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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587104

RESUMO

We examined whether peripheral leukocytes of mice derived from in vitro-αMEM cultured embryos and exhibiting type 2 diabetes had higher expression of inflammatory-related genes associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Also, we examined the impact of a barley diet on inflammatory gene expression. Adult mice were produced by embryo transfer, after culturing two-cell embryos for 48 h in either α-MEM (minimal essential media) or KSOM (potassium simplex optimized medium) control media. Mice were fed either a barley or rice diet for 10 weeks. Postprandial blood glucose, and mRNA levels of several inflammatory genes, including Tnfa and Nox2, in blood leukocytes were significantly higher in MEM mice fed a rice diet compared with control mice. Barley intake reduced expression of S100a8 and Nox2. In summary, MEM mice exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia and peripheral leukocytes with higher expression of genes related to development of atherosclerosis, and barley intake reduced some gene expression.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the association between evacuation and hyperuricemia based on the Fukushima Health Management Survey from a lifestyle and socio-psychological perspective. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 22,812 residents (9391 men and 13,297 women) who underwent both the Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey in fiscal year 2011. Associations between hyperuricemia and lifestyle- and disaster-related factors including evacuation were estimated using a logistic and liner regression analysis. With hyperuricemia defined as uric acid levels >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women, significant associations were observed between evacuation and hyperuricemia in men (the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.36, p = 0.005), but not in women. In the multivariate-adjusted multiple liner regression analysis, evacuation had significant and positive associations with uric acid levels both in men (ß = 0.084, p = 0.002) and women (ß = 0.060, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Evacuation after a natural disaster is an independent factor associated with hyperuricemia.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24177, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578521

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We had earlier reported about the increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima Prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the present investigation, we explored the association between the prevalence of AF and white blood cell (WBC) count after the earthquake through an observational cross-sectional study.A total of 14,800 participants (6427 men and 8373 women) were included in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. For the present study, 12-lead electrocardiogram tracings and the WBC count and its subtypes were obtained and analyzed. The odds ratios (ORs) of AF after the earthquake and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for one standard deviation of differential WBC count were calculated after adjustments for age and other potential confounding factors using the logistic regression model.Our results revealed a prevalence of AF of 1.8% (269 participants) after the earthquake. Monocyte count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio exhibited a significant association with the prevalence of AF in the multivariable-adjusted model. The adjusted ORs of monocyte count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for AF were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.05-1.40, P = .01) and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.44, P < .05), respectively.The prevalence of AF was associated with increased monocyte count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture, suggesting that inflammation and psychological stress could be important factors mediating the development of AF after the earthquake.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Terremotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607655

RESUMO

Several reports have suggested that genetic susceptibility contributes to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. We aimed to identify genetic loci that confer susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We analysed 5 790 508 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8880 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 4839 retinopathy cases and 4041 controls, as well as 2217 independent Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 693 retinopathy cases, and 1524 controls. The results of these two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were combined with an inverse variance meta-analysis (Stage-1), followed by de novo genotyping for the candidate SNP loci (p < 1.0 × 10-4) in an independent case-control study (Stage-2, 2260 cases and 723 controls). After combining the association data (Stage-1 and -2) using meta-analysis, the associations of two loci reached a genome-wide significance level: rs12630354 near STT3B on chromosome 3, p = 1.62 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.23, and rs140508424 within PALM2 on chromosome 9, p = 4.19 × 10-8, OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.36-1.91. However, the association of these two loci were not replicated in Korean, European, or African American populations. Gene-based analysis using Stage-1 GWAS data identified a gene-level association of EHD3 with susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy (p = 2.17 × 10-6). In conclusion, we identified two novel SNP loci, STT3B and PALM2, and a novel gene, EHD3, that confers susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy; however, further replication studies are required to validate these associations.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555323

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut. Genetic association studies have identified the highly variable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region as the strongest susceptibility locus for IBD, and specifically DRB1*01:03 as a determining factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, for most of the association signal such a delineation could not be made due to tight structures of linkage disequilibrium within the HLA. The aim of this study was therefore to further characterize the HLA signal using a trans-ethnic approach. We performed a comprehensive fine mapping of single HLA alleles in UC in a cohort of 9272 individuals with African American, East Asian, Puerto Rican, Indian and Iranian descent and 40 691 previously analyzed Caucasians, additionally analyzing whole HLA haplotypes. We computationally characterized the binding of associated HLA alleles to human self-peptides and analysed the physico-chemical properties of the HLA proteins and predicted self-peptidomes. Highlighting alleles of the HLA-DRB1*15 group and their correlated HLA-DQ-DR haplotypes, we identified consistent associations (regarding effects directions/magnitudes) across different ethnicities but also identified population-specific signals (regarding differences in allele frequencies). We observed that DRB1*01:03 is mostly present in individuals of Western European descent and hardly present in non-Caucasian individuals. We found peptides predicted to bind to risk HLA alleles to be rich in positively charged amino acids such. We conclude that the HLA plays an important role for UC susceptibility across different ethnicities. This research further implicates specific features of peptides that are predicted to bind risk and protective HLA proteins.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 18, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that psychological stress affects bone metabolism and increases the risk of fracture. However, the relationship between bone fractures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of disaster-induced PTSD symptoms on fracture risk in older adults. METHODS: This study evaluated responses from 17,474 individuals aged ≥ 65 years without a history of fractures during the Great East Japan Earthquake who answered the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey component of the Fukushima Health Management Survey conducted in 2011. The obtained data could determine the presence or absence of fractures until 2016. Age, sex, physical factors, social factors, psychological factors, and lifestyle factors were subsequently analyzed. Survival analysis was then performed to determine the relationship between the fractures and each factor. Thereafter, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to identify fracture risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 2,097 (12.0%) fractures were observed throughout the follow-up period. Accordingly, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that PTSD symptoms (total PTSD checklists scoring ≥ 44) [hazard ratio (HR): 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.44; P = 0.001], history of cancer (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79; P < 0.001), history of stroke (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52; P = 0.023), history of heart disease (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.13-1.50; P < 0.001), history of diabetes (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09-1.39; P < 0.001), current smoking (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02-1.63; P = 0.036), and high dissatisfaction with sleep or no sleep at all (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; P = 0.035) promoted a significant increase in fracture risk independent of age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that disaster-induced PTSD symptoms and insomnia contribute to increased fracture risk among older adults residing in evacuation areas within the Fukushima Prefecture.

8.
Int J Urol ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive behavioral therapy using a self-check sheet is effective in improving night-time frequency of patients with nocturia. METHODS: We carried out a multicenter, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial in eight institutions. Patients having two or more episodes of nocturia were randomly assigned to either cognitive behavioral therapy with completion of frequency volume charts regularly (cognitive behavioral therapy group) or frequency volume charts regularly alone (frequency volume charts group). The cognitive behavioral therapy checklist was composed of eight items: wake up time/bedtime, mealtime, napping, alcohol/caffeine intake, water intake, salt intake, exercise and taking a bath. A physician explained cognitive behavioral therapy within 5 min using a brief manual. The patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy group filled out the self-check sheet every day. The primary end-point was the difference in night-time frequency based on the International Prostate Symptom Score Q7 at 4 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 100 first-visit patients randomly allocated, 37 in the cognitive behavioral therapy group and 41 in the frequency volume charts group completed the protocol. No difference was observed in the mean ± standard deviation of night-time frequency at 4 weeks between the cognitive behavioral therapy group (2.6 ± 1.0) and the frequency volume charts group (3.1 ± 1.2; P = 0.056). However, when six patients with achievement of cognitive behavioral therapy of <50% were excluded from the analysis, night-time frequency at 4 weeks was significantly lower in the cognitive behavioral therapy group (2.5 ± 1.0) than in the frequency volume charts group (3.1 ± 1.2; P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy using a self-check sheet for nocturia remains to be shown. However, strictly practicing cognitive behavioral therapy might be beneficial to these patients.

9.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441506

RESUMO

BackgroundThe Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster forced the evacuation of residents and led to many changes in lifestyle for the evacuees. The Comprehensive Health Check was implemented to support the prevention of lifestyle-related disease and we analyzed the effect of prolonged evacuation (average of 3.0 years) on the new onset of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia.MethodsThe study participants were Japanese adults living near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. Annual health checkups focusing on metabolic syndromes were conducted for persons ≥ 40 years by the Specific Health Checkup. Based on data from annual checkups from 2011 or 2012, we followed 18,670 non-hyper-LDL cholesterolemia who underwent at least one other annual checkup during 2013-2015.ResultsWe found that the new onset of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia was significantly by 31% higher in evacuees than in non-evacuees. Evacuees had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and higher frequency of weight change. Furthermore, logistic regression model analysis showed that the evacuation was significantly associated with the new onset of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia after adjusting age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, alcohol consumption, diabetes, weight change, sleep deprivation, and exercise.ConclusionsThe findings of the present study suggest that prolonged evacuation after a disaster is a risk factor for the new onset of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, and lead to an increase in cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to follow-up evacuees and recommend lifestyle changes where necessary.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430501

RESUMO

To investigate associations between dietary patterns and the risk of impaired kidney function, we analyzed data from 14,732 participants (40-89 years) who completed the baseline diet questionnaire of The Fukushima Health Management Survey in 2011. The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria (≥1+ by dipstick test)) and annual changes in eGFR were assessed from 2012 to 2015. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The adjusted cumulative incidence ratio of the highest vs. lowest tertile of a vegetable diet scores was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.00) for eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, 0.68 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) for proteinuria, and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.97) for CKD (P for trend = 0.031, 0.007, and 0.005, respectively). The incident risk of CKD in the highest tertile of juice diet scores was 18% higher than the lowest tertile. The odds ratio of the highest vs. lowest tertile of vegetable diet scores was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.98) in the rapidly decreasing eGFR group (P for trend = 0.009). We did not observe significant associations for the meat dietary pattern. A Japanese vegetable diet could reduce the risk of developing impaired kidney function and CKD.

11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 263-268, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to improve clinical outcome of high-risk atherosclerotic patients. We investigated whether endogenous EPA values predict prognosis of peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective study included 166 consecutive patients who had received endovascular therapy (EVT) for PAD caused by aortoiliac artery lesions. Patients were divided into 2 groups using median preoperative EPA value (57 µg/ml): LOW EPA (n = 83) and HIGH EPA (n = 83). We compared differences between the 2 groups in prevalence of major adverse limb events (MALE) which included target lesion revascularization (TLR), non-TLR, and major amputation, and major adverse events (MAE) which included MALE and all cause death. At a median follow-up period of 20 months, MALE had occurred in 24 LOW EPA patients (28.9%) and in 12 HIGH EPA patients (14.5%) (p = 0.04), and MAE had occurred in 41 LOW EPA patients (49.4%) and in 21 HIGH EPA patients (25.3%) (p < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed prevalence of MALE and MAE was significantly higher in LOW EPA than in HIGH EPA (long-rank test χ2 = 8.5, p < 0.01, log-rank test χ2 = 13.2, p < 0.01, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression revealed preoperative EPA value < 57 µg/ml was an independent predictor for MALE (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.35 to 5.4; p < 0.01) and MAE (HR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.91; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous EPA value seems to be associated with risk of MALE and MAE after EVT in patients with PAD caused by aortoiliac artery lesions.

12.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of hemodialysis patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and the outcomes after endovascular therapy (EVT) in such patients stratified by the primary kidney disease. METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated 142 consecutive hemodialysis patients with symptomatic PAD who underwent EVT (men: n = 103, age: 74 ± 8 years). Patients were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the reason for hemodialysis: hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HTN [n = 26]), diabetic nephropathy (DN [n = 85]), and chronic glomerulosclerosis (CGN [n = 31]). The primary outcome was major adverse event(s) (MAEs), including target lesion revascularization, major amputation, and all-cause death. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: Patients with HTN were older (81 ± 6 years vs. 72 ± 8 years vs. 74 ± 8 years; P < 0.001) and had a shorter hemodialysis vintage (2.4 years vs. 6.8 years vs. 11.2 years; P < 0.001) than those with DN and CGN. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) affected 15 (58%) patients in the HTN group, 52 (61%) in the DN group, and 10 (32%) in the CGN group. Target lesion length was longer in patients with HTN than in those in the other groups (155 ± 101 mm vs. 108 ± 77 mm [DN] vs. 98 ± 76 mm [CGN]; P = 0.020). During a median follow-up period of 372 days (interquartile range, 198-730 days), Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that HTN was associated with an increased risk for MAEs (χ2 11.6; P = 0.003). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CLI, HTN, and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were independent predictors of MAE (hazard ratio 3.91, 2.88, and 1.00; P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among hemodialysis patients with PAD, HTN was associated with an increased risk for MAEs after EVT.

13.
Food Chem ; 340: 128100, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059268

RESUMO

A strongly basic ion-exchange resin catalyst was reported to exhibit a high catalytic activity in transesterification to produce a bio-based surfactant, sugar ester under mild condition. However, the side-reactions to decompose the reactant and the product were found to occur. This study was aimed to improve the selectivity of sugar ester synthesis by newly focusing on the basicity of the resin. A weakly basic resin (Diaion WA20) with a lower mass transfer resistance suppressed the decompositions while maintaining synthesis rate. Controlling molar ratio of the reactants in the intraparticle reaction field also increased the reaction selectivity, 72.1% and product yield, 57.5%. Both values were drastically increased compared to the reported values with the strongly basic resin (selectivity 50.9%, yield 14.3%). This is the first knowledge to show a high catalytic activity of weakly basic resin. These results suggest that a more efficient continuous production process would be possible.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Açúcares/química , Catálise , Esterificação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284844

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and factors related to HCC occurrence after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment in the Fukushima Liver Academic Group (FLAG). We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 1068 patients without cirrhosis (NC) or with compensated liver cirrhosis (LC) who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR). First, we compared the cumulative HCC incidence and survival rates in NC (n = 880) and LC (n = 188) patients without a history of HCC treatment. Second, we performed multivariate analysis of factors related to HCC occurrence after DAA treatment. Overall, the average age was 65 years, and the male/female ratio was 511/557. Thirty-nine (4%) patients developed HCC. The cumulative 4-year HCC incidence and survival rates were 3.0% and 99.8% in NC patients and 11.5% and 98.5% in LC patients, respectively. The independent factors affecting HCC occurrence identified by multivariate analysis were the serum albumin (ALB) level before SVR for NC patients and the ALBI score, platelet count, and diabetes before SVR for LC patients. The factors related to HCC occurrence differed between NC and LC patients. Careful surveillance of post-SVR patients with these risk factors is needed.

15.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372327

RESUMO

Since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we have established an archive system of livestock and wild animals from the surrounding ex-evacuation zone. Wildlife within the alert zone have been exposed to low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation for a long continuous time. In this study, we analysed the morphological characteristics of the testes and in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of cryopreserved sperm of racoons from the ex-evacuation zone of the FDNPP accident. The radioactivity of caesium-137 (137 Cs) was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry, and the measured radioactivity concentration was 300-6,630 Bq/kg in the Fukushima raccoons. Notably, normal spermatogenesis was observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, with the germinal epithelium composed of a spermatogenic cell lineage with no evident ultrastructural alterations; freeze-thawing sperm penetration ability was confirmed using the interspecific zona pellucida-free mouse oocytes IVF assays. This study revealed that the chronic and LDR radiation exposure associated with the FDNPP accident had no adverse effect on the reproductive characteristics and functions of male raccoons.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inability of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) to prevent progression of Fabry nephropathy (FN) in the presence of >1 g/day proteinuria underscores the necessity of identifying effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of FN preceding proteinuria. Here we attempted to identify biomarkers for early detection of FN. METHODS: Fifty-one Fabry disease (FD) patients were enrolled. Urinary mulberry bodies (uMBs) were immunostained for globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and renal cell markers to determine their origin. The association between semiquantitative uMB excretion and the histological severity of podocyte vacuolation was investigated in seven patients using the vacuolated podocyte:glomerular average area ratio. The association between the semiquantitative estimate of uMB excretion and duration of ERT was analyzed. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effect of ERT on uMB excretion. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (63%) had uMBs, while only 31% showed proteinuria. The uMBs were positive for Gb3, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 and podocalyxin, suggesting they were derived from lysosomes with Gb3 accumulation in podocytes. We observed more severe podocyte vacuolation with increased uMB excretion (P = 0.03 for trend); however, the same was not observed with increased proteinuria. The percentage of patients with substantial uMB excretion increased with shorter ERT duration (P = 0.018). Eighteen-month-long ERT reduced uMB excretion (P = 0.03) without affecting proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: uMB excretion, implying ongoing podocyte injury, preceded proteinuria in most patients. Semiquantitative uMB estimates can serve as novel biomarkers for early FN diagnosis and for monitoring the efficacy of FD-specific therapies.

17.
Nephron ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227797

RESUMO

A 64-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome was admitted to another hospital where his renal biopsy revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) with monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G, subclass 1, κ light chain (IgG1κ) deposition on immunofluorescence (IF). Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits (PGNMID) was suspected due to monoclonal IgG1κ deposits and the absence of hematological abnormalities. However, the typical PGNMID phenotype was not observed by electron microscopy. Instead, an organized and striated muscle-like structure was observed in the subendothelial space. Since a 2-year treatment with immunosuppressants did not improve his proteinuria, a second biopsy was performed at our hospital. It showed an MPGN-like phenotype; however, monoclonal Ig deposits on IF were no longer observed. One year after the second biopsy, he developed ESRD. Thus, he underwent living kidney transplantation from his wife. Allograft biopsy was performed as proteinuria was observed 3 months after transplantation, which again showed an MPGN-like phenotype with monoclonal IgG1κ deposits. The observed electron-dense deposits were similar to those in the native biopsies. Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with recurrent MPGN. Adding methylprednisolone pulse therapy to conventional immunosuppressants did not improve the patient's renal function or proteinuria. He died of Legionella pneumonia 8 months after transplantation. Considering the patient's histological findings of MPGN with monoclonal IgG1κ deposits and early recurrence of glomerulonephritis after transplantation, he was diagnosed with PGNMID with novel electron-dense deposits.

18.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(12): 1597-1605, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230328

RESUMO

When people are forced to be isolated from each other, do they crave social interactions? To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural responses evoked by food and social cues after participants (n = 40) experienced 10 h of mandated fasting or total social isolation. After isolation, people felt lonely and craved social interaction. Midbrain regions showed selective activation to food cues after fasting and to social cues after isolation; these responses were correlated with self-reported craving. By contrast, striatal and cortical regions differentiated between craving food and craving social interaction. Across deprivation sessions, we found that deprivation narrows and focuses the brain's motivational responses to the deprived target. Our results support the intuitive idea that acute isolation causes social craving, similar to the way fasting causes hunger.

19.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159829

RESUMO

Metastatic burden is a critical factor for therapy decision-making in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors in men with high or low metastatic burden treated with primary androgen-deprivation therapy. The study included 2450 men with de novo metastatic prostate cancer who were treated with primary androgen-deprivation therapy at 30 institutions across Japan between 2008 and 2017. We investigated the prognostic value of various clinicopathological parameters for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients stratified by low or high metastatic burden. Among the 2450 men, 841 (34.3%) and 1609 (65.7 %) were classified as having low and high metastatic burden, respectively. The median PFS of the low- and high-burden groups were 44.5 and 16.1 months, respectively, and the median OS was 103.2 and 62.7 months, -respectively. Percentage of biopsy positive core, biopsy Gleason grade group, T-stage, and N-stage were identified to be differentially prognostic. M1a was associated with worse PFS than was M1b in the low-burden group, while lung metastasis was associated with better PFS and OS than was M1b in the high-burden group. Differential prognostic factors were identified for patients with low- and high-burden metastatic prostate cancer. These results may assist in decision-making to select the optimal therapeutic strategies for patients with different metastatic burdens.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151930

RESUMO

25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been reported to be associated with several chronic liver diseases. The relationship between 25(OH)D and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) pathogenesis is incompletely understood. We investigated the association of serum total and free 25(OH)D levels with necroinflammatory activity and cytokine levels in 66 patients with AIH diagnosed in our hospital. The median age at AIH diagnosis was 57 years, and the male:female ratio was 7:59. The median serum total 25(OH)D level in therapy-naïve patients with AIH was 14.2 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 11.4-17.9 ng/mL). Of the 66 patients with AIH, 36 had serum total 25(OH)D levels of < 15 ng/mL and were considered to have vitamin D deficiency, and 30 had serum total 25(OH)D levels of ≥ 15 ng/mL. Patients with acute-onset AIH had significantly lower serum total 25(OH)D levels than those with chronic-onset AIH. In particular, serum total 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients with severe forms of AIH. Furthermore, the serum total 25(OH)D level was positively correlated with the serum albumin level and prothrombin time and negatively correlated with the serum total bilirubin level and necroinflammatory activity in AIH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the serum total 25(OH)D level was an independent factor for severe necroinflammatory activity. Interestingly, AIH patients with serum total 25(OH)D levels of < 15 ng/mL had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ and interleukin-33. Free 25(OH)D levels were correlated with total 25(OH)D levels, and the percentage of free 25(OH)D was significantly associated with necroinflammatory activity. In conclusion, 25(OH)D deficiency may play an important role in predicting AIH severity via inflammatory cytokine production.

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