonunion rates were analogous in both study groups. We suggest surgeons continue to use cheaper and more readily available standard dressings. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):912-917.

2.
Neural Netw ; 129: 385-391, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593932

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a well-studied and most common interior messenger RNA (mRNA) modification that plays an important function in cell development. N6A is found in all kingdoms​ of life and many other cellular processes such as RNA splicing, immune tolerance, regulatory functions, RNA processing, and cancer. Despite the crucial role of m6A in cells, it was targeted computationally, but unfortunately, the obtained results were unsatisfactory. It is imperative to develop an efficient computational model that can truly represent m6A sites. In this regard, an intelligent and highly discriminative computational model namely: m6A-word2vec is introduced for the discrimination of m6A sites. Here, a concept of natural language processing in the form of word2vec is used to represent the motif of the target class automatically. These motifs (numerical descriptors) are automatically targeted from the human genome without any clear definition. Further, the extracted feature space is then forwarded to the convolution neural network model as input for prediction. The developed computational model obtained 83.17%, 92.69%, and 90.50% accuracy for benchmark datasets S1, S2, and S3, respectively, using a 10-fold cross-validation test. The predictive outcomes validate that the developed intelligent computational model showed better performance compared to existing computational models. It is thus greatly estimated that the introduced computational model "m6A-word2vec" may be a supportive and practical tool for elementary and pharmaceutical research such as in drug design along with academia.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140054, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562988

RESUMO

COVID-19 seems as global emergency, by infectious virus, caused respiratory illness like having symptoms of flue, sickness, headache, and difficulty in breathing. Within months the world has been transformed into new order, thousands of people died and many more are fallen ill due to COVID-19 outbreak. China was the first country to see the outbreak and the first country to control it. However, the disease has broken out in Europe, the Middle East, the United States and other places. The United States has the highest number of cases in the world.

4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597557

RESUMO

Malus hupehensis is extensively used apple rootstock in China(Mao et al., 2017). In the current study, Malus hupehensis seedlings were treated with exogenous 2.2µM 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) so as to investigate the mechanism by which 6-BAaffects lateral root (LR) development. Results indicated that 6-BA treatment promoted the elongation and thickening of both root and shoot in Malus hupehensis, while reduced the number of LRs, as well as auxin level declined by 6-BA treatment. Moreover, MhAHK4, MhRR1 and MhRR2 were also significantly upregulated in response to 6-BA treatment. Expression levels of auxin synthesis and transport-related genes, such as MhYUCCA6, MhYUCCA10, MhPIN1, and MhPIN2 were downregulated, which corresponded with the lower auxin levels in the 6-BA-treated seedlings. A negative regulator of auxin, MhIAA3 was induced by 6-BA, which leads to declined expression of MhARF7 and MhARF19 in 6-BA-treated seedlings. Resulting, blocked expression of MhWOX11, MhWOX5, MhLBD16 and MhLBD29 were observed, which in turn inhibited LR initiation. In addition, lower auxin level decreased the expression of MhRR7 andMhRR15, which repressed the expression of key transcription factors associated with root development, thus inhibiting LR development. In contrast, 6-BA treatment promoted secondary growth (thickening) of the root by inducing the expression of MhCYCD3;1 and MhCYCD3;2. Collectively, the changes in hormone levels and gene expression resulted in a decreased number of LRs and thicker roots in 6-BA-treated plants.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 123057, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521321

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields such as energy store and transformation, environment protection, and biomedicine due to their unique physicochemical properties. Unfortunately, such large-scale production and use of MoS2 nanomaterials would inevitably release into the environmental system and then potentially increase the risks of wildlife/ecosystem and human beings as well. In this review, we first introduce the physicochemichemical properties, synthetic methods and environmental behaviors of MoS2 nanomaterials and their typical functionalized materials, then summarize their environmental and biomedical applications, next assess their potential health risks, covering in vivo and in vitro studies, along with the underlying toxicological mechanisms, and last point out some special phenomena about the balance between applications and potential risks. This review aims to provide guidance for harm predication induced by MoS2 nanomaterials and to suggest prevention measures based on the recent research progress of MoS2' applications and exerting toxicological data.

6.
Enferm Clin ; 30 Suppl 4: 39-43, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research aims to find the relationship between organizing and leadership style and the quality improvement of primary healthcare services. METHOD: This research was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional study design that described the relationship between organizing and leadership style and sustainable quality improvement of primary healthcare services. This research was conducted in 14 primary healthcare with 103 respondents and analyzed by chi-square using SPSS. RESULTS: The results showed that from 103 respondents, there were 66.7% of respondents stating that the relationship between the organizing and quality improvement was good and 72.4% of respondents stating that the relationship between the leadership style and the quality improvement was good. CONCLUSION: There is a relationship between organizing and leadership style and sustainable quality improvement of primary healthcare services. Therefore, it can provide high-quality health services and improve the competence of the community health center's head sustainably.

7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 237: 118408, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371352

RESUMO

In this study, Raman spectroscopy is employed for the characterization and comparison of two different classes of exo-polysaccharides including glucans and fructans which are produced by different bacteria. For this purpose, nine samples are used including five samples of glucans and four of fructans. Raman spectral results of all these polysaccharides show clear differences among various glucans as well as fructans showing the potential of this technique to identify the differences within the same class of the compounds. Moreover, these two classes are also compared on the basis of their Raman spectral data and can be differentiated on the basis of their unique Raman features. Multivariate data analysis techniques, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is found very helpful for the comparison of the Raman spectral data of these classes of the carbohydrates.

8.
Environ Int ; 140: 105757, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361577

RESUMO

The anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) are the hidden culprit behind the excessive nitrogen loss under a favorable environment, since their detection and abundance get disturbed by several unknown factors. This study intends to find the gap between actual anammox working capacity under different water conditions and fertilizers in the laboratory. The 15N-isotopic tracer technique was used to measure anammox and denitrification rate, and anammox community structure was analyzed through high-throughput sequencing with cytochrome cd-1 nitrite reductase functional gene (an_nirS gene, initially found in Candidatus Scalindua). The experiment consisted of four treatments, i.e., (I) CK_ Control, (II) UR_Urea, (III) PM_Pig Manure, and (IV) SRF_ Slow release fertilizer, under two water conditions, i.e., (a) Continuous flooding_ CF, (b) Alternate wetting and drying_ AWD. Results showed that anammox under CF decreased over time by -40.24%, and denitrification increased up to 39.25%. However, anammox activity under AWD increased up to 10.62% with the availability of NO2-, and surprisingly accompanied by the reduction in denitrification loss (-31.97%), being the most critical factor. We found that soil nifH and AOB genes were strongly favorable for anammox activity, while we observed the presence of anammox and AOB genes co-existing at the same time in paddy soil. The high-throughput sequencing with an_nirS functional gene showed a much higher diversity of anammox genera ever reported, mostly uncultured and unidentified. We concluded that water management is more prominent than fertilizer for anammox, and the most critical factor is the duration of AWD cycle, because of short term air supply could boost anammox activity and gene abundance, and could reduce denitrifier activity as well as nirK gene abundance.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(8)2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325814

RESUMO

The advent of new devices, technology, machine learning techniques, and the availability of free large speech corpora results in rapid and accurate speech recognition. In the last two decades, extensive research has been initiated by researchers and different organizations to experiment with new techniques and their applications in speech processing systems. There are several speech command based applications in the area of robotics, IoT, ubiquitous computing, and different human-computer interfaces. Various researchers have worked on enhancing the efficiency of speech command based systems and used the speech command dataset. However, none of them catered to noise in the same. Noise is one of the major challenges in any speech recognition system, as real-time noise is a very versatile and unavoidable factor that affects the performance of speech recognition systems, particularly those that have not learned the noise efficiently. We thoroughly analyse the latest trends in speech recognition and evaluate the speech command dataset on different machine learning based and deep learning based techniques. A novel technique is proposed for noise robustness by augmenting noise in training data. Our proposed technique is tested on clean and noisy data along with locally generated data and achieves much better results than existing state-of-the-art techniques, thus setting a new benchmark.

10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115967, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122501

RESUMO

To obtain chitosan (CTS) with narrower molecular weight distribution, CTS with weight-average molecular weight (MW) of 197.30 kDa was first metal complexed and then degraded into five CTSs with MW of 107.90, 56.48, 10.40, 5.67 (CTS-4) and 3.66 kDa. Decrease of MW did not cause a significant change in chemical structure of the residue CTS, but the crystal structure was transformed significantly. The moisture retention increased firstly and then decreased as the MW of CTS decreased. CTS-4 was superior to CTSs with other MW and propylene glycol in terms of the moisture retention. The lower water activity and increase of net isosteric heat were observed in CTS-4, which was due to the migration of immobilized water to a bound-state caused by mounting newly formed chain-end hydrophilic groups per unit weight. CTS-4 could effectively improve moisture retention, showing a potential to substitute commonly used humectant such as propylene glycol.

11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(1): 11-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122825

RESUMO

Three substituted flavone derivatives have been synthesized from substituted O-hydroxy acetophenones and 4-trifluoromethyl benzaldehyde in good yield. These compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray Diffraction. Compound F1 and F3 were re-crystallized from their concentrated solutions in chloroform ethyl acetate mixture while F2 was re-crystallized in ethyl acetate n-hexane mixture. Compound F1 and F3 are monoclinic (space group P21/c) with lattice parameters: [a, b, c (A) / ß (°)] = 13.332 (2), 15.616 (2) / 6.2898 (8) and 13.9716 (15), 7.1868 (7), 13.6912 (14) / 91.113(6) respectively. Compound F2 is Triclinic (space group P-1) and has lattice parameters: [a, b, c (Å) / α, ß, γ (°)] = 6.5002 (6), 8.3801 (9), 13.5989 (14) / 89.348(5), 85.141(4), 84.521(5). Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic profile was investigated. The compounds showed moderate to less activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), Hydrogen peroxide (H/2/O/2) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) models of radical scavenging activity while promising antibacterial potentials were recorded. Furthermore, these molecules can also be used as potential candidates for new antitumor agents.

12.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(3): 414-417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories. Potential participants were randomly approached and gave written consent to participate. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and serum samples were processed to detect H9 antibodies using the haemagglutination inhibition test. RESULTS: Of the 419 participants, 406 (96.9%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 36.4 (SD 10.86) years. A total of 332 participants agreed to a blood test, 167 of whom were positive for A(H9) antibodies, giving an overall seroprevalence of 50.3%. Laboratory staff had the highest seroprevalence (100%) and veterinarians the lowest (38.5%). Vaccinators, butchers and farm workers had a seroprevalence of 83.3%, 52.4% and 45.5% respectively. Personals who used facemasks had significantly lower (P<0.002) seroprevalence (29.6%) than those who never used them (90.6%). Similarly, those who always used gloves and washed their hands with soap had a seroprevalence of 32.8% compared with 89.0% in those who never took these precautions. Of the participants who handled antigens, 92.3% were seropositive. CONCLUSION: Laboratory staff and vaccinators are exposed to viral cultures and influenza vaccines respectively which may explain their high seroprevalence.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141285

RESUMO

Substrates influence the electrical and optical properties of monolayer (ML) MoS2 in field-effect transistors and photodetectors. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy measurements have shown that conducting substrates can vary the doping concentration and influence exciton decay channels in ML-MoS2. Doping and exciton decay dynamics are expected to play a major role in the efficiency of light-driven chemical reactions, but it is unclear to what extent these factors contribute to the photo(electro)catalytic properties of ML-MoS2. Here, we report spatially resolved PL, Raman, and photo-electrochemical current measurements of 5-10 µm-wide ML-MoS2 triangles deposited on pairs of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes that are separated by a narrow insulating quartz channel [i.e., an ITO interdigitated array (IDA) electrode]. Optical microscopy images and atomic force microscopy measurements revealed that the ML-MoS2 triangles lie conformally on the quartz and ITO substrates. The PL spectrum of MoS2 shifts and decreases in intensity in the ITO region, which can be attributed to differences in nonradiative and radiative exciton decay channels. Raman spectra showed no significant peak shifts on the two substrates that would have indicated a substrate-induced doping effect. We spatially resolved the photo-electrochemical current because of hole-induced iodide oxidation and observed that ML-MoS2 produces lower photocurrents in the quartz region than in the ITO region. The correlated PL, Raman, and photocurrent mapping data show that the MoS2/quartz interface diminishes fast nonradiative exciton decay pathways but the photocurrent response in the quartz region is likely limited by inefficient in-plane carrier transport to the ITO electrode because of carrier recombination with S vacancies in MoS2 or charged impurities in the quartz substrate. Nonetheless, the experimental methodology presented herein provides a framework to evaluate substrate engineering strategies to tune the (photo)electrocatalytic properties of two-dimensional materials.

14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 204, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124056

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are chemical compounds employed as medicinal drugs. They have severe physic-chemical properties which make them destructive for non-target species. Consequently, their continuous addition in the environment may pose hazardous effects. Among these, diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is extensively used in Pakistan which may lead to its accumulation in both terrestrial and aquatic environment. Present study aims to assess the presence and concentration of pharmaceutically active drug (DCF) in surface water and wastewater of twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad). For this purpose, a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was adopted involving solid-phase extraction procedure. Wastewater samples were collected from various sites of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Results of HPLC analysis revealed that DCF was extant with considerably high concentration, not only in wastewater but also in surface water samples. Concentrations as high as 216 µg L-1 was detected in Rawat industrial area and low as 8 µg L-1 was detected in dairy farm wastewater samples collected from Taramri. However, maximum DCF levels in residential wastewater and hospital wastewater were detected to be 105 µg L-1 and 34 µg L-1, respectively. Moreover, the highest detected level (116 µg L-1) was found in surface water of Sawan River. Further, results of ecological risk assessment revealed its possible toxic effects of DCF on various aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cidades , Diclofenaco/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Paquistão , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 232: 118162, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106031

RESUMO

In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been employed for the characterization of two structurally different monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (ligand-1 and ligand-2) and their respective complexes (complex-1 and complex-2). The Raman spectral features are found helpful for the confirmation of formation of complexes. The significant Raman spectral features are identified for benzimidazole ring with higher intensities in carbene complexes having more polarizability as compared to their ligands, providing the evidence for the formation of coordinate covalent bond. The successful complexation is further supported by using multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is found very helpful to highlight the variability of Raman spectral data of both ligands and their respective metal complexes from each other. Moreover, the coordination of carbene with Ag(I) is confirmed from the dominant spectral markers of higher intensities at 359 cm-1 in complex-1 and 338 cm-1 in complex-2. The effective and reliable characterization and confirmation of metal complexes indicates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for its use for the characterization of the organometallic complexes and other chemical products.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2012, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029836

RESUMO

Shift work with circadian disruption has been considered as a carcinogenic risk factor for skin cancer. The few prior studies that investigated the association between shift work and skin cancer have inconclusive results. Our main objective was to evaluate the associations between shift work and the risks of different types of skin cancer. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Science Direct until October 2018 for studies that included a relationship between shift work and skin cancer. Our search yielded 193 articles and 9 studies met the criteria for our review. The included studies involved 3,579,147 participants and 17,308 skin cancer cases. Overall, ever shift work, was associated with increased risk of melanoma (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.16) and a significant decrease in the risk of BCC (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88-0.93). No association between shift work and the risk of SCC was detected. Interestingly, our dose response analysis demonstrated that the risk of melanoma cumulatively increases by 2% for every year of shift work (RR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.00-1.03). In conclusion, shift work is associated with increased risk of melanoma and deceased risk of BCC. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the related potential biological mechanisms.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110303, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061991

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) concentration has been increasing substantially in the environment due to industrial and anthropogenic factors. Plants can absorb Cr and undergo unrestrained oxidation cascades, resulting in cell injury. The ameliorative role of biogenic copper nanoparticles to relieve wheat plants from Cr stress by supporting their growth is still unclear. The present work aims at the biosynthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) from a native Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, followed by assessment of wheat growth and physiological responses to CuNPs mixed in Cr-rich soil. The taxonomic rank of K. pneumoniae SN35 was established by the 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The properties of biogenic CuNPs were elucidated by using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM. It was found that 19.01-47.47 nm spherical shaped CuNPs were stabilized by different functional groups produced extracellularly by the strain SN35. The XRD data revealed the crystalline nature of CuNPs as a face-centered cubic structure. Different concentrations of CuNPs (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 of soil) were added into the soil mixed with 3.5 mg kg-1 K2Cr2O7 and the pots were placed in a growth chamber for 30 days. The results revealed that the CuNPs, at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 of soil, augmented plant growth, biomass, and cellular antioxidants contents, whereas decreased the reactive oxygen species and Cr translocation from soil to roots and shoots as compared to control plants. Overall, the results revealed that the soil amendment of CuNPs could immobilize the Cr in the soil to prevent its translocation to the upper plant parts and support wheat growth by relieving cellular oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cromo/farmacocinética , Cobre/química , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Cromo/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033366

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies produce a huge amount of biological data, which poses various issues such as requirements of high processing time and large memory. This research focuses on the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genome sequences. Currently, SNPs detection algorithms face several issues, e.g., computational overhead cost, accuracy, and memory requirements. In this research, we propose a fast and scalable workflow that integrates Bowtie aligner with Hadoop based Heap SNP caller to improve the SNPs detection in genome sequences. The proposed workflow is validated through benchmark datasets obtained from publicly available web-portals, e.g., NCBI and DDBJ DRA. Extensive experiments have been performed and the results obtained are compared with Bowtie and BWA aligner in the alignment phase, while compared with GATK, FaSD, SparkGA, Halvade, and Heap in SNP calling phase. Experimental results analysis shows that the proposed workflow outperforms existing frameworks e.g., GATK, FaSD, Heap integrated with BWA and Bowtie aligners, SparkGA, and Halvade. The proposed framework achieved 22.46% more efficient F-score and 99.80% consistent accuracy on average. More, comparatively 0.21% mean higher accuracy is achieved. Moreover, SNP mining has also been performed to identify specific regions in genome sequences. All the frameworks are implemented with the default configuration of memory management. The observations show that all workflows have approximately same memory requirement. In the future, it is intended to graphically show the mined SNPs for user-friendly interaction, analyze and optimize the memory requirements as well.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136958, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032990

RESUMO

The addition of biochar to agricultural fields has been widely studied, but most of these studies have emphasized its effects by growing a single type of crop over short- to long-term time spans. Additionally, a limited number of studies have focused on the soil microbial community composition with respect to biochar addition in legume-cereal crop rotation. In this study, we examined soil microbial community structures by adding biochar (0, 5, and 10 t ha-1) and fertilizer (nitrogen-N, phosphorous-P and potassium-K) during 2 cycles of mash bean and wheat rotations. The results showed that the bacterial (16S rRNA) gene abundance was often increased by biochar addition in the presence of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) but not wheat. When the soil received fertilizer, the bacterial gene abundance was less responsive to biochar addition. Fungal (ITS rRNA) copy numbers were enhanced by biochar and fertilizer in presence of wheat but were decreased in the presence of mash bean. Fertilizer addition also resulted in less change in ITS genes after biochar addition. Microbial functional groups including Gram+, Gram- and Pseudomonas bacteria were stimulated by biochar or fertilizer only in mash bean soils, while mycorrhizae were significantly increased by biochar in wheat soils. Although biochar addition affected soil properties, microbial community assays were not greatly altered by these physicochemical properties. In conclusion, the crop type played a decisive role, rather than biochar or fertilizer addition, in shaping microbial community structures (16S and ITS phyla) during crop rotation.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Microbiota , Carvão Vegetal , Grão Comestível , Fertilizantes , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106249, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987315

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to determine the optimal timing of artificial insemination and vaginal mucous characteristics relative to the onset of estrus in goats. Does (n = 257) were estrous synchronized using hormonal treatments. Intracervical inseminations with fresh semen were performed at 0, 12, 24 and 36 h after the onset of estrus. Characteristics of vaginal mucus (i.e., color, consistency, and volume) were observed and graded at the time of AI to calculate cumulative mucous score. The vaginal electrical resistance (VER) was recorded (Draminski® detector) at the time of AI. Pregnancy rate was less (P < 0.05) when inseminations occurred at 0 h (28.6%) compared with 12 (58.3%) and 24 h (56.4%) after the onset of estrus; however, pregnancy rate at 36 h (54.5%) did not differ (P> 0.05) compared with inseminations at 0, 12 or 24 h after estrous onset. Relative odds for pregnancy rate at 12, 24 and 36 h were 5.24, 5.20 and 3.29 times greater compared with 0 h. Cumulative mucous score varied (P < 0.05) relative to the onset of estrus and correlated well (P < 0.05) with the color and consistency than volume of the mucus. The VER was less (P < 0.05) at 12 than 0 and 36 h after estrous onset. In conclusion, goats can be inseminated between 12-36 h after the onset of estrus; however, the chances of pregnancy are greater with inseminations at the 12 or 24 h time periods.

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