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1.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 113-119, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672147

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effect of healthy volunteers different work rate increasing rate cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on the peak exercise core indicators and the changes of respiratory exchange rate (RER) during exercise, to explore the effect of different work rate increasing rate on CPET peak exercise related indicators. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to a moderate (30 W/min), a relatively low (10 W/min) and relatively high (60 W/min) three different work rate increasing rate CPET on different working days in a week. The main peak exercise core indicators of CPET data: VO2, VCO2, work rate (WR), breathe frequency(Bf), tidal volume (VT), ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), Oxygen pulse(O2P), exercise time and RER for each period of CPET were analyzed using standard methods. The ANOVA test and paired two-two comparison was performed on the difference of each index in the three groups of different work rate increasing rate. Results: Compared with the moderate work rate group, the peak work rate of the lower and higher work rate groups were relatively lower and higher, respectively ((162.04±41.59) W/min vs (132.92±34.55) W/min vs (197.42±46.14) W/min, P<0.01); exercise time was significantly prolonged and shortened ((5.69 ± 1.33) min vs (13.49 ± 3.43) min vs (3.56 ± 0.76) min, P<0.01); peak RER (1.27 ± 0.07 vs 1.18 ± 0.06 vs 1.33 ± 0.08, P<0.01~P<0.05) and the recovery RER maximum (1.72±0.16 vs 1.61±0.11 vs 1.81±0.14, P<0.01~P<0.05) were significantly decreased and increased. Conclusion: Different work rate increasing rate of CPET significantly change the Peak Work Rate, exercise time, Peak RER, and maximum RER during recovery. The CPET operator should choose an individualized work rate increasing rate that is appropriate for the subject, and also does not use a fixed RER value as a basis for ensuring safety, the subject's extreme exercise, and early termination of exercise.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio
2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 120-124, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672148

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effect of healthy volunteers different work rate increasing rate cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on the sub-peak parameters . Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to a moderate (30 W/min), a relatively low (10 W/min) and relatively high (60 W/min) three different work rate increasing rate CPET on different working days in a week. The core indicators related to CPET sub-peak exercise of 12 volunteers were compared according to standard Methods: anaerobic threshold (AT), oxygen uptake per unit power (ΔVO2/ΔWR), oxygen uptake eficiency plateau,(OUEP), the lowest average of 90 s of carbon dioxide ventilation equivalent (Lowest VE/ VCO2), the slope of carbon dioxide ventilation equivalent (VE/ VCO2 Slope) and intercept and anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake ventilation efficiency value (VO2/ VE@AT) and the anaerobic threshold carbon dioxide ventilation equivalent value (VE/ VCO2@AT). Paired t test was performed on the difference of each parameter in the three groups of different work rate increasing rate. Results: Compared with the relatively low and relatively high work rate increasing rate group, the moderate work rate increasing rate group uptake eficiency plateau, (42.22±4.76 vs 39.54±3.30 vs 39.29±4.29) and the lowest average of 90 s of carbon dioxide ventilation equivalent (24.13±2.88 vs 25.60±2.08 vs 26.06±3.05) was significantly better, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); Compared with the moderate work rate increasing rate group, the oxygen uptake per unit work rate of the relatively low and relatively high work rate increasing rate group increased and decreased significantly ((8.45±0.66 vs 10.04±0.58 vs 7.16±0.60) ml/(min·kg)), difference of which was statistically significant (P<0.05); the anaerobic threshold did not change significantly ((0.87±0.19 vs 0.87±0.19 vs 0.89±0.19) L/min), the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Relatively low and relatively high power increase rate can significantly change the CPET sub-peak sports related indicators such as the effectiveness of oxygen uptake ventilation, the effectiveness of carbon dioxide exhaust ventilation, and the oxygen uptake per unit work rate. Compared with the moderate work rate increasing rate CPET, the lower and higher work rate increasing rate significantly reduces the effectiveness of oxygen uptake ventilation and the effectiveness of carbon dioxide exhaust ventilation in healthy individuals. The standardized operation of CPET requires the selection of a work rate increasing rate suitable for the subject, so that the CPET sub-peak related indicators can best reflect the true functional state of the subject.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio , Limiar Anaeróbio , Humanos , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Ventilação Pulmonar
3.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 125-134, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672149

RESUMO

Objective: The new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine, which describes the integrative regulation of respiratory, circulatory and metabolic systems in human body, generates the hypothesis of that breath is the origin of variability of circulatory parameters. We investigated the origin of heart rate variability by analyzing relationship between the breath and heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 8 normal subjects (NS) and 10 patients of chronic diseases without sleep apnea (CDs-no-SA). After signed the informed consent form, they performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in Fuwai Hospital and monitored polysomnography (PSG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) during sleep since 2014. We dominantly analyzed the correlation between the respiratory cycle during sleep and the heart rate variability cycle of the ECG R-R interval. The HRV cycle included the HR increase from the lowest to the highest and decrease from the highest to the lowest point. The number of HRV (HRV-n), average HRV time and other parameters were calculated. The breath cycle included complete inhalation and subsequent exhalation. The number of breath (B-n), average breath time and other breath parameters were analyzed and calculated. We analyzed each person's relationship between breath and HRV; and the similarities and differences between the NS and CDs-no-SA groups. Independent sample t test was used for statistical analysis, with P<0.05. Results: CPET core parameter such as Peak VO2 (83.8±8.9)% in NS were significantly higher than that (70.1±14.9)% in patients of chronic diseases without sleep apnea (P<0.05), but there was no difference between their AHI (1.7±1.3) in NS and AHI (2.9±1.2) in CDs-no-SA (P>0.05). The B-n and the HRV-n (6581.63±1411.90 vs 6638.38±1459.46), the average B time and the average HRV time (4.19±0.57)s vs (4.16±0.62)s in NS were similar without significant difference (P>0.05). The comparison of the numbers in CDs-no-SA were the number (7354.50±1443.50 vs 7291.20±1399.31) and the average times ((4.20±0.69)s vs (4.23±0.68)s) of B and HRV were similar without significant difference (P>0.05). The ratios of B-n/HRV-n in NS and CDs-no-SA were (0.993±0.027 vs 1.008±0.024) and both were close to 1 and similar without significant difference (P>0.05). The average magnitude of HRV in NS ((5.74±3.21) bpm) was significantly higher than that in CDs-no-SA ((2.88±1.44) bpm) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Regardless of the functional status of NS and CDs-no-SA, there is a similar consistency between B and HRV. The origin of initiating factors of HRV is the respiration.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Doença Crônica , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono
4.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 135-141, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672150

RESUMO

Objective: Based on the hypothesis that respiration causes variability of circulatory indicators proposed by the holistic integrated physiology and medicine theory, the correlation between respiration and heart rate variability during sleep in chronically ill patients with abnormal sleep breathing is analyzed. Methods: Eleven chronically ill patients with abnormal sleep breathing and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 times/hr are recruited. After signing the informed consent, they completed the standardized symptomatic restrictive extreme exercise cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and sleep breathing monitoring Calculate and analyze the rules of respiratory nasal airflow and ECG RR interval heart rate variability during the oscillatory breathing (OB) phase and the normal steady breathing phase of the patient during sleep, and use the independent sample t test to compare with normal people and no sleep breathing abnormalities in the same period in this laboratory. Of patients with chronic diseases are more similar and different. Results: The peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) of CPET in chronic patients with abnormal sleep apnea were (70.8±13.6)% Pred and (71.2±6.1)% Pred; 5 cases of CPET had exercise induced oscillatory breathing (EIOB), 6 An example is unstable breathing, which indicates that the overall functional status is lower than normal. In this group of patients with chronic diseases, AHI (28.8±10.0) beats/h, the ratio of the total time of abnormal sleep breathing to the total time of sleep (0.38±0.25); the length of the OB cycle (51.1±14.4)s. The ratio (Bn/HRV-B-n) of the number of breathing cycles in the normal and steady breathing period to the number of heart rate variability cycles in this group of patients with chronic diseases is 1.00±0.04, and the CV (SD of HRV-B-M/x) is (0.33 ±0.11), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) did not decrease significantly, the average amplitude of heart rate variability (HRV-B-M) of each respiratory cycle rhythm was (2.64±1.59) bpm, although it was lower than normal people (P<0.05) , But it was similar to chronic patients without sleep apnea (P>0.05). In this group of patients with chronic diseases, the ratio of the number of respiratory cycles to the number of heart rate variability cycles (OB-Bn/OB-HRV-B-n) during OB is (1.22±0.18), and the average amplitude of heart rate variability for each respiratory cycle rhythm in OB (OB -HRV-B-M) is (3.56±1.57)bpm and its variability (OB-CV = SD of OB-HRV-B-M/x) is (0.59±0.28), the average amplitude of heart rate variability in each OB cycle rhythm (OB-HRV-OB-M) is (13.75±4.25)bpm, SpO2 decreases significantly during hypoventilation during OB, and the average decrease in SpO2 during OB (OB-SpO2-OB-M) is (4.79±1.39)%. The OB-Bn/OB-HRV-B-n ratio, OB-HRV-OB-M and OB-SpO2-OB-M in the OB period are all significantly higher than the corresponding indicators in the normal stable breathing period Large (P<0.01). Although OB-HRV-B-M has no statistically significant difference compared with HRV-B-M in normal stable breathing period (P>0.05), its variability OB-CV is significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusion: The heart rate variability of chronic patients with abnormal sleep breathing in the OB phase is greater than that of the normal stable breathing period. When the breathing pattern changes, the heart rate variability also changes significantly. The number of breathing cycles in the stable breathing period is equal to the number of heart rate variability cycles.The ratio is the same as that of normal people and chronically ill patients without sleep apnea, confirming that heart rate variability is respiratory origin; and the reduction of heart rate variability relative to the respiratory cycle during OB is directly caused by hypopnea or apnea at this time, and heart rate variability is also breathing source.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Doença Crônica , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Polissonografia , Respiração
5.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 147-153, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672152

RESUMO

Objective: To verify that the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed by clinical subjects is the maximum extreme exercise, we designed The Max test(Max)during clinical CPET. We used Max to verify the accuracy of the quantitative CPET evaluation result, and whether it is feasible and safe to use the specific value of a certain index as the standard for stopping CPET. Methods: Two hundred and sixteen cases from Fuwai Hospital were selected during June 2017 to January 2019,including 41 healthy person(control group) and 175with cardiovascular diseases(patient group),The patients had a CPET peak RER ≤ 1.10, or the peak heart rate and peak blood pressure were basically non-responsive.The Max was first attempted in 60 subjects,and this study is further expanded . When the CPET ended, they had a 5-minute break, then the Max, during which, they cycled with a velocity of ≥ 60 r/min, at a constant intensity equivalent to to 130% of peak work,until exhausted.The difference and percentage difference between the peak heart rate and the peak oxygen uptake were calculated. ①If the percentage difference of heart rate and oxygen uptake are all less than -10%,then the Max is defined as failure,otherwise it is succesful. 2 If the percentage difference is between -10%~10%, then the Max is successful, which proved that the CPET is precise.③If the difference is ≥10%, the Max is successful, which proves that the CPET is non-extreme exercise. Results: Patient group's Peak VO2(L/min,ml/(min·kg)),anaerobic threshold (L/min,ml/(min·kg),%pred),Peak VO2/HR(ml/beat, % pred),Peak RER,Peak SBP,Peak WR,peak heart rate,OUEP (ratio,%pred) were lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).The VE/ VCO2 Slope (ratio,%pred)and Lowest VE/ VCO2(ratio,%pred) were higher in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.05).No adverse events occurred during the CPET and Max in all cases. Among the 216 cases,Max was successful in 198 cases(91.7%).CPET was proved to be maximum extreme exercise for 182 cases,non-maximum extreme exercise for 16 cases,and failed in 18 cases(8.3%).Conclusion: For CPET with a low peak RER and a maximum challenge,the Max can confirm the accuracy of the objective quantitative assessment of CPET. Max is safe and feasible,and that deserved further research and clinical application.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Limiar Anaeróbio , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio
6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 154-161, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672153

RESUMO

Objective: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to investigate the exercise pathophysiology of mitral regurgitation. Methods: 26 patients with moderate and severe mitral regurgitation who completed standardized extreme exercise CPET under strict quality control after signing informed consent since 2016, and 11 normal subjects in the same period as the control group. The core indexes of CPET were analyzed and calculated according to the standard method and compared with normal subjects for intergroup statistical independent sample t-test. At the same time, the patients with heart failure and exercise oscillation breathing (OB) were divided into two subgroups: 11 cases without heart failure, 15 cases with heart failure, 8 cases with non-OB and 18 cases with OB, and their similarities and differences were compared between each subgroup. Results: The core indexes of CPET, such as peak oxygen uptake (85.60 ±9.06)%pred and anaerobic threshold (AT, (87.59 ±15.38)%pred) were normal. The peak oxygen uptake of CPET in patients with mitral regurgitation was (48.15 ±12.11)%pred, peak oxygen pulse was (66.57 ±12.20)%pred, AT was (56.75 ±11.50)%pred, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau was (88.24 ±16.42)%pred , lowest value of carbon dioxide ventilatory efficiency was (125.89 ±27.05)%pred and slope of carbon dioxide ventilatory efficiency was (128.31 ±31.68)%pred. Among them, only oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP) was normal and low, and the other indexes were significantly abnormal. There were significant differences between the patients and the control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the non-OB group and the OB group, but there was significant difference between the non-OB group and the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the non-heart failure group and the heart failure group, but there was significant difference between the non-heart failure group and the control group. Conclusion: All the core indexes of cardiopulmonary exercise are significantly abnormal in patients with mitral regurgitation who are significantly lower than those in normal subjects except for the low effectiveness of oxygen ventilation. And with or without heart failure and OB did not affect the cardiopulmonary function.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Relatório de Pesquisa
7.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 177-188, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672156

RESUMO

Objective: To observe and study the resting radial artery pulse wave and changes after a single individualized exercise in patients with long-term chronic diseases. Methods: We selected 16 patients with chronic disease (disease duration ≥5 years) who have been clearly diagnosed as hypertension and/or diabetes and/or hyperlipemia, and first completed the symptom-restricted limit cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Then a single individualized exercise with Δ50% power as the exercise intensity was completed within one week after CPET. We measured and recorded 50s pulse wave data before exercise and 10 min, 20 min, 30 min after exercise, then obtained each pulse wave characteristic point: starting point (B), main wave peak point (P1), trough of a repulse point (PL), crest of a repulse point (P2), and end point (E). The raw data of the abscissa (time T) and ordinate (amplitude Y) corresponding to each point were derived from the instrument. We treated the end point E of the previous pulse wave as the start point B of the next wave, returned TB to zero, and got the main observation indicators: YB, YP1, YPL, YP2 and TP1, TPL, TP2, TE, and calculated out ΔYP1, ΔYPL, ΔYP2, TE-TPL, (TE-TPL)/TPL, pulse rate, S1, S2 ,ΔYP2-ΔYPL and TP2-TPL as secondary observation indicators. Then calculated the occurrence rate of dicrotic wave with obvious crest. Finally we analyzed individually the 50 s pulse wave data of each patient before and after exercise, and then averaged all the data for overall analysis. Results: ①16 patients with long-term chronic diseases (males 14, females 2), ages (53.7±12.6, 28~80) years old, height (171.7±6.6, 155~183) cm, body weight (80.0±13.5, 54~98) kg. 2YB (91.5±10.8, 71.1~108.6), YP1 (203.6±24.7, 162.7~236.3), YPL (127.1±6.2, 118.2~140.3), YP2 (125.9±6.2, 115.7~137.7), TP1 ( 137.2±22.3, 103.0~197.1), TPL (368.7±29.5, 316.3~434.0), TP2 (422.7±32.8, 376.9~494.7), TE (883.4±95.0, 672.2~1003.3), ΔYP1 (112.1±33.8, 60.3~ 157.5), ΔYPL (35.5±14.2, 17.5~66.2), ΔYP2 (34.4±13.3, 20.0~62.9), TE-TPL (514.6±85.4, 341.4~621.9), (TE-TPL)/TPL (1.4±0.2, 1.0~1.7), pulse rate (68.8±8.4, 59.8~89.3), S1 (0.9±0.3, 0.4~1.4), S2 (0.0±0.0, -0.1~0.0), ΔYP2-ΔYPL (-1.2±2.6,- 6.5 ~ 2.5), TP2-TPL (54.0 ± 10.8, 33.6 ~ 81.1). ③10min after exercise, YB, YPL, YP2, TPL, TE decreased, YP1 increased. ΔYPL, TE-TPL, (TE-TPL)/TPL decreased, and ΔYP1, pulse rate, S1, ΔYP2-ΔYPL, TP2 -TPL increased (all P<0.05). The change trend of pulse wave at 20min and 30min after exercise was consistent with that at 10min after exercise, but most indicators gradually recovered to the resting level before exercise from 10 min. ④The appearance rate of dicrotic wave with obvious crest in 16 patients with long-term chronic disease at rest was 28.6%, and the appearance rate of 10 min (65.7%), 20 min (77.1%), 30 min (73.7%) after exercise was significantly increased (all P< 0.01). In 6 patients, the incidence of dicrotic waves with obvious peaks after exercise was significantly increased, and it could continue until 30 minutes. In 3 patients, the incidence increased significantly 10 minutes after exercise, and began to decrease at 20 minutes. In 1 patient, the rate of appearance only started to increase 20 minutes after exercise. In 2 patients, the incidence increased 10 minutes after exercise and then decreased. In 1 patient, the rate of occurrence increased briefly 20 minutes after exercise and then decreased. The incidence of 1 patient dropped after exercise and began to rise at 20 minutes. In 2 cases, the incidence rate did not increase after exercise, and it increased slightly after 30 minutes. Conclusion: In patients with long-term chronic diseases, the radial artery pulse wave is short and the dicrotic wave is not obvious or even disappears. After a single precise power exercise, the main wave increases, the position of the dicrotic wave decreases, and the amplitude increases. The specific response should be analyzed individually.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 202-207, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672159

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation protocol centered with personalized - exercise training (ET) on further improvement of holistic function in patients with stable angina after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: 20 patients who were diagnosed with stable angina in Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital from June 2016 to December 2019, were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and ET group (n=10). All patients were received PCI selectively. After PCI, patients in Control group were treated with conventional cardiac rehabilitation without ET; patients in ET group were treated with ET-based cardiac rehabilitation for 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters, echocardiogram and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) of 2 groups of patients were recorded respectively before PCI, 2 weeks after PCI and 12 weeks after ET. Results: All patients in 2 groups finished symptom limited maximum CPET, and patients in ET group finished 12 weeks - ET safely without complications. Before PCI and 2 weeks after PCI, there were no differences in parameters including anaerobic threshold (AT), peak oxygen uptake, peak oxygen pulse, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and 6MWD between control group and ET group(P>0.05); after 12-week treatment, AT(ml/min,ml/(min·kg)), peak oxygen uptake(ml/(min·kg)), peak oxygen pulse(ml/beat) and 6MWD of patients in ET group were higher significantly than those of patients in control group (P<0.05). In ET group, the variables including AT (ml/min、ml/(min·kg)、%pred), peak oxygen uptake(ml/min,ml/(min·kg),%pred), peak oxygen pulse (ml/beat) and 6MWD of patients after 12-week ET were significantly higher than those of patients before PCI treatment (P<0.05); notably, AT (ml/(min·kg)) and peak oxygen uptake (ml/(min·kg)) of patients in ET group were significantly higher after 12-week ET program compared with those of patients 2 weeks after PCI ( P<0.05). In Control group, AT(ml/min)and peak oxygen pulse(ml/beat)of patients after 12-week treatment were higher than those of patients before PCI ( P<0.05), but there were no difference between 2 weeks after PCI and 12-week treatment ( P>0.05). Conclusion: Personalized - exercise training after PCI could further improve the cardiac function and exercise endurance, ET - based cardiac rehabilitation is an important part of secondary prevention for patients after PCI, which needs to be widely promoted.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doença das Coronárias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 208-218, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672160

RESUMO

Objective: Under the guidance of the new theory of holistic integrated physiology and medicine, the effect of individualized accurate exercise program on the overall functional state was studied according to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods: Li xx, female, 31 years old, has a fast heart rate since childhood (90~100 bpm), usually feel cold, especially in autumn and winter, and general health good. CPET was performed after signing the informed consent form at Fuwai Hospital in September 2019. Peak oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold (AT), and peak cardiac output were (69~72)% pred, respectively, and the oxygen uptake ventilation efficiency and carbon dioxide exhaust ventilation efficiency were basically normal (96~100)% pred. The resting heart rate was fast, the blood pressure was low, the blood pressure response was weak during exercise, and the heart rate was mainly increased. The holistic integrated physiology medical theory pointed out that she was in weak health and heart weakness was the main manifestation. CPET was used to guide individualized precise exercise intensity titration, combine continuous beat-by-beat blood pressure, ECG, pulse and blood glucose dynamic monitoring to formulate an holisticplan of individualized quantitative exercise .Reexamine CPET after 8 weeks' strengthening management. Results: After 8 weeks of intensive holistic management, the limbs were warm and the cold symptoms disappeared. Re-examination of CPET peak oxygen uptake, AT and peak cardiac output were (90~98)% pred, which increased by (30~36)% respectively, and the holistic weak functional status was significantly improved; basically normal oxygen uptake ventilation efficiency and carbon dioxide exhaust ventilation efficiency also increased by (10~37)% respectively; resting heart rate and blood pressure basically returned to normal, and blood pressure and heart rate response during exercise were normal. Continuous ambulatory blood glucose monitoring indicated that the average blood glucose level decreased slightly and became more stable. Repeated measurement results of continuous ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure also indicated a decrease in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure during rest, exercise and during sleep, and radial pulse wave. The amplitude of the dicrotic wave increases and becomes more pronounced. Conclusion: The new theoretical system to guide CPET to formulate an holistic plan for individualized precision exercise can safely and effectively enhance myocardial contractility, increase stroke volume, increase blood pressure, lower heart rate, stabilize and slightly lower blood glucose, and improve holistic functional status.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Criança , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos
10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 219-224, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672161

RESUMO

Objective: Observe the increased anatomical dead space of the mask, summarize the law of exercise induced oscillatory breathing (EIOB) in the results of CPET's new 9 figure, and analyze its incidence and age groups that are prone to oscillatory breathing. Methods: After signed the informed consent form by guardian, 501 children from pre-school to middle-school, aged 3~14 year, performed Harbor-UCLA standard protocol CPET with strict quality control in the CPET laboratory of Liaocheng Children's Hospital since 2014. CPET data was interpreted second by second from the breath by breath collection, averaged by 10s and then display by 9 plots. We analyzed the trends, pattern, incidence and age difference for EIOB and gas leakage. Results: The incidence of EIOB was the highest in the 3 to 6-year-old group, which was 42%. The 7 to 10-year-old group was 29.4% and the 11- to 14-year-old group was 29.9%. The three groups were tested by chi-square (x2=7.512), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). 14 out of 508 children had air leakage during CPET, the incidence rate was 2.7%. Conclusion: The phenomenon of oscillatory breathing (OB) in children may be caused by the increased anatomical dead space of the mask, and it is not caused by disease. To improve the quality of CPET and to reduce clinical misdiagnosis, it is recommended to use a mouthpiece to decrease the dead space rather than the musk.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Respiração , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672456

RESUMO

Objective: The fetus has no actual respiration, and the newborn begins to breathe after birth. We assume that the first breath dominantly generated by hypoxia. In this study, the changes and lowest limit of blood oxygen partial pressureof umbilical artery (PuaO2) after chemoreceptor were analyzed to explore the mechanism of neonatal spontaneous breathing. Methods: With signed consent form by all fetal parents before birth, 14 newborns successfully completed the umbilical artery or vein catheterization and drawn blood according to the heartbeat. All blood samples analyzed by blood gas analyzer,calculated and analyzed the similarities and differences between umbilical vein(Puv) and umbilical artery(Pua). Results: Although we completed 14 newborns, there were only 9 cases of umbilical artery samples and 8 cases of umbilical vein samples were collected. Only 3 cases collected both Pua and Puv blood samples at the same time (see serial paper II). PuaO2 in gradually decreased with time (heartbeat frequency), until Pua contracted after spontaneous breathing produced about 8~10 heartbeats, and then could not get enough blood samples. Only 3 newborns were able to take blood samples after spontaneous breathing for 8~10 heartbeats, and their PuaO2 were jumped to 186.0, 137.0 and 93.8 mmHg respectively. The mean value of PuaO2 was (25.94±6.79, 18.04~37.51)mmHg, the highest value was (29.11±6.46, 23.00~45.90)mmHg, and the lowest value was (21.34±5.54, 14.00~33.60)mmHg. Although PuvO2 decreased gradually with time (heartbeat) too, most of them also showed the tendency of alternately rising and falling with the regularity of mother's respiration. The mean value of PuvO2 was (53.35±21.35, 32.56~100.73)mmHg, the highest value was (90.38±48.44, 43.40~153.00)mmHg, and the lowest value was (36.96±14.90, 24.80~73.80)mmHg. Although there were large individual differences, the mean, highest and lowest values of PuvO2 were significantly higher than those of PuaO2 (P<0.05); although PuvCO2 slightly lower than PuaCO2, it was no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: PuaO2 decreases gradually with time before spontaneous breathing after the delivered fetus as a newborn, and it induces the first inhalation to start spontaneous breathing when it reaches the threshold of triggering breathing.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Artérias Umbilicais , China , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672457

RESUMO

Objective: In order to explore the mechanism of neonatal spontaneous breathing, the difference of oxygen and carbon dioxide between umbilical cord arteries and veins before the start of spontaneous breathing after birth has been analyzed among people. In this part, the related information is analyzed individually. Methods: After all fetal parents signed the informed consent before birth, and before the newborn was born and did not breathe, the umbilical cord was exposed as quickly as possible, and the heparinized arterial indwelling needle was inserted into the umbilical artery and umbilical vein in the direction of newborn and placenta, and then blood was taken continuously. Although dozens of mothers were selected,but only 3 cases were collected from Pua and Puv blood samplers at the same time for blood gas analysis and determination, and the differences and dynamic changes of umbilical vein and umbilical artery were calculated and analyzed. Results: In all 3 none spontaneous breathing newborns,PuvO2 was significantly higher than PuaO2 at the same time (P<0.01), with an average difference of (24.17±7.09) mmHg; while PuvCO2 was significantly lower than PuaCO2 (all P<0.01), with an average difference of (-7.67±3.70) mmHg.The difference of Puv-uaO2 was significantly higher than those of Puv-uaCO2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: PuaO2 decreases gradually with time (heartbeat frequency) before spontaneous breathing after the delivered fetus as a newborn, and it induces the first inhalation to start spontaneous breathing when it reaches the threshold of triggering breathing.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Artérias Umbilicais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial , Gravidez
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672458

RESUMO

Objective: To observe and study the resting radial artery pulse wave and the pulse wave changes after a single individualized exercise in young healthy normal subjects. Methods: We selected 16 young healthy graduate students, advanced training doctors, and visiting scholars from Fuwai Hospital without any disease diagnosis and low daily exercise. They first completed the symptom-restricted limit cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). A single individualized exercise with Δ50% power as the exercise intensity was completed within one week after CPET. We measured and recorded 50 s pulse wave data before exercise and 10 min, 20 min, 30min after exercise, let the instrument automatically fix the point and then manually recheck to obtain each pulse wave characteristic point: starting point (B), main wave peak point (P1), trough of a repulse point (PL), crest of a repulse point (P2), and end point (E), and the raw data of the abscissa (time T) and ordinate (amplitude Y) corresponding to each point were derived from the instrument. We treated the end point E of the previous pulse wave as the start point B of the next wave, returned TB to zero, and got the main observation indicators: YB, YP1, YPL, YP2 and TP1, TPL, TP2, TE, and calculated out ΔYP1 (YP1-YB), ΔYPL (YPL-YB), ΔYP2 (YP2-YB), TE-TPL, (TE-TPL)/TPL, pulse rate, S1 (the slope of main wave ascending branch), S2 (the slope of dicrotic ascending branch), ΔYP2-ΔYPL and TP2-TPL as secondary observation indicators; defined the dicrotic wave with obvious crest as YP2>YPL, and calculated the occurrence rate of dicrotic wave with obvious crest (number of waveforms with YP2>YPL in 50 s /total number of waveforms×100%). We analyzed individually the 50 s pulse wave data of each subject before and after exercise, and then averaged all the data for overall analysis. Results: ①16 healthy young subjects (males 10, females 6), age (30.6±6.4, 24~48) years old; height (170.4±8.2, 160~188) cm; body mass (63.9±12.8, 43~87) kg. ②YB (87.2±5.8, 78.1~95.9), YP1 (223.5±15.8, 192.7~242.3), YPL (122.8±7.8, 110.0~133.8), YP2 (131.4±4.9, 116.7~137.5), TP1 (126.2±42.2, 94.2~280.0), TPL (360.2±44.8, 311.5~507.3), TP2 (432.4±50.8, 376.2~589.0), TE (899.7±86.9, 728.3~1042.0). ΔYP1 (136.3±19.9, 96.8~ 158.6), ΔYPL (35.7±10.7, 16.0~55.7), ΔYP2 (44.3±8.1, 22.5~56.5), TE-TPL (539.5±79.3, 405.9~691.3), (TE-TPL)/TPL (1.5±0.3, 0.8~2.0), pulse rate (67.3±6.6, 57.6~82.4), S1 (1.1±0.2, 0.6~1.4), S2 (0.1±0.1, 0.0~0.2), ΔYP2-ΔYPL (8.6±6.1, 0.9 ~19.8), TP2-TPL (72.3±19.9, 38.3~108.4). ③10 min after exercise, YPL (97.0±13.2 vs 122.8±7.8), YP2 (109.6±12.8 vs 131.4±4.9), ΔYPL (6.6±9.8 vs 35.7±10.7), ΔYP2 (19.3±11.2 vs 44.3±8.1), TE (667.8±123.1 vs 899.7±86.9), TE-TPL (330.2±128.4 vs 539.5±79.3), (TE-TPL)/TPL (1.0±0.4 vs 1.5±0.3) decreased, while the pulse rate (92.2± 14.0 vs 67.3±6.6), ΔYP2-ΔYPL (12.7±9.7 vs 8.6±6.1), TP2-TPL (98.0±38.1 vs 72.3±19.9) increased (all P<0.05). The trend of pulse wave changes at 20 min and 30 min after exercise was consistent with that at 10 min after exercise, but from 20 min, most of the indicators gradually recovered to the resting level before exercise. ④The incidence of dicrotic waves with obvious peaks in 16 young healthy persons at rest was 94.5%, and increased at 10 min (96.3%), 20 min (98.5%), and 30 min (99.8%) after exercise (all P<0.01). Among them, the incidence of dicrotic waves with obvious peaks before and after exercise was maintained at about 100% in 10 subjects. The appearance rate of 2 cases had reached 100% before exercise, but it decreased at 10 minutes after exercise, and then continued to increase, at 30 minutes recovered to 100%. Three subjects had a low resting rate and started to increase after exercise. In 1 case, the rate was low only 20 minutes after exercise, considering the influence of human factors. Conclusion: The influence of exercise on the pulse wave of normal people is mainly reflected in the dicrotic wave. On the whole, after a single precise power exercise, the position of the dicrotic wave is reduced, the amplitude is deepened, and the appearance rate of the dicrotic wave with obvious crest is generally increased, and this change can be maintained for at least 30 minutes. From an individual point of view, the response trend of each subject is different.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico , Artérias , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672459

RESUMO

Objective: Insufcient exercise blood pressure response(blunted ABPR) and lower blood pressure during the recovery period (LBP)after exercise are common abnormalities in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The purpose of this study was to analyze the related factors of these two types of abnormal blood pressure response in HCM patients and their relationship with cardiopulmonary function. Methods: A total of 219 consecutive HCM patients who underwent CPET in Fuwai hospital were recruited from April 1, 2018 to Jan 31, 2020 with a complete clinical assessment, including electrocardiography, HOLTER, rest echocardiography and cardiac MRI. One hundred and eleven healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers enrolled as control group. Results: The incidences of blunted ABPR and LBP in HCM patients were much higher than normal control group (8.7% vs 1.8%, P=0.016; 6.8% vs 0.0%, P=0.003, respectively). In HCM group, patients with blunted ABPR combined more coronary artery disease (CAD) (P=0.029), pulmonary hypertension (PH) (P=0.002) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (P=0.036) compared with patients without blunted ABPR. Compared with HCM patients without LBP, the patients with LBP had higher rest left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient (P=0.017) and left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.043), more incidence of LVOT obstructive (P=0.015) and systolic anterior motion (P=0.022). After Logistic regression analysis, CAD and PH were independent factor of blunted ABPR, while LBP was only independently associated with rest LVOT gradient. Blunted ABPR was associated with lower Peak VO2, peak heart rate and hear rate reserve, and higher NT-proBNP (P=0.019), VE/VO2 (P=0.000). LBP was not associated with any index of cardiopulmonary function. Conclusion: The incidences of blunted ABPR and LBP in HCM patients were much higher than normal control group. In HCM patients, CAD and PH were independent determinants of blunted ABPR, while LBP was only independently associated with rest LVOT gradient. Patients with blunted ABPR had lower cardiopulmonary function, but LBP was not associated cardiopulmonary function.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Teste de Esforço , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672464

RESUMO

Objective: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) and electrocardiograph (ECG) are the vital components of the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). This study is to investigate clinical characteristics of abnormal PFT as pulmonary ventilation dysfunction, small airway dysfunction and gas exchange (diffusion) dysfunction. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted The 76 698 outpatient subjects who received health examination from December 2016 to February 2019 in Henan Provincial People's Hospital were recruited. The results of the ECG, PFT were compared among different sex and age sub-groups. Then the severity of their impaired PFT were analyzed. Results: Among 76 698 subjects, 39 237 subjects were male and 37 461 subjects were female. There were total 71.04% patients with abnormal ECG. There were total 28 273 (36.86%) patients with abnormal pulmonary ventilation function. The 17 570 patients (44.78%) (17 570/39 237) were male, 10 703 patients (28.57%) (10 703/37 461) were female, both the number and percentage of abnormal pulmonary ventilation function in male was significantly more than these in female (P<0.01). The percentage detectable rates of male were significant higher than that of female in all the different age sub-groups: 20~29, 30~39, 40~49, 50~59, 60~69 and ≥70 year (P<0.01). The total detectable abnormal rate of small airway dysfunction were 43 160 and 56.26% (43 160/76 698). The 57.73% (22 661/39 237) in male was significantly higher than 54.72% (20 499/37 461) in female (x2=74.87, P<0.01). The detectable abnormal rate of small airway dysfunction in male were lower than female in 30~39 year and 40~49year sub-groups (P<0.05), but were significantly higher in 20~29, 50~59, 60~69, and ≥70 yr sub-groups (P<0.05). Abnormal gas exchange (diffusion) dysfunction were detected in 28.54% (12 940/45 107) subjects. They were 7 433 (30.55%) in male,and 5 507 (26.50%)in female with significant gender difference (P<0.05). The abnormal diffusion detectable rate in 30~39 year sub-group was significant higher in female than in male (P<0.05), and were slightly higher without significant difference in 20~29 and 40~49 year sub-groups (P>0.05), but were significant lower in female than male in 50~59, 60~69 and ≥70 year sub-groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The abnormal detectable rates in ECG, pulmonary ventilation dysfunction, gas exchange dysfunction and small airway dysfunction were higher in male than female, and higher in elder ≥70 year subgroup than all other younger age subgroups.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Pulmão , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Físico , Ventilação Pulmonar , Testes de Função Respiratória
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672465

RESUMO

Objective: The patients with Hypertrophic CardioMyopathy (HCM), characterized by hypertrophy of the myocardium with a high risk of sudden death, was less clear for the exercise pathophysiology. Under the guidance of holistic integrative physiology and medicine (HIPM), the ramp protocol symptom-limited CardioPulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) is the only method to evaluate the overall functional status of human body. We investigated the CPET pathophysiology in patients with HCM. Methods: From April 2017 to January 2020, 244 subjects were enrolled after signed the informed consent form and completing CPET in Fuwai Hospital. They 219 HCM patients and 25 healthy normal subjects as control (NS). The changes of CPET core parameters between two them were calculated, compared and did Individual analysis. Results: ①The gender of HCM was 163 maleand 56 female. The gender of NS was 11 male and 14 female. The age of HCM was (46.7±12.8, 16.0~71.0) year; NS was (43.7±10.4, 26.0~61.0) year.②The core CPET parameters of HCM: peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) was (65.2±13.8, 22.8~103.4) %pred; anaerobic threshold (AT) was (66.4±13.0, 33.7~103.5) %pred; Peak O2 pulse was (84.3±19.0, 90.9~126.0)%pred; oxygen uptake efficiency platform (OUEP) was (99.2±13.4, 69.1~155.5) %pred; Lowest VE/VCO2 was (108.0±13.2, 70.4~154.0)%pred; VE/VCO2 Slope was (108.5±17.9, 66.9~164.9)%pred. Compared with NS, the Peak VO2, AT, Peak O2 pulse, and OUEP were significantly decreased (P<0.01 or P<0.05), but the Lowest VE/VCO2 and VE/VCO2 Slope were significantly increased (P<0.05). For Individual analysis of the overall functional status of CPET, some were very sever but some HCM were still within the normal range.③ The Peak VO2 was positively correlated with AT, OUEP, Peak O2 pulse, and peak systolic blood pressure, but was negative correlated with Lowest VE/VCO2 and VE/VCO2 Slope. Conclusion: CPET is safe and specific characteristics for patients with HCM, which deserve further research and clinical application. Under HIPM guidance, CPET can not only be used for overall functional evaluation, disease diagnosis and differential diagnosis, risk stratification, curative effect evaluation and accurate prognostic prediction, but also be utilized in formulating the individualized training prescription and management of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672467

RESUMO

Objective: To study the symptom-restricted extreme cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate the improvement of the overall function of patients with long-term chronic diseases after intensive control of personalized precise exercise training for 3 months. Methods: We selected 20 patients with chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular metabolic diseases who were intensively controlled by our team from 2014 to 2016. After signing the informed consent form, based on the results of CPET and continuous functional tests, we formulated the overall management plan with individualized moderate exercise intensity as the core. After 3 months, CPET was performed. The changes of CPET indicators before and after intensive control in each patient were analyzed individually. Then the difference value and percentage difference value were calculated. Results: In this study, 20 patients (18 males and 2 females) with chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular metabolic diseases, aged (55.75±10.80, 26~73) years, height (172.20±8.63, 153~190) cm, weight (76.35±15.63, 53~105) kg, all patients were not any dangerous events during the period of CPET and intensive control.①After intensive control, the static pulmonary function index, resting systolic blood pressure, rate blood pressure product and fasting blood glucose were significantly improved (P<0.05).②Before intensive control, the peak oxygen uptake is (55.60±15.69, 34.37~77.45) % pred and anaerobic threshold is (60.11±12.26, 43.29~80.63)% pred; after intensive control, the peak oxygen uptake is (71.85±21.04, 42.40~102.00) % pred and anaerobic threshold (74.95±17.03, 51.90~99.47) %pred. Compared with before the intensive control, the peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold of all patients after intensive control were significantly increased by (29.09±7.38,17.78~41.80) % and(25.16±18.38, 1.77~81.86)%(all P<0.01). Other core indexes were also improved significantly, including peak oxygen uptake,peak heart rate, peak work rate, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, lowest value of carbon dioxide ventilatory efficiency, slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide, ramp exercise duration(all P<0.01).③In terms of individualized analysis, after intensive control, the above 8 CPET core indexes were all improved in 15 cases, and 7 indexes in 5 cases were improved; the peak oxygen uptakeof all cases increased by more than 15%, 16 cases > 20%, 13 cases > 25%, 10 cases > 30%. Conclusion: CPET can safely, objectively and quantitatively evaluate the overall functional status and therapeutic effects, and guide the formulation of individualized precise exercise intensity. The overall plan of individualized precision exercise for three months can safely and effectively reverse the overall functional status of patients with long-term cardio-cerebrovascular metabolism diseases.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio , Limiar Anaeróbio , Doença Crônica , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 96-103, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672469

RESUMO

Objective: Subjects used upper limb (arm dynamometer) and lower limb precision electromagnetic power meter (cycle ergometer) to perform symptom-restricted limit cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Then we analyzed the clinical value of arm ergometer CPET. Methods: The upper limb and lower limb precision electromagnetic power meters were used to complete the CPET in two different days for 6 normal people and 9 chronic patients. We analyzed CPET data, calculated related core indicators, and compared normal subjects and chronic patients to analyze the similarities and differences between upper and lower extremities and their correlations. Results: ①Compared with 9 patients with chronic diseases, there were significant differences in age ((33.2±12.7) vs (53.6±8.5) years) and diagnosis in 6 normal people. ②The Peak HR ((131.0±19.0) vs (153.0±22.0) bpm,P<0.05) of upper limb CPET of 15 subjects were lower than lower limb CPET, but the difference in blood pressure was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The Peak VT ((1.3±0.4) vs (1.8±0.4) L) and Peak VE ((51.4±21.1) vs (67.9±22.1) L/min) of lower limb CPET were significantly higher than that of upper limb (all P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in Peak BF When upper limb CPET was used, EX-time ((6.4±0.6) vs (8.5±1.2) min) was shorter than lower limb CPET; Peak Work Rate((73.2±19.6) vs (158.5±40.3) W/min), Peak VO2 ((1.1±0.4) vs (1.7±0.4) L/min), AT ((0.6±0.2) vs (0.9±0.2) L/min), Peak VO2/HR ((8.6±2.3) vs (10.9±2.6) ml/beat), OUEP (34.7±4.3 vs 39.8±5.3)were lower, and the Lowest VE/VCO2(32.6±3.8 vs 28.7±4.9), VE/VCO2 Slope (33.9±4.3 vs 28.3±6.2)were higher than those of lower limb CPET (all P<0.05). The comparison results of the two subgroups of normal and chronic patients were the same as the holistic comparison results. ③EX-time, Peak HR, Peak BF, Peak VT and Peak VE of upper limb CPET had good correlation with the results of lower limb CPET. Besides, the measured value and percentage of the projected value of Peak Work Rate, the measured value, kilogram weight value of Peak VO2 and AT, and percentage of the projected value of Peak VO2, the measured value of Peak VO2/HR also had good correlation. The measured value of OUEP, the measured value and percentage of the projected value of Lowest VE/VCO2 and VE/VCO2 Slope were also the same, when the other indicators had no significant correlation. Conclusion: As a supplement to lower limb CPET, upper limb CPET is highly feasible and safe for holistic functional status assessment. It provides an important supplement to guide the implementation of the holistic plan of individualized precision exercise, which is worthy of our further exploration.


Assuntos
Braço , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio
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