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1.
Psychiatr Genet ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurs worldwide, most genomic studies on ASD were performed on those of Western ancestry. We hypothesized ASD-related copy number variations (CNVs) of Japanese individuals might be different from those of Western individuals. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Hirosaki 5-year-old children's developmental health check-up (HFC) between 2013 and 2016 (ASD group; n = 68, control group; n = 124). This study conducted CNV analysis using genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 5-year-old Japanese children. Fisher's exact test was applied for profiling subjects and CNV loci. RESULTS: Four ASD-related CNVs: deletion at 12p11.1, duplications at 4q13.2, 8p23.1 and 18q12.3 were detected (P = 0.015, 0.024, 0.009, 0.004, respectively). Specifically, the odds ratio of duplication at 18q12.3 was highest among the 4 CNVs (odds ratio, 8.13). CONCLUSIONS: Four CNVs: microdeletion at 12p11.1, microduplications at 4q13.2, 8p23.1 and 18q12.3 were detected as ASD-related CNVs in Japanese children in this study. Although these CNVs were consistent with several reports by Western countries at cytoband levels, these did not consistent at detailed genomic positions and sizes. Our data indicate the possibility that these CNVs are characteristic of Japanese children with ASD. We conclude that Japanese individuals with ASD may harbor CNVs different from those of Western individuals with ASD.

2.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 4(1): e20172, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention for neurodevelopmental disorders are effective. Several types of paper questionnaires have been developed to assess these conditions in early childhood; however, the psychometric equivalence between the web-based and the paper versions of these questionnaires is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the interformat reliability of the web-based parent-rated version of the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) among Japanese preschoolers in a community developmental health check-up setting. METHODS: A set of paper-based questionnaires were distributed for voluntary completion to parents of children aged 5 years. The package of the paper format questionnaires included the ASSQ, ADHD-RS, DCDQ, parent-reported SDQ (P-SDQ), and several additional demographic questions. Responses were received from 508 parents of children who agreed to participate in the study. After 3 months, 300 parents, who were among the initial responders, were randomly selected and asked to complete the web-based versions of these questionnaires. A total of 140 parents replied to the web-based format and were included as a final sample in this study. RESULTS: We obtained the McDonald ω coefficients for both the web-based and paper formats of the ASSQ (web-based: ω=.90; paper: ω=.86), ADHD-RS total and subscales (web-based: ω=.88-.94; paper: ω=.87-.93), DCDQ total and subscales (web-based: ω=.82-.94; paper: ω=.74-.92), and P-SDQ total and subscales (web-based: ω=.55-.81; paper: ω=.52-.80). The intraclass correlation coefficients between the web-based and paper formats were all significant at the 99.9% confidence level: ASSQ (r=0.66, P<.001); ADHD-RS total and subscales (r=0.66-0.74, P<.001); DCDQ total and subscales (r=0.66-0.71, P<.001); P-SDQ Total Difficulties and subscales (r=0.55-0.73, P<.001). There were no significant differences between the web-based and paper formats for total mean score of the ASSQ (P=.76), total (P=.12) and subscale (P=.11-.47) mean scores of DCDQ, and the P-SDQ Total Difficulties mean score (P=.20) and mean subscale scores (P=.28-.79). Although significant differences were found between the web-based and paper formats for mean ADHD-RS scores (total: t132=2.83, P=.005; Inattention subscale: t133=2.15, P=.03; Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale: t133=3.21, P=.002), the effect sizes were small (Cohen d=0.18-0.22). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the web-based versions of the ASSQ, ADHD-RS, DCDQ, and P-SDQ were equivalent, with the same level of internal consistency and intrarater reliability as the paper versions, indicating the applicability of the web-based versions of these questionnaires for assessing neurodevelopmental disorders.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their importance in population health among children and adolescents, our understanding of how individual items mutually interact within and between pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and school social capital is limited. METHODS: We employed network analysis in a general population sample of 7759 children aged 9-15 years to explore the network structure of relations among pediatric HRQOL and school social capital items measured using validated scales. Furthermore, network centrality was examined to identify central items that had stronger and more direct connections with other items in the network than others. Network structure and overall strength of connectivity among items were compared between groups (by sex and age). RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that the item related to school/academic functioning and the item related to shared enjoyment among students had the highest strength centrality in the network of HRQOL and school social capital, respectively, underpinning their critical roles in pediatric HRQOL and school social capital. Additionally, the edge connecting "I trust my friends at school" and "trouble getting along with peers" had the strongest negative edge weight among ones connecting school social capital and pediatric HRQOL constructs. Network comparison test revealed stronger overall network connectivity in middle schoolers compared to elementary schoolers but no differences between male and female students. CONCLUSION: The network approach elucidated the complex relationship of mutually influencing items within and between pediatric HRQOL and school social capital. Addressing central items may promote children's perceived health and school social capital.

4.
Autism Res ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251760

RESUMO

There is relatively little information about prospectively reported developmental milestones from caregivers of children who go on to be diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined rates of early skill attainment in 5-year-old children who participated in a comprehensive in-person assessment for NDDs in Hirosaki in Japan. Developmental milestone data were extracted from their Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHH), a booklet distributed to all pregnant women as part of universal health care. Seven hundred and twenty children underwent the assessment, among whom 455 received one or more NDD diagnoses (ASD: n = 124, non-ASD NDD: n = 331). Developmental skills were organized into four domains (motor, social interaction, communication, self-help), and the cumulative number of potential delays in each domain was calculated for each participant within three different age ranges (by 12 months, by 24 months, and by 36 months). Even by age 12 months, children with ASD/NDDs showed more potential delays across domains compared to those who received no NDD diagnosis. However, differences between those with ASD and those with non-ASD NDDs were not apparent until 24 months for social interaction and communication, and 36 months for self-help. These findings provide insights into specific behaviors that could be used to screen for ASD and other NDDs. In addition, the present study indicates the potential utility of the MCHH as a broadband screening tool to educate parents about what to look for in charting their child's early development. LAY SUMMARY: The present study examined prospectively charted developmental milestones from home-based records used as part of universal health care in 720 5-year-old children from Hirosaki, Japan. All children participated in a comprehensive evaluation to determine if they met criteria for a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to those who received no NDD diagnosis, children with NDDs exhibited higher rates of potential delays across developmental domains, including social interaction, communication, and self-help. For some children, these delays were apparent before the age of 12 months. Differences between diagnostic groups became even more pronounced by 24 and 36 months, well before the average age of diagnosis. This suggests that home-based records can be useful tools to educate caregivers about what to look for in charting their child's early development and could assist with early screening efforts.

5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705394

RESUMO

Despite increasing attention to internet addiction (IA) in both clinical practice and research, our understanding of longitudinal changes of IA status is limited. In the present study, we employed latent transition analysis to investigate patterns of transitions and the stability of IA status among 5483 students (aged 9-12 years) over the two-year study periods. Additionally, we examined whether neurodevelopmental traits predicted certain transition patterns. The stability rate of IA class membership and the conversion rate from non-IA to IA status across the 2 years were 47% and 11%, respectively. The regression model revealed that autistic traits predicted the persisting IA pattern and that inattention traits predicted both the persisting and converting (from non-IA to IA status) patterns.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529540

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to identify sensory processing profiles specific to preschoolers with DCD in a community sample and examine the association of sensory processing problems with motor coordination difficulties in these children. Sixty-three 5-year-old children with DCD and without other neurodevelopmental disorders and 106 age-matched typically developing children participated in this study. Sensory processing problems were assessed using the Sensory Profile. Our results demonstrated problems in wide sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensitivity and avoiding) and areas (auditory, vestibular, touch and oral) in children with DCD compared with typically developing children. Additionally, the association of problems in sensory processing patterns (sensitivity and avoiding) and areas (touch and auditory) with motor coordination difficulties were identified in children with DCD alone. Our findings indicate that sensory processing abnormalities may contribute to the pathophysiology of DCD, suggesting the importance of assessing sensory processing functions in children with DCD.

9.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 35, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410700

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Whether there is a true increase in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequency or not remains unclear. Additionally, the rates of co-existing neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a total population sample has not been fully examined before. Therefore, using a total population sample in Japan, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and cumulative incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) annually, to determine whether there is a true increase in ASD prevalence by estimating the cumulative incidence of ASD annually, and to examine the rates of co-existing neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). METHOD: In this cross-sectional sequential design study, all 5-year-old children in the catchment area underwent the screening annually from the year 2013-2016. Screen-positive children were invited to participate in a comprehensive assessment, including child and parent interview, behavioral observation, and cognitive and motor function testing. All cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary research team. RESULTS: Caregivers of 3954 children returned the screening, among which 559 children underwent the assessment with 87 children receiving an ASD diagnosis. Adjusted ASD prevalence was 3.22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66-3.76%). The male to female ratio of the crude prevalence was 2.2:1. The cumulative incidence of ASD up to 5 years of age for the total study years was 1.31% (95% CI 1.00-1.62%). A generalized linear model revealed no significant linear trends in 5-year cumulative incidence over the study years. Only 11.5% of children had ASD alone; the remaining 88.5% were found to have at least one co-existing NDD. LIMITATIONS: Modest sample size for a total population study. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the stability of the 5-year cumulative incidence of ASD, implying no true rise in ASD incident cases over the 4-year study period in the study catchment area. High rates of co-existing NDDs reflect the importance of investigating broad developmental challenges in children with ASD.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221046, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419241

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the parent-reported Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) among school-aged children and adolescents, aged 6 to 15 years, in a community setting in Japan (n = 10,936). We investigated 15 models that have been reported in previous studies and used confirmatory factor analyses to determine a model that might actually be the best-fit among these. We then examined the correlations between the score of ICU and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the best fit model and the three-factor bifactor (3FBF) model with the original ICU through cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to determine the concurrent and predictive validity of the ICU. The results showed that the best-fit model was the two-factor bifactor (2FBF) model with a revised version of the ICU with 12 items, excluding all but one item of unemotional factors. The cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis showed that higher general callous-unemotional factor scores, callousness and uncaring specific factor scores were significantly associated with a higher level of conduct problems and a lower level of prosocial behaviors in the SDQ. These tendencies were shown both in the 2FBF model with the revised version of the ICU and the 3FBF model with the original ICU. We conclude that the 2FBF model was useful for school-aged community samples, as it predicts increases in conduct problems and decreases in prosocial behavior with fewer items than the 3FBF model.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Modelos Psicológicos , Pais , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social
12.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 13(1): 75-86, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247294

RESUMO

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs substantially from early-onset AD. In this cross sectional study we investigated brain perfusion changes after 18 months of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil or galantamine. Twenty-five drug-naïve late-onset AD patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined brain perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and used three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) and the stereotactic extraction estimation method (SEE) level 3 to analyze classified gyrus level segments. We assessed cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) grouped into three subgroup domains, language, memory, and praxis. In the follow-up data, some regions were further hypoperfused, reflecting worsening of the disease, while other regions showed alleviated hypoperfusion, potentially related to the ChEIs treatment. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) decreased in the parietal cortex and increased in the frontal and the limbic cortices. Increased hypoperfusion significantly correlated with ADAS-cog scores changes were seen in the superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus of the parietal cortex. Alleviated hypoperfusion significantly related to recovery of ADAS-cog scores were seen in the rectal and paracentral lobule of the frontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate of the limbic cortex. These regions showed significant relationships with total ADAS-cog and language, memory and praxis subscales scores. The current longitudinal study indicates prominent rCBF changes and their relationships with changes in ADAS-cog scores in late-onset AD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Galantamina/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 53(12): 1349-1359, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathological Internet use has been predominantly studied in junior high/middle school-aged or older children; data from elementary/primary school-aged children, however, are scarce. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of problematic Internet use, including pathological and maladaptive Internet use, in elementary and junior high school-aged children and the relationships between problematic Internet use and mental health problems and health-related quality of life. METHODS: The survey was conducted among children who attend national and public elementary and junior high schools in a medium-sized city in Japan; data were received from 3845 elementary school-aged and 4364 junior high school-aged children. RESULTS: Based on the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire score, the prevalence of pathological and maladaptive Internet use was 3.6% and 9.4% and 7.1% and 15.8% in elementary and junior high school-aged children, respectively. The prevalence of problematic Internet use, including pathological and maladaptive Internet use, consistently increased from the 4th grade to the 8th grade. In addition, the prevalence sharply increased between the 7th grade and the 8th grade. Our study revealed that children with pathological and maladaptive Internet use exhibited more severe depression and decreased health-related quality of life than those with adaptive Internet use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that pathological Internet use is not uncommon even in elementary school-aged children and that those with pathological and maladaptive Internet use have severe mental health problems and decreased health-related quality of life, supporting the importance of providing these children with educational and preventive interventions against problematic Internet use and associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 30(6): 350-358, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our recent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study of patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was reduced in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes, and to a lesser degree in the parietal and occipital lobes. Moreover, these patients' scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) were significantly correlated with rCBF in some gyri of the frontal, parietal, and limbic lobes. Our present study aimed to understand how vascular factors and metabolic disease influenced the relationship between rCBF and ADAS-cog scores. METHODS: We divided late-onset AD patients into two groups according to their Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), low vascular risk patients had values of ≤4 (n=25) and high vascular risk patients had scores ≥5 (n=15). We examined rCBF using brain perfusion SPECT data. RESULTS: The degrees and patterns of reduced rCBF were largely similar between late-onset AD patients in both groups, regardless of HIS values. Cognitive function was significantly associated with rCBF among late-onset AD patients with low vascular risk (HIS≤4), but not among those with high vascular risk (HIS≥5). Furthermore, metabolic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, disrupted the relationships between hypoperfusion and cognitive impairments in late-onset AD patients. CONCLUSION: Factors other than hypoperfusion, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, could be involved in the cognitive dysfunction of late-onset AD patients with high vascular risk.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
16.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199590, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990348

RESUMO

The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) is equipped with good properties for screening the broader phenotype of autistic traits, but it is standardized for a limited age range-from 7 to 16 years. To contribute to the early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly in high functioning children with ASD, likely to cause maladjustments during school age, the present study examined psychometric properties to apply the ASSQ to a younger age. We tested parents' ASSQ ratings for preschool children in clinical (N = 154, average age 60.77 months, range 55-72 months) and community settings (N = 1390, average age 60.53 months, range 57-68 months) in Japan. The results showed, just as in school-aged children, the ASSQ had reliability and validity as a screening instrument for preschool children in community settings. A cut-off of 7 with sensitivity of 0.93 and specificity of 0.84 is recommended for community screening. Still, based on the current study with a clinical group, an optimal cut-off score with high sensitivity and high specificity for parents' ASSQ ratings could not be established. The clinicians should be reminded that the ASSQ is a screening instrument, not a diagnosing instrument. Also, this result suggest multi-faceted evaluation is necessary in clinical settings, for example, the addition of teachers' ratings.

17.
Sleep Med ; 48: 42-48, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857290

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have performed cross-cultural comparisons of differences in childhood sleep problems between Asian and Western countries. However, whether such differences can be observed among Asian countries remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in the pattern of sleep problems between Japanese and Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: Data were collected from one city in Japan and 10 cities in China. The present study recruited 438 Japanese and 1020 Chinese preschoolers aged four and five years. Sleep problems and patterns were assessed on the basis of parental reports using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). RESULTS: Analysis of covariance revealed no significant difference in total CSHQ scores between Japanese and Chinese preschoolers, thus indicating that the total severity of sleep problems did not differ between the groups. Japanese preschoolers exhibited higher scores on the bedtime resistance subscale of the CSHQ than Chinese preschoolers. Conversely, Chinese preschoolers exhibited higher subscale scores for night wakings and sleep-disordered breathing. In addition, Japanese preschoolers exhibited earlier bedtimes and wake times and shorter total sleep times than Chinese preschoolers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the patterns of sleep problems in preschoolers differ between Japan and China and that such differences may be due to differences in cosleeping practices, bedtime routines, and/or environmental conditions. Thus, investigators studying sleep in preschoolers should consider regional differences in the pattern of sleep problems, even among Asian countries.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Hábitos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 70: 11-21, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coordination difficulties are sometimes observed even in children in the general population, no empirical studies have examined the impact of these difficulties on parenting stress. AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between coordination difficulties and parenting stress in a community-based sample of preschool-aged children and their mothers. METHODS: The study included 1691 families. Mothers with 4- or 5-year-old children completed questionnaires about parenting stress and children's coordination difficulties, as well as traits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RESULTS: The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that coordination difficulties, and ADHD and ASD traits were each independent predictors of parenting stress. Among the significant predictive factors, impaired general coordination, as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity, showed a strong impact on parenting stress. In addition, a gender difference was observed in the manner in which coordination difficulties influenced parenting stress. CONCLUSIONS: Coordination difficulties in preschool-aged children in the general population increased maternal parenting stress (as did ADHD and ASD traits). This highlights the need to provide support for mothers who have children with coordination difficulties, even when there is no clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
19.
Pediatr Int ; 59(6): 747-750, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626976

RESUMO

Although the mean score of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) differs between countries, there are no normative data for the CSHQ of Japanese preschoolers based on a community sample. The aims of this study were therefore to present normative data for the CSHQ and determine the prevalence and characteristics of sleep problems in Japanese preschoolers. Parents or the primary caregiver of 482 preschoolers aged 4-5 years completed the CSHQ and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Approximately 80% of preschoolers scored above the cut-off for sleep disturbance on the CSHQ. In addition, co-sleeping was prevalent in Japanese preschoolers but the habit of co-sleeping contributed little to behavioral and emotional problems. Sleep problems appear to be prevalent in Japanese preschoolers based on the CSHQ, and could be associated with the Japanese sleep habit of co-sleeping.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Hábitos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 124(9): 1109-1121, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509077

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3. ADAS-cog subscales were grouped into three domains: language, memory, and praxis. Patients with late-onset AD showed an apparent reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with a z score >1.5 in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes, with lesser reduction in the parietal and occipital lobes. Although hypoperfusion in the orbital, rectal, and subcallosal gyri of the frontal lobe was prominent, rCBF in the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe was significantly correlated with ADAS-cog total and language and praxis subscale scores. The parahippocampal gyrus of the limbic lobe was also significantly correlated with the ADAS-cog total, language, and praxis subscale scores. Additionally, the cingulate of the limbic lobe was significantly related with ADAS-cog memory. In spite of lesser hypoperfusion, the posterior cingulate gyrus of the limbic lobe was significantly related with ADAS-cog total, language, and memory subscale scores. Further, each subdivision of ADAS-cog was found to be related with various brain regions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Idade de Início , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
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