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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257626, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570825

RESUMO

Front-of-package labeling (FOPL) is a policy tool that helps consumers to make informed food choices. South Africa has not yet implemented this labeling system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore adult South African consumers' perceptions of front-of-package warning labels on foods and non-alcoholic beverages (referred to as drinks in this paper) and their insights into features that could influence the effectiveness of the warning label. Using a qualitative approach, the study purposively selected consumers diversified by urbanization, gender, socioeconomic status, and literacy. We collected data from a total of 113 participants through 12 focus group discussions. Data were systematically coded and divided into five themes namely, positive attitudes toward warning labels, perceived benefits of warning labels, perceived behavior modification, perceived beneficiaries of warning labels, and effective attributes of warning labels. Almost all participants from all socio-economic backgrounds were positive about warning labels, reporting that warning labels concisely and understandably educated them about the nutritional composition of foods. Other perceived advantages were that warning labels warn of health implications, are easily understandable and could benefit child health. Some participants anticipated that warning labels would reduce their purchases of unhealthy foods, while others thought the labels would have no effect on their purchasing habits. Participants found the warning labels attention grabbing and stated that they preferred a black triangle placed on a white background (referred to as a holding strap henceforth), the words "high in" and "warning" in bold and uppercase text, an exclamation mark, and an icon depicting the excessive nutrient. In South Africa warning labels may improve consumer understanding of nutrition information and assist consumers in determining the nutritional quality of packaged foods and drinks.

2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 114, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing red meat is a strategy to improve public health and mitigate climate change in the United States and other high-income countries. Policies requiring warnings on the front of red meat packages are a promising intervention to shift consumers towards healthier and more sustainable food choices. We aimed to explore participants' reactions to health and environmental warning messages about red meat. METHODS: Between June and July 2020, we recruited a national convenience sample of US red meat consumers (n = 1,235; mean age 44 years) for an online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four label conditions: no-label control, health warning, environment warning, and combined health and environment warning (both warnings shown side-by-side). Participants viewed three types of burritos (red meat [steak], chicken, and vegetarian) and selected their preferred item (primary outcome), the item they perceived to be most damaging to health, and the item they perceived to be most damaging to the environment (secondary outcomes). Participants then viewed their assigned warning on a series of other red meat products (no-label control participants were randomly re-assigned to one of the warning conditions) and rated the warnings on perceived message effectiveness, believability, negative emotions, perceived risk, attention, and learning something new. Finally, participants reported their intentions to reduce red meat consumption. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in selection of the steak burrito between label conditions or in selection of the item most damaging to the environment. Those exposed to the health warning were more likely to select the steak burrito as most damaging to health compared to those exposed to other label conditions (health 73 %, combined 64 %, environment 60 %, no-label control 63 %, p < 0.05). The combined and health warnings elicited higher perceived message effectiveness ratings than the environment warning (combined mean 2.91, health 2.84, environment 2.61, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Warnings did not have a significant effect on item preference in the choice experiment. However, combined and health warnings performed better than the environment warning across a variety of warning label reaction measures. More research will be needed to understand whether warnings elicit behavioral change in real-world environments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Analyses and hypotheses were preregistered on https://aspredicted.org/ph7mb.pdf on 23 June 2020.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Carne , Estados Unidos
3.
Appetite ; 168: 105670, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478756

RESUMO

Screen time has been associated with overweight and obesity, as well as with poorer dietary quality. However, the reasons explaining these associations are not well understood. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were [1] to determine the extent of overall TV viewing as well as using screens while eating (e.g., watching TV or using a tablet), [2] to compare food and nutrient consumption of on-versus off-screen eating occasions, and [3] to determine whether TV viewing and using screens while eating is associated with overall dietary intake. Participants were from the Food Environment Chilean Cohort (n = 938, 4-6 y) and the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study (n = 752, 12-14 y). Dietary data was collected via one 24-h food recall. For each eating occasion, activity performed during consumption (e.g., watching TV, playing sports) was reported. Weekly TV viewing time was collected via an additional survey instrument. Analyses included multivariable linear and logistic regression. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons examined differences in outcomes by tertiles. Our sample reported a median of 9-13.5 weekly hours of TV viewing and 87.5% reported consuming at least one meal or snack per day while using screens. The median kilocalories contributed by eating during screen use was 387 kcal/d in children and 848 kcal/day in adolescents, which represents 34.7% and 42.3% of daily energy intake, respectively. There were no consistent differences when comparing eating occasions consumed on-screen versus off-screen. Higher weekly TV viewing was associated with elements of a less healthy diet including more sweets and desserts in children, and more sugar sweetened beverages in adolescents. A large percentage of Chilean children and adolescents' daily energy is consumed while using screens. In depth, longitudinal work is needed to understand how screen time eating affects diet quality and nutritional status.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444509

RESUMO

Point-of-sale policies such as warnings and taxes are promising tools for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases. Research studies conducted in naturalistic store laboratories could improve the quality of evidence about point-of-sale interventions by allowing for realistic exposure in a controlled setting. This study aimed to assess whether purchasing behavior in a naturalistic store laboratory setting was similar to real-life purchasing behavior and to evaluate participants' perceptions of store realism and the acceptability of research study protocols in this setting. In a longitudinal observational study in 2019, Latinx parents in North Carolina (n = 61) attended five weekly visits at the UNC Mini Mart, a naturalistic store laboratory that resembled a small convenience store. At each visit, participants purchased a week's supply of beverages. Purchases of beverages in the Mini Mart were compared to participants' purchases from receipts submitted the week prior to the study. Analyses compared the percentage of participants buying sugary drinks and non-sugary drinks in the Mini Mart vs. in real stores using Chi-Square tests with Fisher's p. The percentage of parents who purchased sugary drinks in the Mini Mart (93%) was not significantly different from the percentage who purchased sugary drinks during the week before the study (74%, p = 0.28). The percentage purchasing non-sugary drinks was similar in the two settings (85% in the Mini Mart vs. 85% from receipts, p = 0.33). Nearly all participants reported that their Mini Mart purchases were similar to real-life purchases (96%); the Mini Mart felt like a real store (94%); they could find all the beverages they were looking for (92%); and they could imagine doing their real-life beverage shopping in the Mini Mart (92%). Moreover, retention was high, with 97% of participants attending the final study visit. These results indicate that naturalistic store laboratories are a promising method for increasing the ecological validity of trials to evaluate point-of-sale interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laboratórios , Bebidas , Comércio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Política Nutricional
5.
Annu Rev Nutr ; 41: 529-550, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339293

RESUMO

Countries worldwide have implemented mandatory or voluntary front-of-package nutrition labeling systems. We provide a narrative review of (a) real-world evaluations of front-of-package nutrition labels that analyze objective sales data and (b) studies that objectively assess product reformulation in response to a front-of-package nutrition label implementation. We argue that there is sufficient scientific evidence to recommend that governments implement mandatory front-of-package nutrition labeling systems to improvepopulation health. We also present a conceptual framework to describe front-of-package label influence and provide recommendations for the optimal label design, emphasizing that labeling systems should be highly visible and salient, be simple and easy to understand, leverage automatic associations, and integrate informational and emotional messaging. The existing research suggests that Guideline Daily Amount labels should be avoided and that the Health Star Rating and Nutri-Score systems are promising but that systems with warning labels like the one in Chile are likely to produce the largest public health benefits.

7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(8): e526-e533, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, Chile implemented a unique law mandating front-of-package warning labels, restricting marketing, and banning school sales for products high in calories, sodium, sugar, or saturated fat. We aimed to examine changes in the calorie, sugar, sodium, and saturated fat content of food and beverage purchases after the first phase of implementation of this law. METHODS: This before and after study used longitudinal data on food and beverage purchases from 2381 Chilean households from Jan 1, 2015, to Dec 31, 2017. Nutrition facts panel data from food and beverage packages were linked to household purchases at the product level using barcode, brand name, and product description. Nutritionists reviewed each product for nutritional accuracy and categorised it as high-in if it contained added sugar, sodium, or saturated fat and exceeded phase 1 nutrient or calorie thresholds, and thus was subject to the labelling, marketing, and school regulations. Using fixed-effects models, we examined the mean nutrient content (overall calories, sugar, saturated fat, and sodium) of purchases in the post-policy period compared to a counterfactual scenario based on pre-policy trends. FINDINGS: Compared with the counterfactual scenario, overall calories purchased declined by 16·4 kcal/capita/day (95% CI -27·3 to -5·6; p=0·0031) or 3·5%. Overall sugar declined by 11·5 kcal/capita/day (-14·6 to -8·4; p<0·0001) or 10·2%, and saturated fat declined by 2·2 kcal/capita/day (-3·8 to -0·5; p=0·0097) or 3·9%. The sodium content of overall purchases declined by 27·7 mg/capita/day (-46·3 to -9·1; p=0·0035) or 4·7%. Declines from high-in purchases drove these results with some offset by increases in not-high-in purchases. Among high-in purchases, relative to the counterfactual scenario, there were notable declines of 23·8% in calories purchased (-49·4 kcal/capita/day, 95% CI -55·1 to -43·7; p<0·0001), 36·7% in sodium purchased (-96·6 mg/capita/day,-105·3 to -87·8; p<0·0001), and 26·7% in sugar purchased (-20·7 kcal/capita/day, -23·4 to -18·1; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The Chilean phase 1 law of food labelling and advertising policies were associated with reduced high-in purchases, leading to declines in purchased nutrients of concern. Greater changes might reasonably be anticipated after the implementation of phases 2 and 3. FUNDING: Bloomberg Philanthropies, International Development Research Center, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence of the health and environmental harms of red meat is growing, yet little is known about which harms may be most impactful to include in meat reduction messages. This study examined which harms consumers are most aware of and which most discourage them from wanting to eat red meat. DESIGN: Within-subjects randomised experiment. Participants responded to questions about their awareness of, and perceived discouragement in response to, eight health and eight environmental harms of red meat presented in random order. Discouragement was assessed on a 1-to-5 Likert-type scale. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: 544 US parents. RESULTS: A minority of participants reported awareness that red meat contributes to health harms (ranging from 8 % awareness for prostate cancer to 28 % for heart disease) or environmental harms (ranging from 13 % for water shortages and deforestation to 22 % for climate change). Among specific harms, heart disease elicited the most discouragement (mean = 2·82 out of 5), followed by early death (mean = 2·79) and plants and animals going extinct (mean = 2·75), though most harms elicited similar discouragement (range of means, 2·60-2·82). In multivariable analyses, participants who were younger, identified as Black, identified as politically liberal, had higher general perceptions that red meat is bad for health and had higher usual red meat consumption reported being more discouraged from wanting to eat red meat in response to health and environmental harms (all P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: Messages about a variety of health and environmental harms of red meat could inform consumers and motivate reductions in red meat consumption.

9.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 3: e13237, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152071

RESUMO

The food environment is a major contributor to unhealthy diets in children and, therefore, to the increasing rates of obesity. Acclaimed by scholars across the world, Latin American countries have been leaders in implementing policies that target different aspects of the food environment. Evidence on the nature and to what extent children are exposed and respond to unhealthy food environments in the region and among Latinos in the United States is, however, deficient. The objective of this review is to use the integrated International Network for Food and Obesity/noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) framework to create healthy food environment to (i) compare the key elements of childhood obesity-related food environments in Latin America and for Latinos living in the United States; (ii) describe the evidence on solutions to improve childhood obesity-related food environments; and (iii) identify research priorities to inform solutions to fight childhood obesity in these populations. We found that an integrated body of evidence is needed to inform an optimal package of policies to improve food environments to which children in Latin America and Latino children in the United States are exposed and more efficiently translate policy solutions to help curb growing childhood obesity levels across borders.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Dieta , Promoção da Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 60, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first phase of a comprehensive marketing policy was implemented in Chile in 2016. The policy restricted child-directed marketing of foods and beverages considered high in energy, total sugars, sodium or saturated fat ("high-in"). The objective of this study was to examine the role of high-in TV food advertising as a mediator in the association between policy implementation and consumption of high-in foods and beverages between 2016 and 2017. METHODS: Dietary data were from 24-hour diet recalls collected in 2016 and 2017 in a cohort of 12-14 y children (n = 721). Television use was assessed concurrently and linked to analyses of food advertisements on broadcast and paid television to derive individual-level estimates of exposure to high-in food advertising. A multilevel mediation analysis examined direct and indirect effects of the policy through advertising exposure. RESULTS: Following the policy implementation, high-in advertising exposure was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). High-in food intake decreased in adolescents with lower levels, but not higher levels, of high-in advertising at baseline. We did not find evidence of mediation by changes in high-in ad exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' exposure to high-in TV advertising decreased after the 2016 implementation of the Chilean Food Labeling and Marketing Law. However, evidence that changes in advertisement mediated dietary changes was not found. Further research is needed to understand how marketing changes will relate to dietary changes after full implementation of the law and in the long term.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Marketing , Política Nutricional , Televisão , Adolescente , Criança , Chile , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos
11.
PLoS Med ; 18(5): e1003574, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to prevent and reduce the prevalence rate of people with obesity and diabetes, South Africa implemented a sugar-content-based tax called the Health Promotion Levy in April 2018, one of the first sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes to be based on each gram of sugar (beyond 4 g/100 ml). This before-and-after study estimated changes in taxed and untaxed beverage intake 1 year after the tax, examining separately, to our knowledge for the first time, the role of reformulation distinct from behavioral changes in SSB intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected single-day 24-hour dietary recalls from repeat cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-39 years in Langa, South Africa. Participants were recruited in February-March 2018 (pre-tax, n = 2,459) and February-March 2019 (post-tax, n = 2,489) using door-to-door sampling. We developed time-specific food composition tables (FCTs) for South African beverages before and after the tax, linked with the diet recalls. By linking pre-tax FCTs only to dietary intake data collected in the pre-tax and post-tax periods, we calculated changes in beverage intake due to behavioral change, assuming no reformulation. Next, we repeated the analysis using an updated FCT in the post-tax period to capture the marginal effect of reformulation. We estimated beverage intake using a 2-part model that takes into consideration the biases in using ordinary least squares or other continuous variable approaches with many individuals with zero intake. First, a probit model was used to estimate the probability of consuming the specific beverage category. Then, conditional on a positive outcome, a generalized linear model with a log-link was used to estimate the continuous amount of beverage consumed. Among taxed beverages, sugar intake decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) from 28.8 g/capita/day (95% CI 27.3-30.4) pre-tax to 19.8 (95% CI 18.5-21.1) post-tax. Energy intake decreased (p < 0.0001) from 121 kcal/capita/day (95% CI 114-127) pre-tax to 82 (95% CI 76-87) post-tax. Volume intake decreased (p < 0.0001) from 315 ml/capita/day (95% CI 297-332) pre-tax to 198 (95% CI 185-211) post-tax. Among untaxed beverages, sugar intake increased (p < 0.0001) by 5.3 g/capita/day (95% CI 3.7 to 6.9), and energy intake increased (p < 0.0001) by 29 kcal/capita/day (95% CI 19 to 39). Among total beverages, sugar intake decreased significantly (p = 0.004) by 3.7 (95% CI -6.2 to -1.2) g/capita/day. Behavioral change accounted for reductions of 24% in energy, 22% in sugar, and 23% in volume, while reformulation accounted for additional reductions of 8% in energy, 9% in sugar, and 14% in volume from taxed beverages. The key limitations of this study are an inability to make causal claims due to repeat cross-sectional data collection, and that the magnitude of reduction in taxed beverage intake may not be generalizable to higher income populations. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large sample of a high-consuming, low-income population, we found large reductions in taxed beverage intake, separating the components of behavioral change from reformulation. This reduction was partially compensated by an increase in sugar and energy from untaxed beverages. Because policies such as taxes can incentivize reformulation, our use of an up-to-date FCT that reflects a rapidly changing food supply is novel and important for evaluating policy effects on intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/análise , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
12.
Prev Med ; 148: 106562, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878350

RESUMO

Sugary drink warnings are a promising policy for reducing sugary drink consumption, but it remains unknown how to design warnings to maximize their impact overall and among diverse population groups, including parents of Latino ethnicity and parents with low English use. In 2019, we randomized US parents of children ages 2-12 (n = 1078, 48% Latino ethnicity, 13% low English use) to one topic (one of four warnings, or a neutral control), which they viewed on three designs (text-only, icon, and graphic) to assess reactions to the various warnings on sugary drinks. All warning topics were perceived as more effective than the control (average differential effect [ADE] ranged from 1.77 to 1.84 [5-point Likert scale], all p < .001). All warning topics also led to greater thinking about harms of sugary drinks (all p < .001) and lower purchase intentions (all p < .01). Compared to text-only warnings, icon (ADE = 0.18) and graphic warnings (ADE = 0.30) elicited higher perceived message effectiveness, as well as greater thinking about the harms of sugary drinks, lower perceived healthfulness, and lower purchase intentions (all p < .001). The impact of icon warnings (vs. text warnings) was stronger for parents with low English use, compared to those with high English use (p = .024). Similarly, the impact of icon (vs. text warnings) was stronger for Latino parents than non-Latino parents (p = .034). This experimental study indicates that many warning topics hold promise for behavior change and that including images with warnings could increase warning efficacy, particularly among Latino parents and parents with low English use. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04382599.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pais
13.
Appetite ; 164: 105234, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823230

RESUMO

Evidence about the health problems associated with sugary drink consumption is well-established. However, little is known about which sugary drink health harms are most effective at changing consumers' behavior. We aimed to identify which harms people were aware of and most discouraged them from wanting to buy sugary drinks. Participants were a national convenience sample of diverse parents (n = 1,058), oversampled for Latino parents (48%). Participants rated a list of sugary drink-related health harms occurring in children (7 harms) and in adults (15 harms). Outcomes were awareness of each harm and how much each harm discouraged parents from wanting to purchase sugary drinks. Most participants were aware that sugary drinks contribute to tooth decay in children (75%) and weight gain in both children (73%) and adults (69%). Few participants were aware that sugary drinks contribute to adult infertility (16%), arthritis (18%), and gout (18%). All health harms were rated highly in terms of discouraging parents from wanting to buy sugary drinks (range: 3.59-4.11 on a 1-5 scale), with obesity, pre-diabetes, and tooth decay eliciting the highest discouragement ratings. Harm-induced discouragement was higher for participants who were aware of more health harms (B = 0.05, p < 0.0001), identified as female (B = 0.15 compared to male, p = 0.02), or had an annual household income of $50,000 or more (B = 0.16 compared to less than $50,000, p = 0.03). These findings suggest health messages focused on a variety of health harms could raise awareness and discourage sugary drink purchases.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Pais , Adulto , Bebidas , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso
14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(7): 462-470, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865500

RESUMO

The global surges in obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have created a need for decisive new food policy initiatives. A major concern has been the impact of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and ultra-processed drinks on weight gain and on the risk of several NCDs. These foods, generally high in calories, added sugar, sodium, and unhealthy fats, and poor in fibre, protein, and micronutrients, have extensive negative effects on human health and on the environment (due to their associated carbon emission and water use). There is a growing tendency worldwide, and especially in South America, for food companies to add micronutrients to UPFs to make health claims regarding these products, to which food-regulating authorities refer to fake foods. Although more than 45 countries and smaller subregional or urban entities have created taxes on ultra-processed drinks, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, only a few have adopted taxes on snacks and other UPFs, and none have added major subsidies for truly healthy, fresh or minimally processed food for people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Another major focus has been on developing effective package labelling. A smaller number of countries have selected the most impactful warning labels and linked them with other measures to create a mutually reinforcing set of policies; a few other countries have developed effective school food policies. We herein present in-depth results from key countries involved in all these actions and in comprehensive marketing controls, and conclude with our recommendations for the future. This field is quite new; progress to date is substantial, but much more is left to learn.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Política Nutricional/tendências , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Appetite ; 163: 105229, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789168

RESUMO

Chile recently implemented a food labeling law that requires packaged foods with sugar, saturated fats, sodium, and/or calorie content that exceeds government-defined thresholds to carry a front-of-package warning for each excessive nutrient. This law does not prohibit the use of nutrient content (NC) marketing claims on packages, as long as the claims do not directly contradict the warnings. Yet, having NC claims alongside nutrient warnings might send mixed messages confusing consumers about the overall healthiness of a product. The present study tests the co-occurrence of warning labels and NC claims in breakfast cereal packages on product perceptions and behavioral intentions of Chilean adults in a 3 (warnings: none, high calorie, high calorie/high sugar) × 3 (NC claims: none, fiber/wholegrain, low fat/cholesterol-free) mixed-measures experiment. Fiber-related claims had a main effect leading to more positive ratings of the product, compared to having no NC claims or fat-related claims. These positive ratings extended beyond perceptions of the fiber content to perceptions of overall healthiness, naturalness, quality, vitamin content, and intentions to purchase and recommend the product-a health halo effect. No significant interaction between warnings and NC claims was found. However, warnings had a main effect on perceptions irrespective of the presence of NC claims, with one warning significantly reducing ratings, dampening any halo effects, and two warnings further dampening any effects. These findings indicate that warning labels can mitigate, but not eliminate the influences of NC claims on consumer perceptions of product healthiness.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Grão Comestível , Adulto , Chile , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 454, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa was the first sub-Saharan African country to implement a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax called the Health Promotion Levy (HPL) in April 2018. Given news media can increase public awareness and sway opinions, this study analyzed how the media represented the HPL, including expressions of support or challenge, topics associated with the levy, and stakeholder views of the HPL. METHODS: We performed a quantitative content analysis of online South African news articles related to the HPL published between January 1, 2017 and June 30, 2019. We coded the presence or absence of mentions related to health and economic effects of the HPL and HPL support or opposition. Prevalence of these mentions, overall and by source (industry, government, academics, other), were analyzed with Pearson χ2 and post-hoc Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: Across all articles, 81% mentioned health, and 65% mentioned economics topics. 54% of articles expressed support, 26% opposition, and 20% a balanced view of the HPL. All sources except industry expressed majority support for the HPL. Health reasons were the most common justifications for support, and economic harms were the most common justifications for opposition. Statements that sugar intake is not related to obesity, the HPL will not reduce SSB intake, and the HPL will cause industry or economic harm were all disproportionately high in industry sources (92, 80, and 81% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001). Statements that sugar intake is related to obesity and non-communicable diseases were disproportionately high in both government (46 and 54% vs 31% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001) and academics (33 and 38% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.05). Statements that the HPL will improve health and the HPL will reduce health care costs were disproportionately high in government (47% vs 31% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001) and academics (44% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Industry expressed no support for the HPL, whereas academics, government, and other sources mainly expressed support. Future studies would be improved by linking news media exposure to SSB intake data to better understand the effects news media may have on individual behavior change.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Açúcares , Bebidas , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Impostos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466518

RESUMO

Close economic ties encourage production and trade of meat between Canada, Mexico, and the US. Understanding the patterns of red and processed meat consumption in North America may inform policies designed to reduce meat consumption and bolster environmental and public health efforts across the continent. We used nationally-representative cross-sectional survey data to analyze consumption of unprocessed red meat; processed meat; and total red and processed meat. Generalized linear models were used to separately estimate probability of consumption and adjusted mean intake. Prevalence of total meat consumers was higher in the US (73.6, 95% CI: 72.3-74.8%) than in Canada (65.6, 63.9-67.2%) or Mexico (62.7, 58.1-67.2%). Men were more likely to consume unprocessed red, processed, and total meat, and had larger estimated intakes. In Mexico, high wealth individuals were more likely to consume all three categories of meat. In the US and Canada, those with high education were less likely to consume total and processed meat. Estimated mean intake of unprocessed red, processed, and total meat did not differ across sociodemographic strata. Overall consumption of red and processed meat remains high in North America. Policies to reduce meat consumption are appropriate for all three countries.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Carne Vermelha , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(10): 2911-2919, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Toddler milk (i.e. a nutrient-fortified milk-based drink marketed for children 12-36 months old) is increasingly being marketed in the USA despite not being recommended for young children. There is evidence of targeted toddler milk marketing to Latinos in the USA. This study aimed to explore toddler milk perceptions and behaviours among Latino and non-Latino parents. DESIGN: An online survey assessed toddler milk perceptions, behaviours and interpretations of nutrition-related claims. Multivariable logistic and linear regression explored socio-demographic correlates of parent reported past purchases and perceived healthfulness. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: National convenience sample of 1078 US parents of children aged 2-12 years (48 % Latino). RESULTS: About half of parents (51 %) had previously purchased toddler milk and few (11 %) perceived toddler milk as unhealthy. Latino parents were more likely to have purchased toddler milk than non-Latino parents (P < 0·001), but there were no differences in perceived product healthfulness (P = 0·47). Compared to parents born in the USA, parents living in the USA 10 years or less were more likely to have purchased toddler milk (P < 0·001) and perceive toddler milk as healthier (P = 0·002). Open-ended interpretations of claims were primarily positive, suggesting 'health halo' effects. CONCLUSIONS: Common misperceptions about toddler milk healthfulness suggest stronger labelling regulations are needed. Greater reported purchases by Latino parents and recent immigrants warrant further investigation.

19.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(8): 2225-2237, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of taxed and untaxed food and beverage shopping across store types after Mexico's sugary drink and non-essential food taxes, the nutritional quality of these patterns and the socio-economic characteristics associated with them. DESIGN: We performed k-means cluster analyses using households' percentage of food and beverage purchases from each store type (i.e. convenience stores, traditional shops (e.g. bodegas, tiendas, mom-and-pop shops), supermarkets, wholesalers and others). We calculated adjusted mean proportions of taxed and untaxed products (ml or g/capita per d) purchased in each pattern. We studied the associations between households' SES and shopping patterns using multinomial logistic regressions. Within shopping patterns, we obtained mean volumes and proportions of taxed and untaxed food and beverage subgroups and calculated the proportion of products purchased at each store type. SETTING: Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: Urban Mexican households (n 5493) from the Nielsen Mexico Consumer Panel Survey 2015. RESULTS: We found four beverage shopping patterns and three food shopping patterns, driven by the store type where most purchases were made. For beverages, 48 % of households were clustered in the Traditional pattern and purchased the highest proportion of taxed beverages. Low-SES households had the highest probability of clustering in the Traditional beverage shopping pattern. For foods, 35 % of households were clustered into the Supermarket pattern. High-SES households had the highest probability of clustering in the Supermarket food shopping pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of store types where Mexican households purchase packaged foods and beverages varies. However, households in all shopping patterns and SES purchase taxed beverages mainly at traditional stores. Store-level strategies should be developed to intervene on traditional stores to improve the healthfulness of purchases.

20.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(4): e12735, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chilean government implemented the first phase of a comprehensive marketing policy in 2016, restricting child-directed marketing of products high in energy, total sugars, sodium or saturated fat (hereafter "high-in"). OBJECTIVES: To examine the role that high-in TV food advertising had in the effect of the policy on consumption of high-in products between 2016 and 2017. METHODS: Dietary data were obtained from 24-hour diet recall measured in 2016 (n = 940) and 2017 (n = 853), pre- and post-policy, from a cohort of 4 to 6 years children. Television use was linked to analyses of food advertisements to derive individual-level estimates of exposure to advertising. A multilevel mediation analysis examined direct and indirect effects of the policy through advertising exposure. RESULTS: Children's high-in food consumption and advertising exposure declined significantly from 2016 to 2017 (P < .01). Consumption changes were not significantly mediated by changes in advertising exposure, which might suggest other elements of the Chilean Law potentially driving decreases in consumption to a greater extent than TV ads. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers' exposure to high-in advertising and consumption of high-in products decreased post-policy. Further research is needed to understand how marketing changes will relate to dietary changes after full implementation of the law and in the long term.

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