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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 119, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) experience premature chronic health outcomes and longevity disparities consistent with an accelerated aging phenotype. DNA methylation (DNAm) levels at specific CpG positions are hallmarks of aging evidenced by the presence of age-associated differentially methylated CpG positions (aDMPs) that are the basis for the epigenetic clock for measuring biological age acceleration. Since DNAm has not been widely studied among non-European populations, we examined the association between DNAm and chronological age in AAs and whites, and the association between race, poverty, sex, and epigenetic age acceleration. RESULTS: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation (866,836 CpGs) using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip in blood DNA extracted from 487 middle-aged AA (N = 244) and white (N = 243), men (N = 248), and women (N = 239). The mean (sd) age was 48.4 (8.8) in AA and 49.0 (8.7) in whites (p = 0.48). We identified 4930 significantly associated aDMPs in AAs and 469 in whites. Of these, 75.6% and 53.1% were novel, largely driven by the increased number of measured CpGs in the EPIC array, in AA and whites, respectively. AAs had more age-associated DNAm changes than whites in genes implicated in age-related diseases and cellular pathways involved in growth and development. We assessed three epigenetic age acceleration measures (universal, intrinsic, and extrinsic). AAs had a significantly slower extrinsic aging compared to whites. Furthermore, compared to AA women, both AA and white men had faster aging in the universal age acceleration measure (+ 2.04 and + 1.24 years, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AAs have more wide-spread methylation changes than whites. Race and sex interact to underlie biological age acceleration suggesting altered DNA methylation patterns may be important in age-associated health disparities.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 64-73, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study tests associations of DNA methylation-based (DNAm) measures of epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) with cross-sectional and longitudinal depressive symptoms in an urban sample of middle-aged adults. METHODS: White and African-American adult participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study for whom DNA samples were analyzed (baseline age: 30-65 years) we included. We estimated three DNAm based EAA measures: (1) universal epigenetic age acceleration (AgeAccel); (2) intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA); and (3) extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale total and sub-domain scores at baseline (2004-2009) and follow-up visits (2009-2013). Linear mixed-effects regression models were conducted, adjusting potentially confounding covariates, selection bias and multiple testing (N = 329 participants, ∼52% men, k = 1.9 observations/participant, mean follow-up time∼4.7 years). RESULTS: None of the epigenetic age acceleration measures were associated with total depressive symptom scores at baseline or over time. IEAA - a measure of cellular epigenetic age acceleration irrespective of white blood cell composition - was cross-sectionally associated with decrement in "positive affect" in the total population (γ011± SE = -0.090 ±â€¯0.030, P = 0.003, Cohen's D: -0.16) and among Whites (γ011 ±â€¯SE = -0.135 ± 0.048, P = 0.005, Cohen's D: -0.23), after correction for multiple testing. Baseline "positive affect" was similarly associated with AgeAccel. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included small sample size, weak-moderate effects and measurement error. CONCLUSIONS: IEAA and AgeAccel, two measures of EAA using Horvath algorithm, were linked to a reduced "positive affect", overall and among Whites. Future studies are needed to replicate our findings and test bi-directional relationships.

3.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208817

RESUMO

The sex-specific link between longitudinal annual rate of cognitive change (LARCC) and polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism enzymatic genes remains unclear, particularly among African-American adults. We tested associations of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, and SHMT genes and select MTHFR haplotypes and latent classes (SNPHAP/SNPLC) with LARCC. Up to 797 African-American participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (age: 30-64 y, 52% women) had 1.6-1.7 (i.e., 1 or 2) repeated measures (follow-up time, mean = 4.69 y) on 9 cognitive test scores, reflecting verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function: California Verbal Learning Test-immediate recall (CVLT-List A), CVLT-DFR (delayed free recall), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), Animal Fluency (AF), Digits Span Forward and Backward tests, and Trail Making Test parts A and B (Trails A and B). Multiple linear mixed-effects and multiple linear regression models were conducted. Overall, MTHFR SNPs rs4846051(A1317G, G>A) and rs1801131(A1298C, G>T) were associated with slower and faster declines on AF, respectively, whereas rs2066462(C1056T, A>G) was related to slower decline on Trails B (executive function). Among men, rs4846051(A1317G, G>A) was linked to faster decline on BVRT (visual memory), whereas rs2066462(C1056T, A>G) and rs9651118(C>T) were associated with slower decline on CVLT-List A and rs9651118(C>T) with faster decline on CVLT-DFR. Among women, a slower decline on the domain "verbal memory/fluency" was observed with rs1801133(C677T, A>G). MTHFR2SNPHAP [rs1801133(C677T, A>G)/rs1801131(A1298C, G>T): GG] was associated with slower decline on AF among women, whereas MTHFR3SNPHAP(AT) was linked with slower decline on CVLT-List A among men but faster decline on "verbal memory/fluency" among women. Similar patterns were observed for MTHFR SNPLCs. In sum, MTHFR gene variations can differentially impact longitudinal changes in multiple cognitive domains among African-American adults.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1033-1054, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698716

RESUMO

A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912962

RESUMO

Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10-5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10-8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10-8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8035, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795187

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have confirmed associations of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms with adiposity and other metabolic disturbances. Those associations may be sex-specific. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between metabolic disturbances and haplotypes constructed from single nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR (BsmI:G/A: rs1544410; ApaI:A/C: rs7975232; and TaqI:G/A: rs731236) and MEGALIN (rs3755166:G/A; rs2075252:C/T and rs2228171:C/T) genes, in a sample of African-American adults. From 1,024 African Americans participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS, 2004-2013, Baltimore, MD), our analyses included 539 participants with complete genetic, baseline covariate and metabolic outcome data (at baseline and follow-up). Mean ± SD period of follow-up was 4.64 ± 0.93 y. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were conducted. Among key findings, in men, incident hypertension was inversely related to MEGALIN1 (GCC), [HR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90, p = 0.024]. Overall, there was a direct, linear dose-response association between VDR2 (AAG: BAt) and MetS at baseline [OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.11-2.31, p = 0.012], while among men, VDR3 (GAA: bAT) was inversely related to baseline MetS [OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.81, p = 0.011]. In conclusion, VDR and MEGALIN gene variations can affect prevalent MetS and the incidence rate of hypertension, respectively, among African-American urban adults.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 375-400, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455858

RESUMO

Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).

13.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 208, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the mortality rate is declining in the United States, the life expectancy gap among different population groups suggests a need to identify biomarkers to improve early identification of individuals at risk. Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is an emerging biomarker of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. However, little is known about its association with mortality risk in younger adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between RDW and overall and cause-specific mortality risk, and to identify novel determinants of RDW level. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study conducted in Baltimore, Maryland. At baseline (2004-2009), the study recruited 3720 African American and white men and women aged 30-64 years. Participants provided peripheral venous blood for RDW measurement as part of complete blood count, and genotyping. Mortality status was ascertained using the National Death Index database through December 31, 2013. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to assess mortality risk, and multiple linear regression models to identify determinants of RDW level. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 48.1 (9.2) years. Of 2726 participants included in the present analyses, 57% were African Americans, and 56% were women. After 18,424 person-years of follow-up time, there were 226 deaths, and the leading cause of death were cardiovascular diseases (31.9%). Participants in the highest quartile of RDW had a 1.73-fold increased all-cause mortality risk (highest quartile vs. lowest quartile, multivariable adjusted hazard ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.74, p-trend = 0.006). This effect was significantly modified by body mass index (p-interaction = 0.004). Similar risk was observed for cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. Independent of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and illicit drug use were significantly associated with RDW. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated RDW was associated with a substantial risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease-specific mortalities that was modified by body mass index. Central obesity and illicit drug use influence RDW level. In vulnerable populations at-risk for health disparities, RDW could provide a useful and inexpensive biomarker of mortality.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Índices de Eritrócitos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 910, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030599

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Longevidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Educação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006728, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498854

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10-8) for either systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, or for combined traits. Single-trait analyses identified two loci (TARID/TCF21 and LLPH/TMBIM4) and multiple-trait analyses identified one novel locus (FRMD3) for blood pressure. At these three loci, as well as at GRP20/CDH17, associated variants had alleles common only in African-ancestry populations. Functional annotation showed enrichment for genes expressed in immune and kidney cells, as well as in heart and vascular cells/tissues. Experiments driven by these findings and using angiotensin-II induced hypertension in mice showed altered kidney mRNA expression of six genes, suggesting their potential role in hypertension. Our study provides new evidence for genes related to hypertension susceptibility, and the need to study African-ancestry populations in order to identify biologic factors contributing to hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Hipertensão/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Afro-Americanos/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006719, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430825

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we identified one novel locus (TCF7L2/HABP2) for WHRadjBMI and eight previously established loci at P < 5×10-8: seven for BMI, and one for WHRadjBMI in African ancestry individuals. An additional novel locus (SPRYD7/DLEU2) was identified for WHRadjBMI when combined with European GWAS. In the sex-stratified analyses, we identified three novel loci for BMI (INTS10/LPL and MLC1 in men, IRX4/IRX2 in women) and four for WHRadjBMI (SSX2IP, CASC8, PDE3B and ZDHHC1/HSD11B2 in women) in individuals of African ancestry or both African and European ancestry. For four of the novel variants, the minor allele frequency was low (<5%). In the trans-ethnic fine mapping of 47 BMI loci and 27 WHRadjBMI loci that were locus-wide significant (P < 0.05 adjusted for effective number of variants per locus) from the African ancestry sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses, 26 BMI loci and 17 WHRadjBMI loci contained ≤ 20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% posterior probability of driving the associations. The lead variants in 13 of these loci had a high probability of being causal. As compared to our previous HapMap imputed GWAS for BMI and WHRadjBMI including up to 71,412 and 27,350 African ancestry individuals, respectively, our results suggest that 1000 Genomes imputation showed modest improvement in identifying GWAS loci including low frequency variants. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses further improved fine mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between the African and European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Obesidade/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Relação Cintura-Quadril
17.
J Nutr ; 147(6): 1048-1062, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446629

RESUMO

Background: The link between longitudinal cognitive change and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and MEGALIN [or LDL receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2)] genes remains unclear, particularly among African-American (AA) adults.Objectives: We aimed to evaluate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for VDR [rs11568820 (Cdx-2:T/C), rs1544410 (BsmI:G/A), rs7975232 (ApaI:A/C), rs731236 (TaqI:G/A)] and LRP2 [rs3755166:G/A,rs2075252:C/T, rs2228171:C/T] genes with longitudinal cognitive performance change in various domains of cognition.Methods: Data from 1024 AA urban adult participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (Baltimore, Maryland) with complete genetic data were used, of whom 660-797 had complete data on 9 cognitive test scores at baseline and/or the first follow-up examination and complete covariate data (∼52% female; mean age: ∼52 y; mean years of education: 12.6 y). Time between examination visits 1 (2004-2009) and 2 (2009-2013) ranged from <1 y to ∼8 y, with a mean ± SD of 4.64 ± 0.93 y. Latent class and haplotype analyses were conducted by creating gene polymorphism groups that were related to longitudinal annual rate of cognitive change predicted from mixed-effects regression models.Results: Among key findings, the rs3755166:G/A MEGALIN SNP was associated with faster decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination overall (ß = -0.002, P = 0.018) and among women. VDR2 (BsmI/ApaI/TaqI: G-/A-/A-) SNP latent class [SNPLC; compared with VDR1 (ApaI: "AA")] was linked to faster decline on the Verbal Fluency Test, Categorical, in women, among whom the MEGALIN2 (rs2228171: "TT") SNPLC (compared with MEGALIN1:rs2228171: "CC") was also associated with a faster decline on the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B), but with a slower decline on the Digit Span Backward (DS-B). Moreover, among men, the VDR1 SNP haplotype (SNPHAP; GCA:baT) was associated with a slower decline on the Trails B, whereas the MEGALIN1 SNPHAP (GCC) was associated with a faster decline on the DS-B, reflected as a faster decline on cognitive domain 2 ("visual/working memory").Conclusion:VDR and MEGALIN gene variations can alter age-related cognitive trajectories differentially between men and women among AA urban adults, specifically in global mental status and domains of verbal fluency, visual/working memory, and executive function.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cognição , Função Executiva , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Memória , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana
18.
Br J Nutr ; 117(5): 686-697, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345493

RESUMO

Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout among others, is affected by both genetic and dietary factors, perhaps differentially by sex. We evaluated cross-sectional (SUAbase) and longitudinal (SUArate) associations of SUA with a genetic risk score (GRS), diet and sex. We then tested the interactive effect of GRS, diet and sex on SUA. Longitudinal data on 766 African-American urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity across the Lifespan study were used. In all, three GRS for SUA were created from known SUA-associated SNP (GRSbase (n 12 SNP), GRSrate (n 3 SNP) and GRStotal (n 15 SNP)). Dietary factors included added sugar, total alcohol, red meat, total fish, legumes, dairy products, caffeine and vitamin C. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. SUAbase was higher among men compared with that among women, and increased with GRStotal tertiles. SUArate was positively associated with legume intake in women (γ=+0·14; 95 % CI +0·06, +0·22, P=0·001) and inversely related to dairy product intake in both sexes combined (γ=-0·042; 95 % CI -0·075, -0·009), P=0·010). SUAbase was directly linked to alcohol consumption among women (γ=+0·154; 95 % CI +0·046, +0·262, P=0·005). GRSrate was linearly related to SUArate only among men. Legume consumption was also positively associated with SUArate within the GRStotal's lowest tertile. Among women, a synergistic interaction was observed between GRSrate and red meat intake in association with SUArate. Among men, a synergistic interaction between low vitamin C and genetic risk was found. In sum, sex-diet, sex-gene and gene-diet interactions were detected in determining SUA. Further similar studies are needed to replicate our findings.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Dieta , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Fabaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Carne Vermelha , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35815, 2016 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27779208

RESUMO

Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension. Predominant gene expression differences were observed in AA hypertensive females compared to AA normotensives or white hypertensives. Since microRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, we profiled global microRNA expression and observed differentially-expressed microRNAs by race and/or hypertension. We identified novel mRNA-microRNA pairs potentially involved in hypertension-related pathways and differently-expressed, including MCL1/miR-20a-5p, APOL3/miR-4763-5p, PLD1/miR-4717-3p, and PLD1/miR-4709-3p. We validated gene expression levels via RT-qPCR and microRNA target validation was performed in primary endothelial cells. Altogether, we identified significant gene expression differences between AA and white female hypertensives and pinpointed novel mRNA-microRNA pairs differentially-expressed by hypertension and race. These differences may contribute to the known disparities in hypertension and may be potential targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Hipertensão/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Apolipoproteínas L/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Fosfolipase D/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 8-21, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346685

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) traits are important heritable clinical biomarkers and modifiers of disease severity. To identify coding genetic variants associated with these traits, we conducted meta-analyses of seven RBC phenotypes in 130,273 multi-ethnic individuals from studies genotyped on an exome array. After conditional analyses and replication in 27,480 independent individuals, we identified 16 new RBC variants. We found low-frequency missense variants in MAP1A (rs55707100, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 3.3%, p = 2 × 10(-10) for hemoglobin [HGB]) and HNF4A (rs1800961, MAF = 2.4%, p < 3 × 10(-8) for hematocrit [HCT] and HGB). In African Americans, we identified a nonsense variant in CD36 associated with higher RBC distribution width (rs3211938, MAF = 8.7%, p = 7 × 10(-11)) and showed that it is associated with lower CD36 expression and strong allelic imbalance in ex vivo differentiated human erythroblasts. We also identified a rare missense variant in ALAS2 (rs201062903, MAF = 0.2%) associated with lower mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 8 × 10(-9)). Mendelian mutations in ALAS2 are a cause of sideroblastic anemia and erythropoietic protoporphyria. Gene-based testing highlighted three rare missense variants in PKLR, a gene mutated in Mendelian non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, associated with HGB and HCT (SKAT p < 8 × 10(-7)). These rare, low-frequency, and common RBC variants showed pleiotropy, being also associated with platelet, white blood cell, and lipid traits. Our association results and functional annotation suggest the involvement of new genes in human erythropoiesis. We also confirm that rare and low-frequency variants play a role in the architecture of complex human traits, although their phenotypic effect is generally smaller than originally anticipated.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritropoese/genética , Exoma/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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