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1.
Intern Med ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448835

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis, a chronic and recurrent inflammatory disease, is localized to the colonic mucosa but can affect other organs and lead to various complications. Gastroduodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis has been reported. However, little is known about esophageal ulcers. We herein report two rare cases of esophageal ulcers associated with ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, the clinical and histological characteristics of 18 previously reported cases are summarized. This case series and literature review will encourage the accurate diagnosis and treatment of esophageal ulcers associated with ulcerative colitis.

2.
J Phycol ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445207

RESUMO

In all, 26 cultures of the harmful marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium, isolated from Japanese and Philippine coastal waters, were examined using LM, SEM, and molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS and LSU rDNA. Seven Karlodinium species (six from Japan and four from Philippines), K. australe, K. ballantinum, K. decipiens, K. gentienii, K. veneficum, K. zhouanum, and a novel species Karlodinium azanzae sp. nov., were identified based on their morphology and phylogenetic positions. Karlodinium azanzae from Manila Bay, Philippines was further characterized by TEM, HPLC (chloroplast pigment), and bioassay on brine shrimp and other marine zooplankton. Cells of K. azanzae were the largest (mean 25.3 µm long) in Karlodinium, possessed numerous tiny reflective particles, starch grains, and lipid granules, and usually swam at the bottom of the culture vessel. The straight apical structure complex and a ventral pore were common to the genus. The longitudinally elongated nucleus was located at the center, and the yellowish chloroplasts contained an embedded pyrenoid and carotenoid pigments typical of the genus (i.e., fucoxanthin as major carotenoid with its derivatives). TEM revealed a part of the flagellar apparatus, of which the long striated ventral connective is the first report in the Kareniaceae. Phylogenetic trees showed closest affinity of K. azanzae with K. australe and K. armiger. The new species could be differentiated from related species by cell size, position of the nucleus, and characteristic swimming behavior. Lethality of K. azanzae to large zooplankton and micropredation using a developed peduncle was also observed.

3.
J Phycol ; 56(3): 730-746, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115704

RESUMO

The genus Paragymnodinium currently includes two species, P. shiwhaense and P. stigmaticum, that are characterized by mixotrophic nutrition and the possession of nematocysts. In this study, two new dinoflagellates belonging to this genus were described based on observations using LM, SEM, and TEM together with a molecular analysis. Cells of P. asymmetricum sp. nov., isolated from Nha Trang Beach, Vietnam, were 7.9-12.6 µm long and 4.7-9.0 µm wide. The species showed no evidence of feeding behavior and was able to sustain itself phototrophically. Paragymnodinium asymmetricum shared many features with P. shiwhaense, including presence of nematocysts, absence of an eyespot, and a planktonic lifestyle, but was clearly distinguished by the asymmetric shape of the hyposome, possession of a single chloroplast, and its nutritional mode. Cells of P. inerme sp. nov., isolated from Jogashima, Kanagawa Pref, Japan, were 15.3-23.7 µm long and 10.9-19.6 µm wide. This species also showed no evidence of feeding behavior. Paragymnodinium inerme was similar to cells of P. shiwhaense in shape and planktonic lifestyle, but its nutritional mode was different. The presence of incomplete nematocysts was also a unique feature. A phylogenetic analysis inferred from concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA sequences recovered the two dinoflagellates in a robust clade with Paragymnodinium spp., within the clade of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. This evidence, together with their morphological similarities, made it reasonable to conclude that these two dinoflagellates are new species of Paragymnodinium.

4.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(5): 636-642, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia in the oral region, including the tongue, leads to declined swallowing function and dysphagia. Muscle mass and strength, and motor function in the oral region have not been examined together, and the relationship between generalised and oral sarcopenia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE(S): The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between generalised sarcopenia and oral sarcopenia in the elderly in order to facilitate the establishment of a method for assessing oral sarcopenia. METHODS: A total of 54 elderly persons participated in this study. We examined the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), grip strength (GS) and walking speed (WS) as the index of generalised sarcopenia, and the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle (CSG), tongue pressure (TP) and oral diadochokinesis (ODK) as the index of oral sarcopenia. RESULTS: We found a moderate correlation between CSG and SMI, a weak correlation between GS and TP, and a moderate correlation between WS and ODK. CSG, TP and ODK were significantly smaller in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group. By multiple regression analysis, SMI and TP were significantly associated with CSG. ODK, BMI and CSG were significantly associated with TP. WS and SMI were significantly associated with ODK. CONCLUSION: CSG, TP and ODK were confirmed as endpoints of oral sarcopenia. All endpoints of oral sarcopenia were influenced by those of generalised sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Força da Mão , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Pressão , Língua
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5364-5375, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094181

RESUMO

Nucleomorphs are relic endosymbiont nuclei so far found only in two algal groups, cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, which have been studied to model the evolutionary process of integrating an endosymbiont alga into a host-governed plastid (organellogenesis). However, past studies suggest that DNA transfer from the endosymbiont to host nuclei had already ceased in both cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes, implying that the organellogenesis at the genetic level has been completed in the two systems. Moreover, we have yet to pinpoint the closest free-living relative of the endosymbiotic alga engulfed by the ancestral chlorarachniophyte or cryptophyte, making it difficult to infer how organellogenesis altered the endosymbiont genome. To counter the above issues, we need novel nucleomorph-bearing algae, in which endosymbiont-to-host DNA transfer is on-going and for which endosymbiont/plastid origins can be inferred at a fine taxonomic scale. Here, we report two previously undescribed dinoflagellates, strains MGD and TGD, with green algal endosymbionts enclosing plastids as well as relic nuclei (nucleomorphs). We provide evidence for the presence of DNA in the two nucleomorphs and the transfer of endosymbiont genes to the host (dinoflagellate) genomes. Furthermore, DNA transfer between the host and endosymbiont nuclei was found to be in progress in both the MGD and TGD systems. Phylogenetic analyses successfully resolved the origins of the endosymbionts at the genus level. With the combined evidence, we conclude that the host-endosymbiont integration in MGD/TGD is less advanced than that in cryptophytes/chrorarachniophytes, and propose the two dinoflagellates as models for elucidating organellogenesis.


Assuntos
Cercozoários/ultraestrutura , Criptófitas/ultraestrutura , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos , Plastídeos/fisiologia , Simbiose , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Cercozoários/classificação , Cercozoários/genética , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/fisiologia , Clorófitas/ultraestrutura , Criptófitas/classificação , Criptófitas/genética , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética
6.
J Prosthodont Res ; 64(4): 468-477, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Laboratory and clinical assessment of cast titanium dentures were reported, little is known about additive manufacturing (AM) frameworks. This study evaluated in vitro AM titanium alloy clasps for clinical use. METHODS: After scanning the stainless steel dies to simulate the first molar, an Akers clasp was designed by CAD. AM clasp specimens were manufactured using laser sintering and AM machines from CP titanium grade 2 (CPTi), Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), and Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti67) powders. As controls, cast titanium clasps were conventionally made with same three titanium alloys. After nondestructive inspection and surface element analysis, surface roughness, fitness accuracy, initial retentive forces, and changes in retentive forces were measured. RESULTS: Although few porosities and little contamination of AM clasps were confirmed, the AM clasp arm and tip indicated slightly worse fitness accuracy as compared to cast clasps. The initial retentive forces of all titanium clasps showed appropriate retentive forces within the acceptable ranges, AM clasps tended to have lower decreases in retentive forces with up to 10,000 insertion/removal cycles as compared to those of the cast clasps. CONCLUSIONS: AM titanium clasps would be acceptable for clinical use similar to that of cast titanium clasps.


Assuntos
Grampos Dentários , Prótese Parcial Removível , Ligas de Cromo , Retenção de Dentadura , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
7.
Med Mol Morphol ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907620

RESUMO

We herein report a variant case of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) showing limited desmoplasia and confusing immunohistochemical findings. A 26-year-old male was referred for multiple abdominal masses. Laparoscopic biopsy showed only the solid proliferation of small round cells, and he was initially diagnosed with small cell carcinoma. At autopsy, the tumor spread diffusely throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Although the tumor was composed of a predominantly solid pattern of small round cells, multiple samples revealed a fibrous stroma in limited areas only. While immunohistochemistry showed the diffuse expression of desmin, CD99, and bcl-2, epithelial differentiation was unclear with few cytokeratin-positive cells and no staining for the epithelial membrane antigen. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated the EWSR1 gene rearrangement, we were unable to exclude Ewing sarcoma considering the morphological and immunohistochemical findings. The diagnosis of DSRCT was confirmed with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for EWSR1-WT1 fusion transcripts. DSRCT must be included in a differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors even if desmoplasia is not immediately detected, and thorough sampling and a molecular analysis are mandatory.

8.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 195-201, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative surgery for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) after gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) can be challenging. We examined the risk factors for lymph node metastasis in RGC, especially for tumors located at the greater curvature (G) or non-greater curvature (NG), to determine the appropriate indications of curative surgery. METHODS: Data from the two high-volume centers of Japan between 1998 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 137 patients enrolled in this study, 34 were classified as the G group and 103 as the NG group. The incidence of lymph node metastasis and its risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis was observed in 21.2% (29/137), including 38.2% (13/34) in the G group and 15.5% (16/103) in the NG group (p = 0.008). A logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location of G or NG (p = 0.042), tumor size (p = 0.002) and depth of invasion (p = 0.009) were significant independent risk factors for nodal metastasis. Risk classification using these factors showed that clinical T1-T2 with a maximum size < 35 mm located at the non-greater curvature had the lowest nodal metastatic risk (4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor location at the G or NG was a significant risk factor for nodal metastasis in RGC. When selecting curative surgery for RGC, physicians should consider the nodal metastatic risk calculated by the tumor location, size and depth of invasion.

9.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 38(2): 75-83, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846389

RESUMO

Objective: High-intensity laser therapy (HILT) combined with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) using a diode or CO2 laser was administered after extraction of the left first molar in rats. Effects on socket preservation (preservation of the alveolar bone and healing time after extraction) were evaluated histopathologically. Background: Irradiation using a diode or CO2 laser has been shown to hasten wound healing, but the effects remain controversial. Methods: Five-week-old male Wistar rats that underwent extraction of the left maxillary first molar were divided into three groups: diode laser irradiation (diode group), CO2 laser irradiation (CO2 group), and no laser irradiation (control group). HILT (27 J) was performed immediately after tooth extraction to enhance blood coagulation, followed by PBMT (0.7 J) 1 day later to enhance healing. Tissues, including the extraction socket, were removed en bloc 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21 days postextraction to determine the morphological characteristics of wound healing and the distribution of myofibroblasts involved in scar formation. Results: In the diode and CO2 groups, new bone formation and cancellous bone maturation were observed at an early stage of wound healing. The number of myofibroblasts was significantly lower in the laser treatment groups than the control (p < 0.001), and both treatment groups had a significantly higher alveolar crest height (p < 0.01), with almost no concavity in the mucosa of the extraction wound. Conclusions: Combined HILT and PBMT following tooth extraction hastened wound healing and preserved alveolar crest height, suggesting a role in socket preservation.

10.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 64: 180-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669909

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastric hyperplastic polyps are common stomach lesion and these polyps are generally benign. However, they can undergo malignant transformation. Most reported cases of malignant transformation of gastric hyperplastic polyps have been to well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and those transformed into poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. No case has been reported that has changed to diffuse type adenocarcinoma with lymphatic invasion. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 48-year-old woman presented with worsening anemia. A polyp was seen in the gastric cardia seven years prior to presentation. Helicobacter pylori infection was also found at that time. She underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy of the polyp revealed signet ring cell carcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed due to concern about possible invasion into the submucosal layer and there was no evidence of distant metastases. Histologic examination revealed both poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma surrounded by hyperplastic epithelium at the head of the polyp. Lymphatic invasion was also found, and malignant cells were limited to the mucosa. DISCUSSION: Gastric hyperplastic polyps are commonly associated with chronic gastritis which is related to Helicobacter pylori infections. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are generally benign and rarely undergo malignant transformation to adenocarcinoma with differentiated histology. The gastric hyperplastic polyp in this patient transformed to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with lymphatic invasion. CONCLUSION: Even small polyps may become poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with invasion, so close follow-up or endoscopic resection are recommended as well as eradication of Helico Pylori infection when appropriate.

11.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713159

RESUMO

Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of sinusoidal dilation and blood-filled cysts throughout the hepatic parenchyma. We report a case of PH in a 49-year-old woman with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis and with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 35-mm-diameter, hypervascular tumor in the liver and RCC in the right renal cyst. Ultrasound and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were also performed; however, the liver tumor could not be distinguished from the metastasis of RCC. Therefore, echo-guided biopsy of the liver tumor using an 18-G Majima needle was performed. Histological evaluation of the specimen showed irregular sinusoidal dilatation and blood-filled cavities without malignant cells. She was ultimately diagnosed with PH. Subsequently, she underwent total right nephrectomy for RCC and was diagnosed with RCC stage 1 (pT1N0M0). A follow-up CT performed 4 months after nephrectomy showed no growth of PH. Although the development of PH in patients with CRF or RCC who do not undergo renal transplantation is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis to distinguish PH from the metastasis of RCC.

12.
Urol Case Rep ; 27: 100903, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687343

RESUMO

Duodenal and rectal obstructions due to urological malignancies are relatively uncommon. We report an autopsy case of an 83-year-old man with a history of renal pelvic cancer who presented these obstructions. Autopsy revealed that urothelial cancer infiltrated the bladder wall, duodenal wall, rectal wall, and prostate and widely spread in the retroperitoneal lymphatic vessel. We concluded that renal pelvic cancer recurred in the bladder wall and then infiltrated into each organ because of lymphatic dissemination. The gastrointestinal obstructions due to urinary tract cancer were lethal. Further knowledge and clinical experience regarding these types of obstructions are crucial.

13.
Protist ; 170(5): 125680, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563792

RESUMO

Marine unarmored dinoflagellates in the family Kareniaceae are known to possess chloroplasts of haptophyte origin, which contain fucoxanthin and its derivatives as major carotenoids, and lack peridinin. In the present study, the first species with the peridinin-type chloroplast in this family, Gertia stigmatica gen. et sp. nov., is described on the basis of ultrastructure, photosynthetic pigment composition, and molecular phylogeny inferred from nucleus- and chloroplast-encoded genes. Cells of G. stigmatica were small and harboring a chloroplast with an eyespot and two pyrenoids. The apical structure complex was straight, similar to Karenia and Karlodinium. Under transmission electron microscopy, the chloroplast was surrounded by two membranes, and the eyespot was composed of a single layer of osmiophilic globules (eyespot type A); this was never previously reported from the Kareniaceae. High performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the chloroplast contains peridinin, and neither fucoxanthin nor 19'-acyloxyfucoxanthins was identified. A phylogeny based on nucleus-encoded rDNAs suggested a position of G. stigmatica in the Kareniaceae, but not clustered within the previously described genera, i.e., Karenia, Karlodinium and Takayama. A phylogeny of chloroplast-encoded psbA, psbC and psbD indicated the chloroplast is of peridinin-type typical of dinoflagellates, but the most related species remains unclear.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Carotenoides , Cloroplastos , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/citologia , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/classificação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Regen Ther ; 11: 41-46, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193122

RESUMO

Introduction: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a steroid, is often used clinically to prevent dysfunctions associated with fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine whether TA can be suspended in a gelatin sheet for tissue engineering using a mouse skin wound model. Methods: TA was suspended in biodegradable gelatin and freeze-dried in a sheet form. The sheet was analyzed for homogeneity and controlled release of TA by high-performance liquid chromatography. We made two skin wounds on the dorsal side of mice. Gelatin sheets with TA (TA sheet) and without TA (control sheet) were attached to each skin wound. To determine the efficacy of the prepared TA sheet on the skin wounds, TA-sheet versus TA-injection experiments were conducted. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess the grade of epithelialization and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate myofibroblast infiltration. Results: In the TA-release test in vitro, 7.7 ± 2.3% of TA was released from the sheet by 24 h. After replacing the initial phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with collagenase PBS, the amount of released TA increased over time. The wound area/original skin wound area after 15 days with the TA sheet was significantly larger than that with the control sheet (26.9 ± 5.5% vs 10.7 ± 2.6%, p = 0.023). The α-SMA positive area/whole area with the TA sheet was significantly lower than that with the control sheet (4.65 ± 0.66% vs 7.24 ± 0.7%, p = 0.023). Furthermore, the α-SMA positive area/whole area with the TA sheet was significantly lower than that with TA injection (5.32 ± 0.45% vs 7.93 ± 0.75%, p = 0.013). Conclusions: We developed a TA sheet and confirmed both the homogeneity of the suspended TA and controlled-release of the TA in the presence of collagenase in vitro. The TA sheet caused less myofibroblast infiltration into the tissue than the control sheet or TA injection did.

15.
Endosc Int Open ; 7(6): E764-E770, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157294

RESUMO

Background and study aims Several previous reports indicate that endoscopic injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) after widespread endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is effective for preventing esophageal stricture. We investigated the efficacy of injecting TA in two sessions for preventing stricture formation post-ESD. Patients and methods Sixty-six consecutive patients with widespread mucosal defects that affected more than three-fourths of the circumference of the esophagus were included. The study group (n = 40) received TA injections over two sessions: immediately after and 14 days after ESD. The control group (n = 26) did not receive a TA injection. This study was performed retrospectively against historical controls. The primary endpoint of this study was frequency of stricture after TA injection. The secondary endpoint was number of required endoscopic balloon dilations (EBDs) after TA injection. Results The post-ESD stricture rate among patients who had subcircumferential mucosal defects was 45.7 % in the study group (16/35 patients), which was significantly lower than the rate of 73.9 % in the control group (17/23 patients; P  = 0.031). The number of EBD procedures required was significantly lower in the study group (median 0, range 0 - 7) than in the control group (median 4, range 0 - 20; P  < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the study and control groups among the patients who had full circumferential mucosal defects. Conclusion This study showed that performing two sessions of TA injection is an effective and safe treatment for prevention of esophageal stricture following subcircumferential ESD.

16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 12(6): 534-538, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134449

RESUMO

A 68-year-old male was referred with dysphagia. Endoscopic findings showed circular stenosis with a protruding mass in the lower esophagus. Biopsy showed adenocarcinoma and there was no evidence of distant metastases. A subtotal esophagectomy was performed. The resected specimen revealed a mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma with adenocarcinoma. The adenocarcinoma component was on the surface of the tumor and the neuroendocrine component invaded the deeper portion. Immunohistochemically, the neuroendocrine carcinoma component stained positive for cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 20, suggesting that the neuroendocrine carcinoma originated from the adenocarcinoma. The adenocarcinoma component stained positive for MUC2, which suggests that the adenocarcinoma component originated from Barrett's epithelium. Taken together, the neuroendocrine carcinoma may have originated from Barrett's epithelium. A metastasis to the liver was found 2 months after the surgical resection. Chemotherapy was administered, but there was no response. Most esophageal neuroendocrine carcinomas are accompanied by adenocarcinoma or squamous cell components, suggesting that these carcinomas originate from pluripotent cells in squamous or Barrett's epithelium. Appropriate chemotherapy for these lesions should be considered based on the cell of origin.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagectomia/métodos , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 514(4): 1037-1039, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097218

RESUMO

Axonal degeneration occurs in patients with various neurological diseases and traumatic nerve injuries, and Wallerian degeneration is a phenomenon in the prototypical axonal degradation that is observed after injury. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß), and it is involved in Wallerian degeneration after optic nerve injury. We previously developed a CRMP2 knock-in (CRMP2 KI) mouse line, in which CRMP2 phosphorylation by GSK3ß is inhibited; however, Wallerian degeneration in CRMP2 KI mice has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined whether Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve is suppressed in CRMP2 KI mice. Using one eye removal model, we compared Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve based on histological and biochemical analyses. Our experimental results indicated that the genetic inhibition of CRMP2 phosphorylation delays Wallerian degeneration after optic nerve injury.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7188, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076621

RESUMO

Axonal degeneration occurs in various neurological diseases and traumatic nerve injury, and axonal regeneration is restricted by inhibitory factors in the central nervous system. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) are activated by one of those inhibitors, and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is phosphorylated by both kinases. We previously developed a CRMP2 knock-in (CRMP2 KI) mouse line, in which CRMP2 phosphorylation at Ser 522 is inhibited. Because CRMP2 KI mice showed promotion of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that CRMP2 KI mice would show higher axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury. In this study, we first show that depolymerization of microtubules after optic nerve crush (ONC) injury was suppressed in CRMP2 KI mice. Loss of retinal ganglia cells was also reduced after ONC. We found that protein level of GAP43, a marker of regenerative axons, was higher in the optic nerve from CRMP2KI than that from wild type 4 weeks after of ONC. We further observed increased numbers of axons labeled by tracer in the optic nerve after ONC in CRMP2 KI mice. These results suggest that inhibition of phosphorylation of CRMP2 suppresses axonal degeneration and promotes axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury.

19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(11): 1940-1945, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are the most common disorders in gastroenterology and are currently considered as gut-brain interaction disorders with multiple related factors including motility disturbance. However, high-resolution manometry (HRM) had revealed a new disease concept known as minor esophageal motility disorders. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between functional esophageal disorders (FEDs) and minor esophageal motility disorders. METHODS: Functional esophageal disorders were diagnosed using upper endoscopy, pH monitoring, and HRM, to exclude achalasia, esophago-gastric junction outflow obstruction, and other major esophageal motility disorders. FEDs with or without minor esophageal motility disorders were compared using the Chicago classification. RESULTS: Twelve healthy volunteers also subjected to HRM showed no minor esophageal motility disorders. Of the 40 patients with FEDs, 15 (37.5%) were diagnosed with minor esophageal motility disorders. Characteristics were not different between patients with and without minor esophageal motility disorders (sex: P = 0.609, age: P = 0.054, body mass index: P = 0.137, and presence of psychiatric disorders: P = 0.404). The type and location of symptoms were not related to the comorbidity rate of minor esophageal motility disorders (P = 0.744 and 0.094). No patients with FEDs developed major esophageal motility disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Minor esophageal motility disorders were frequently observed in FEDs, but the causal relationship between esophageal symptoms remains unclear. The disease concepts of FEDs and minor esophageal motility disorders are considered to overlap and are both independent of major esophageal motility disorders.

20.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 12(6): 615-620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016682

RESUMO

Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs) can be accompanied by infection, pseudoaneurysm ruptures, and fistulae to other organs, which can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Herein, we present the case of an 82-year-old man with PPs accompanied by infection, pseudoaneurysm rupture, and pseudocystocolonic fistula that were managed via multidisciplinary treatment. Computed tomography (CT) revealed two inflamed PPs, one each in the pancreatic head and tail. He was, therefore, diagnosed with infectious PPs. The pancreatic head PP shrunk on endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage (ENPD), but the pancreatic tail PP did not. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transluminal drainage was performed to treat the pancreatic tail PP; his symptoms improved. However, he vomited blood at 14 day post-drainage. Angiography revealed pseudoaneurysm rupture in a left gastric artery branch. After successful angioembolization, he developed hematochezia 2 days later. We suspected re-bleeding of the pseudoaneurysm. The bleeding stopped spontaneously, but CT and radiography revealed the presence of a pseudocystocolonic fistula. Careful follow-up was performed, and he has not had any symptoms at 9 month post-discharge. We managed PP-related complications via ENPD, EUS-guided transluminal drainage, angioembolization, and careful follow-up. Infection, pseudoaneurysm rupture, and pseudocystocolonic fistula are rare, but can occur simultaneously. Therefore, clinicians should consider these complications when treating patients with PPs.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Pseudocisto Pancreático/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Falso Aneurisma/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Doenças do Colo/complicações , Doenças do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Drenagem/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pseudocisto Pancreático/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
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