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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20922, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686733

RESUMO

Despite the essentiality of Mn in terrestrial plants, its excessive accumulation in plant tissues can cause growth defects, known as Mn toxicity. Mn toxicity can be classified into apoplastic and symplastic types depending on its onset. Symplastic Mn toxicity is hypothesised to be more critical for growth defects. However, details of the relationship between growth defects and symplastic Mn toxicity remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying symplastic Mn toxicity in rice plants. We found that under excess Mn conditions, CO2 assimilation was inhibited by stomatal closure, and both carbon anabolic and catabolic activities were decreased. In addition to stomatal dysfunction, stomatal and leaf anatomical development were also altered by excess Mn accumulation. Furthermore, indole acetic acid (IAA) concentration was decreased, and auxin-responsive gene expression analyses showed IAA-deficient symptoms in leaves due to excess Mn accumulation. These results suggest that excessive Mn accumulation causes IAA deficiency, and low IAA concentrations suppress plant growth by suppressing stomatal opening and leaf anatomical development for efficient CO2 assimilation in leaves.

2.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 42, 2021 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rurality can reflect many aspects of the community, including community characteristics that may be associated with mental health. In this study, we focused on geographical units to address multiple layers of a rural environment. By evaluating rurality at both the municipality and neighborhood (i.e., a smaller unit within a municipality) levels in Japan, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between depression and rurality. To explore the mechanisms linking rurality and depression, we examined how the association between rurality and depression can be explained by community social capital according to geographical units. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2016 wave of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study involving 144,822 respondents aged 65 years or older residing in 937 neighborhoods across 39 municipalities. The population density quintile for municipality-level rurality and the quintile for the time required to reach densely inhabited districts for neighborhood-level rurality were used. We calculated the prevalence ratios of depressive symptoms by gender using a three-level (individual, neighborhood, and municipality) Poisson regression. Community social capital was assessed using three components: civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in municipalities with lower population density than those with the highest population density; the ratios were 1.22 (95% confidence intervals: 1.15, 1.30) for men and 1.22 (1.13, 1.31) for women. In contrast, when evaluating rurality at the neighborhood level, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 0.9 times lower for men in rural areas; no such association was observed for women. In rural municipalities, community civic participation was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. In rural neighborhoods, community social cohesion and reciprocity were linked to a lower risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The association between rurality and depression varied according to geographical unit. In rural municipalities, the risk of depression may be higher for both men and women, and the presence of an environment conducive to civic participation may contribute to a higher risk of depression, as observed in this study. The risk of depression in men may be lower in rural neighborhoods in Japan, which may be related to high social cohesion and reciprocity.


Assuntos
Depressão , Capital Social , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Características de Residência
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5059, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429413

RESUMO

With the current interest in cultured meat, mammalian cell-based meat has mostly been unstructured. There is thus still a high demand for artificial steak-like meat. We demonstrate in vitro construction of engineered steak-like tissue assembled of three types of bovine cell fibers (muscle, fat, and vessel). Because actual meat is an aligned assembly of the fibers connected to the tendon for the actions of contraction and relaxation, tendon-gel integrated bioprinting was developed to construct tendon-like gels. In this study, a total of 72 fibers comprising 42 muscles, 28 adipose tissues, and 2 blood capillaries were constructed by tendon-gel integrated bioprinting and manually assembled to fabricate steak-like meat with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 10 mm inspired by a meat cut. The developed tendon-gel integrated bioprinting here could be a promising technology for the fabrication of the desired types of steak-like cultured meats.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Géis , Carne , Tendões , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colágeno , Células Endoteliais , Músculos/citologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Células-Tronco , Tendões/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual
4.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(10): 907-912, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355487

RESUMO

AIM: Dentures play an important role in improving masticatory and oropharyngeal swallowing functions in some edentulous patients without dysphagia. However, few studies have been conducted on patients with dysphagia. This study investigated the effect of dentures on pharyngeal swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. METHODS: Older inpatients with dysphagia who used well-fitting dentures were included in the study. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings with and without dentures were compared. Pharyngeal residue and area as spatial, the distance between the maxilla and mandible, hyoid bone/laryngeal displacement, and upper esophageal sphincter opening as kinematics, oral/pharyngeal transit time as temporal measurements, and patient-reported symptoms were evaluated. The primary outcome was the pharyngeal residue measured using the normalized residue ratio scale. Comparisons were made using the paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The mean age of the 27 participants was 86.1 ± 6.8 years. The vallecular residue was more in those without dentures (with dentures: 0.01 [0-0.02], without dentures: 0.03 [0-0.08]; P = 0.003). The pyriform sinus residue showed no significant difference. Denture removal significantly increased the pharyngeal area. The distance between the maxilla and mandible decreased in the absence of dentures, and other kinematic measurements showed no significant differences. Oral/pharyngeal transit time was prolonged without dentures. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological changes caused by the removal of dentures led to pharyngeal expansion, which may result in increased vallecular residue. A treatment plan that considers the effect of dentures on pharyngeal swallowing function may provide rehabilitation that is more effective. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 907-912.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Deglutição , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Dentaduras , Humanos , Osso Hioide , Orofaringe
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(9): 1319-1322, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the intraocular penetration of amphotericin B (AMPH-B) after an intravenously injection of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in inflamed human eyes. METHODS: Seven eyes of 5 patients with fungal eye diseases (endophthalmitis in 6 eyes and keratitis in 1 eye) were treated with intravenous injections of 100-250 mg/day of L-AMB. Samples of blood, corneal button, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor were collected and assessed for AMPH-B. RESULTS: The AMPH-B level in the cornea (604.0 µg/g) of the case with fungal keratitis exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration. However, the levels in the aqueous and vitreous humors of the cases with fungal endophthalmitis were lower, e.g., 0.02 ± 0.01 µg/ml (0.09% of serum level) in the aqueous humor and 0.05 ± 0.08 µg/ml (0.17% of serum level) in the vitreous humor. CONCLUSIONS: The AMPH-B levels administered intravenously were very low in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Our findings indicate that intravenous L-AMB can be considered only for patients with mild endogenous fungal endophthalmitis, e.g., isolated chorioretinitis without vitreous extensions.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Endoftalmite , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas
7.
Prev Med ; 149: 106613, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989675

RESUMO

Community social networks positively affect older adults' dietary behavior, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. This study investigated if the relationship between community social networks and dietary behavior is mediated by social participation, and whether the influence of community social networks differs across sociodemographic groups. We conducted a cross-lagged panel mediation analysis employing nonlinear structural equation modeling using panel data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a longitudinal study of Japanese older adults in 2010, 2013, and 2016, which included 11,347 men and 14,105 women aged over 65. Monodirectional relationships in community social networks, individual social participation, and fruit/vegetable intake were examined. Community social networks were associated with social participation regardless of sociodemographic conditions. Individual social participation was in turn, positively associated with fruit/vegetable intake, with this association being stronger among those living alone. Analyses further showed that individuals' social participation positively mediated the relationship between community social networks and fruit/vegetable intake. For both genders, the mediating effects were stronger among people living alone than in those living with someone. However, community networks could also directly and negatively affect fruit/vegetable intake among men who live alone unless they participated in community activities. Community social networks may promote social participation, thereby facilitating healthier dietary behavior regardless of sociodemographic status. Social participation in turn may positively contribute to the dietary health of people living alone. Community-based interventions to encourage people living alone to participate in social activities may help reduce inequality in dietary behavior related to cohabitation status.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Participação Social , Idoso , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rede Social
8.
Integr Comp Biol ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048537

RESUMO

Metachronal motion is used across a wide range of organisms for a diverse set of functions. However, despite its ubiquity, analysis of this behavior has been difficult to generalize across systems. Here we provide an overview of known commonalities and differences between systems that use metachrony to generate fluid flow. We also discuss strategies for standardizing terminology and defining future investigative directions that are analogous to other established subfields of biomechanics. Lastly, we outline key challenges that are common to many metachronal systems, opportunities that have arisen due to the advent of new technology (both experimental and computational), and next steps for community development and collaboration across the nascent network of metachronal researchers.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802054

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate rural-urban differences in depressive symptoms in terms of the risk factors among older adults of two regions in Myanmar to provide appropriate intervention for depression depending on local characteristics. This cross-sectional study, conducted between September and December, 2018, used a multistage sampling method to recruit participants from the two regions, for face-to-face interviews. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Depressive symptoms were positively associated with living in rural areas (B = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12,0.72), female (B = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31,0.79), illness during the preceding year (B = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45,0.91) and non-Buddhist religion (B = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.001,1.15) and protectively associated with education to middle school level or higher (B = -0.61; 95% CI: -0.94, -0.28) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.10). In women in urban areas, depressive symptoms were positively associated with illness during the preceding year (B = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.20) and protectively associated with education to middle school level or higher (B = -0.67; 95% CI: -1.23, -0.11), middle or high wealth index (B = -0.92; 95% CI: -1.59, -0.25) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.03). In men in rural areas, illness during the preceding year was positively associated with depressive symptoms (B = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.42). In women in rural areas, depressive symptoms were positively associated with illness during the preceding year (B = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.30) and protectively associated with primary education (B = -0.62; 95% CI: -1.12, -0.12) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = -0.44; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.21). Religion and wealth could have different levels of association with depression between older adults in the urban and rural areas and men and women. Interventions for depression in older adults should consider regional and gender differences in the roles of religion and wealth in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Depressão , População Rural , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507963

RESUMO

Low objective socioeconomic status (SES) has been correlated with poor physical and mental health among older adults. Some studies suggest that subjective SES is also important for ensuring sound physical and mental health among older adults. However, few studies have been conducted on the impact of both objective and subjective SES on mental health among older adults. This study examines whether objective or subjective SES is associated with depressive symptoms in older adults in Myanmar. This cross-sectional study, conducted between September and December, 2018, used a multistage sampling method to recruit participants from two regions of Myanmar, for face-to-face interviews. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to evaluate the depressive symptoms. Participants were classified as having no depressive symptom (GDS score <5) and having depressive symptoms (GDS score ≥5). Objective and subjective SES were assessed using the wealth index and asking participants a multiple-choice question about their current financial situation, respectively. The relationship between objective/subjective SES and depressive symptoms was examined using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the 1,186 participants aged 60 years and above was 69.7 (SD: 7.3), and 706 (59.5%) were female. Among them, 265 (22.3%) had depressive symptoms. After adjusting for objective SES and other covariates, only low subjective SES was positively associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 4.18, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.98-5.87). This association was stronger among participants in the rural areas (urban areas, AOR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.08-4.05; rural areas, AOR: 5.65, 95% CI: 3.69-8.64). Subjective SES has a stronger association with depressive symptoms than objective SES, among older adults of the two regions in Myanmar, especially in the rural areas. Interventions for depression in older adults should consider regional differences in the context of subjective SES by reducing socioeconomic disparities among the communities.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e018217, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170061

RESUMO

Background Whether circulating growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) levels differ according to smoking status and whether smoking modifies the relationship between GDF-15 and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease are unclear. Methods and Results Using data from a multicenter, prospective cohort of 2418 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease, we assessed the association between smoking status and GDF-15 and the impact of smoking status on the association between GDF-15 and all-cause death. GDF-15 was measured in 955 never smokers, 1035 former smokers, and 428 current smokers enrolled in the ANOX Study (Development of Novel Biomarkers Related to Angiogenesis or Oxidative Stress to Predict Cardiovascular Events). Patients were followed up during 3 years. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 94 years; 67.2% were men. Never smokers exhibited significantly lower levels of GDF-15 compared with former smokers and current smokers. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the log-transformed GDF-15 level was independently associated with both current smoking and former smoking. In the entire patient cohort, the GDF-15 level was significantly associated with all-cause death after adjusting for potential clinical confounders. This association was still significant in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. However, GDF-15 provided incremental prognostic information to the model with potential clinical confounders and the established cardiovascular biomarkers in never smokers, but not in current smokers or in former smokers. Conclusions Not only current, but also former smoking was independently associated with higher levels of GDF-15. The prognostic value of GDF-15 on mortality was most pronounced in never smokers among patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e042877, 2020 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myanmar is rapidly ageing. It is important to understand the current condition of older adults in the country. To obtain such information, we conducted home-visit surveys to collect data for evaluating social determinants of health on older adults in Yangon (representative of an urban) and Bago (representative of a rural) regions of Myanmar. PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 1200 individuals aged 60 years or older and who were not bedridden or had severe dementia (defined as an Abbreviated Mental Test score ≤6) were recruited from Yangon and Bago in 2018. A population-proportionate random-sampling method was used for recruitment. FINDINGS TO DATE: Overall, 600 individuals from Yangon (222 men; 378 women) and 600 from Bago (261 men; 339 women) were surveyed. The average age of Yangon-based men and women was 69.4±7.6 and 69.4±7.3 years; in Bago, this was 69.2±7.1 and 70.6±7.5 years, respectively. Compared to their Yangon-based counterparts, Bago-based respondents showed significantly lower socioeconomic status and more commonly reported poor self-rated health (Bago-based men: 32.2%, women: 42.5%; Yangon: 10.8% and 24.1%, respectively). Meanwhile, some Yangon-based respondents rarely met friends (men: 17.1%, women: 27.8%), and Yangon-based respondents scored higher for instrumental activities of daily living and body mass index when compared to their Bago-based counterparts. For both regions, women showed higher physical-function decline (Yangon-based women: 40.7%, men: 17.1%; Bago: 46.3% and 23.8%, respectively) and cognitive-function decline (Yangon: 34.1% and 10.4%, respectively; Bago: 53.4% and 22.2%, respectively). Being homebound was more common in urban areas (urban-based men: 11.3%, rural-based men: 2.3%; urban-based women: 13.0%, rural-based women: 4.7%, respectively). FUTURE PLANS: A follow-up survey is scheduled for 2021. This will afford longitudinal data collection concerning mortality, becoming bedridden, and developing dementia and long-term care-related diseases. This will allow us to calculate long-term care risks for older adults in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Nível de Saúde , Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , População Urbana
14.
J Radiat Res ; 61(6): 952-958, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960269

RESUMO

The clinical utility of a recently developed bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer has not yet been established in pediatric patients; therefore, we aimed to investigate its utility during chemo-proton therapy for pediatric cancer. Proton depth-dose curves were obtained in a water phantom with or without the spacer. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for the PGA spacer immersed in saline for 2 weeks to measure CT numbers and estimate the relative stopping power (RSP) for the proton beams. The spacer was placed in a patient with sacral Ewing sarcoma receiving 55.8 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE)] in 31 fractions and was evaluated using CT scans performed every other week. In addition, the images were used to quantitatively evaluate changes in volume and RSP of the spacer and dose distributions in normal tissues. The spacer immersed in saline had a CT number of 91 ± 7 (mean ± standard deviation) Hounsfield units, and the corresponding RSP was predicted to be 1.07 ± 0.01. The measured RSP agreed with the predicted one. The volumes of the large bowel and rectum receiving ≥45 Gy(RBE) (V45Gy) were significantly reduced by placing the spacer; V45Gy without and with the spacer were 48.5 and 0.01%, respectively, for the rectum and 7.2 and 0%, respectively, for the large bowel. The volume of the spacer and RSP decreased at rates of 4.6 and 0.44% per week, respectively, whereas the target dose coverage was maintained until the end of treatment. The PGA spacer was considered effective for pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemo-proton therapy.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Sarcoma de Ewing/radioterapia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Imagens de Fantasmas , Terapia com Prótons , Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 85, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between time preference (i.e., time discounting and hyperbolic time discounting) and personal values (the areas of priority values and commitment to value) in a sample of adult community residents in Japan. METHODS: Data from respondents (N = 2787) who completed the wave 1 and 3 surveys of a three-wave panel study of adult community residents in municipalities in Tokyo and suburban areas spanning 2010-2017 were analysed. Time discount rate and hyperbolic discount were measured using a three-item choice-based scale at the wave 1. Areas of priority value at present and at age 15 were measured by 11 questions for different value areas at the wave 3; the commitment to value at present and age 15 was measured by the Personal Value Questionnaire-II (PVQ-II) at the wave 3. Linear regression analyses were conducted of priority areas of values and commitment to value on time preference indicators, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and childhood socioeconomic status. RESULTS: After excluding those with missing responses, data from 1880 and 1958 respondents were subject to analyses on time discounting and hyperbolic time discounting, respectively. Time discount rate was significantly and negatively associated with the value area of maintaining a stable life at present. Hyperbolic time discounting was significantly and negatively associated with the commitment to value at age 15. CONCLUSION: There may be an association between time preference and personal values. Time discounting and hyperbolic time discounting may be associated with different aspects of personal values, i.e., area of priority values and commitment to value, respectively.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 260: 113207, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712558

RESUMO

Although previous social network studies have consistently shown the social influence of peers' smoking on one's (ego's) smoking, few studies have examined how the influence differs according to peers' structural positions in the network. Investigations are also lacking on whether vulnerability to the influence varies by ego's socioeconomic position. Thus, the present study aimed to examine how the association between peers' smoking and ego's smoking differs by peers' popularity in ego's personal network and ego's educational attainment. We used data from the third-wave Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) conducted in 2017, which targeted middle-aged (32-58-year-old) residents in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas. Information on four close peers' characteristics and behaviors and their mutual relationships was collected by the name generator and name interpreter methods. Data on 1989 respondents and 7956 peers were evaluated. Peers' eigenvector centrality was used as their popularity index in ego's personal network. We set ego's smoking as an outcome, regressed on each peer's smoking, each peer's popularity, and ego's educational attainment adjusting for ego's age, sex, working status, marital status, spouse's/partner's smoking status, as well as similarity in socioeconomic backgrounds between peer and ego, using a logistic regression model with robust standard errors. We then added a three-way interaction term for these three explanatory variables to the model. Results showed that peer's smoking status was related to ego's smoking even more strongly when the peer was popular but only in the case of ego with lower educational attainment. The results suggested that the disparity in smoking behavior across socioeconomic positions may be partly explained by susceptibility to social influence from one's personal network among the socioeconomically vulnerable. This study proposes a plausible method for pinpointing the peer influencer in one's personal social network to close the socioeconomic gap in smoking.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Rede Social
17.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Very few longitudinal studies have investigated the question of whether differences in company size may give rise to health inequalities. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between company size of the longest-held job and mortality in older Japanese adults. METHODS: This study used longitudinal data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Surveys were sent to functionally independent individuals aged 65 or older who were randomly sampled from 13 municipalities in Japan. Respondents were followed for a maximum of 6.6 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for men and for women. Analysis was carried out on 35 418 participants (197 514 person-years). RESULTS: A total of 3935 deaths occurred during the 6-year follow-up period. Among men, in Model 1 that adjusted for age, educational attainment, type of longest-held job, and municipalities, mortality HRs decreased significantly with increasing size of company (P for trend = .002). Compared to companies with 1-9 employees, the mortality HR (0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.90) was significantly lower for companies with 10 000 or more employees. However, there were no significant differences among women (P for trend = .41). CONCLUSIONS: In men, mortality in old age may decrease with increasing size of company of the longest-held job. To reduce health inequalities in old age due to differences in size of company, studies should be conducted to determine the underlying mechanisms and moderating factors and those findings should be reflected in labor policies and occupational health systems.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 14(10): 1384-1393, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593199

RESUMO

Artificial three-dimensional (3D) tissues have the potential to be used in regenerative medicine or in vitro screening. In particular, the fabrication of 3-D cardiac tissues is greatly anticipated. However, hierarchical organization of 3-D tissues is still unknown. In regenerative medicine and drug discovery, noninvasive evaluation methods of 3-D tissues including inside of it play a key role. In this study, we report on noninvasive methods of analyzing bio-fabricated 3-D cardiac tissues using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and image analysis. Three-dimensional cardiac tissues were fabricated by coating of extracellular matrix nanofilms onto a cell surface using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. At first, we investigated the relationship between surface beating and its thickness to assess the value of internal analysis. The results showed that the surface beating was influenced by the thickness. Next, we tried to quantitatively evaluate the internal beating of 3-D cardiac tissues. We also confirmed the methods by changing the beating properties through the administration of isoproterenol. Our results demonstrated that the beating properties of 3-D cardiac tissues differed by depth. The results of this study suggest that information on the internal properties of 3-D cardiac tissue was necessary to understand how it functions. The combination of OCT and image analysis can be used to evaluate the internal beating properties, including changes in beating induced by a drug. It is suggested that OCT and image analysis have the potential to be used as noninvasive methods in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Animais , Fluorescência , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microscopia de Vídeo
19.
Langmuir ; 36(21): 5863-5871, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390435

RESUMO

Thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria are the powerhouse of photosynthesis, capturing solar energy and converting it into chemical energy. Although their structures and functions have been extensively studied, the intrinsically heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the membrane structures is still not fully understood. Investigating native thylakoid membranes in vivo is difficult due to their small size and limited external access to the chloroplast interior, while the bottom-up approaches based on model systems have been hampered by the sheer complexity of the native membrane. Here, we try to fill the gap by reconstituting the whole thylakoid membrane into a patterned substrate-supported planer bilayer. A mixture of thylakoid membrane purified from spinach leaves and synthetic phospholipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) vesicles spontaneously formed a laterally continuous and fluid two-dimensional (2D) membrane in the scaffold of the patterned polymeric bilayer. Chlorophyll fluorescence arising from photosystem II (PSII) recovered after photobleaching, suggesting that the membrane components are laterally mobile. The reversible changes of chlorophyll fluorescence in the presence of the electron acceptors and/or inhibitors indicated that the electron transfer activity of PSII was retained. Furthermore, we confirmed the electron transfer activity of photosystem I (PSI) by observing the generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) in the presence of water-soluble ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase. The lateral mobility of membrane-bound molecules and the functional reconstitution of major photosystems provide evidence that our hybrid thylakoid membranes could be an excellent experimental platform to study the 2D molecular organization and machinery of photosynthesis.

20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(9): 910-921, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232321

RESUMO

Levels of social capital can change after a natural disaster; thus far, no study has examined how changes in social capital affect the mental health of disaster victims. In this study, we examined how predisaster social capital and its changes after a disaster were associated with the onset of mental disorders. In October 2013, we mailed a questionnaire to participants in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study living in Mifune, a town in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, and measured predisaster social capital. In April 2016, the Kumamoto earthquake struck the region. Three years after the baseline survey, postdisaster social capital and symptoms of mental disorders were measured using the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health (n = 828). Multiple Poisson regression indicated that a 1-standard-deviation change in predisaster social cohesion at the community level reduced the risk of depression among women (relative risk = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.78); a decline in social capital after the disaster elevated the risk (relative risk = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.33, 4.47). In contrast to social cohesion, high levels of social participation at the community level were positively associated with the risk of depression among women. Policy-makers should pay attention to sex differences and types of social capital when leveraging social capital for recovery from disasters.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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