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1.
Int J Urol ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172529

RESUMO

The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bladder Cancer edited by the Japanese Urological Association were first published in 2009 and a revised edition was released in 2015. Four years has passed since the 2015 edition, and the clinical practice environment surrounding bladder cancer has drastically changed during that time. The main changes include: (i) insurance coverage of a new diagnostic method for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; (ii) insurance coverage of an immune checkpoint inhibitor in advanced and metastatic bladder cancer; and (iii) advances in robot-assisted radical cystectomy as a minimally invasive treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A paradigm shift in bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment is occurring day by day. Therefore, in this 2019 edition, while dealing with the above changes, we carefully selected clinical questions with clear evidence and included other clinically important points in the general statement. We also added a new chapter on rare cancers of the urinary tract. As a new method for the evaluation of study evidence level, we introduce "The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" system modified to Japanese by the Medical Information Network Distribution Service.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092099

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that colorectal serrated lesions, which include sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), are precursors of colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis, particularly in TSAs, remain largely uncharacterized. To clarify their molecular and clinicopathological characteristics, we performed mutation and methylation analyses of cancer-associated genes in 78 serrated lesions, including TSAs, SSAs and microvesicular hyperplastic polyps. Target exon sequence analysis was performed with 39 genes, including genes known to be frequently mutated in colorectal cancers and/or serrated lesions. We also used bisulfite pyrosequencing to assess the methylation status of various cancer-associated genes and marker genes of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). The prevalence of mutations in genes associated with Wnt signaling was significantly higher in TSAs than SSAs (65% vs. 28%, p < 0.01). Among those, RNF43 mutations were observed in 38% of TSAs and 17% of SSAs. In immunohistochemical studies of 39 serrated lesions, the prevalence of abnormal nuclear ß-catenin accumulation was significantly higher in TSAs (57%) than SSAs (8%) (P = 0.01). SMOC1 methylation was detected in 54% of TSAs but in no SSAs (p < 0.01). Additionally, SMOC1 methylation was more prevalent among TSAs with KRAS mutation (82%) than with BRAF mutation (38%, p = 0.03). Lesions with CIMP-high or RNF43 mutations were detected only in TSAs with BRAF mutation, suggesting two distinct carcinogenic pathways in TSAs. Mutations in genes associated with Wnt signaling play a greater role in the carcinogenesis of TSAs than SSAs.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093357

RESUMO

Prostate cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remain major health challenges in men. In this study, the inhibitory effects of a hexane insoluble fraction from a purple rice ethanolic extract (PRE-HIF) on prostate carcinogenesis and CRPC were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. In the Transgenic Rat for Adenocarcinoma of Prostate (TRAP) model, 1% PRE-HIF mixed diet-fed rats showed a significantly higher percentage of low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and obvious reduction in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral lobes of the prostate. Additionally, 1% PRE-HIF supplied diet significantly suppressed the tumor growth in a rat CRPC xenograft model of PCai1 cells. In LNCaP and PCai1 cells, PRE-HIF treatment suppressed cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, androgen receptor (AR), cyclin D1, cdk4, and fatty acid synthase expression were down-regulated while attenuation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and AMP-activated protein kinase α activation occurred in PRE-HIF treated prostate cancer cells, rat prostate tissues, and CRPC tumors. Due to consistent results with PRE-HIF in PCai1 cells, cyanidin-3-glucoside was characterized as the active compound. Altogether, we surmise that PRE-HIF blocks the development of prostate cancer and CRPC through the inhibition of cell proliferation and metabolic pathways.

5.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 54(1): 200-210, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New fixed-dose combination drugs (FDCs) had been developed in limited numbers in Japan. Since regulatory requirements were relaxed in 2005, 73 new FDCs have been approved by PMDA since 2006. In this study, we investigate trends in new FDCs and their benefits through a questionnaire survey provided to patients and pharmacists. METHODS: The new FDCs were analyzed by therapeutic categories, first approval country and drug lag (DL). Questionnaire surveys were conducted on hypertension, bronchial asthma, and glaucoma in approximately 300 patients and 700 pharmacists in 66 hospitals to investigate the benefits of new FDCs. RESULTS: The highest number of FDCs approved by the therapeutic category was 15 cardiovascular agents. The DL (median) was less than 1 year in several therapeutic categories including cardiovascular agents. The survey results showed that patient compliance improved in 30.8% of the bronchial asthma. Regarding the time and effort required to prescribe these drugs, 32.5% of pharmacists reported "slightly decreased" in bronchial asthma, while 32.0% reported "slightly increased" in hypertension. More than one-third (70.6%) responded "recommend" in bronchial asthma. CONCLUSION: The number of new FDCs markedly increased since 2006, and this presented new opportunities for the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. FDCs not only increase convenience to the patient but also improve patient compliance and the efficiency of pharmacist prescription processes. However, the rapid increase in new FDCs may cause confusion in the medical field, and new FDCs should be developed not only to improve convenience but also to consider the benefits they provide to patients, pharmacists, and physicians.

6.
Int J Urol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077161

RESUMO

The present article is an abridged English translation of the Japanese clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury updated as of July 2019. The patients are adult spinal cord injured patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction; special consideration of pediatric and elderly populations is presented separately. The target audience is healthcare providers who are engaged in the medical care of patients with spinal cord injury. The mandatory assessment includes medical history, physical examination, frequency-volume chart, urinalysis, blood chemistry, transabdominal ultrasonography, measurement of post-void residual urine, uroflowmetry and video-urodynamic study. Optional assessments include questionnaires on the quality of life, renal scintigraphy and cystourethroscopy. The presence or absence of risk factors for renal damage and symptomatic urinary tract infection affects urinary management, as well as pharmacological treatments. Further treatment is recommended if the maximum conservative treatment fails to improve or prevent renal damage and symptomatic urinary tract infection. In addition, management of urinary incontinence should be considered individually in patients with risk factors for urinary incontinence and decreased quality of life.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(3): e1122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects girls, resulting from a loss-of-function variant in X-linked MECP2. Here, we report a rare case of a girl with RTT with an X chromosome mosaic karyotype (46,XX/47,XXX). METHODS: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to confirm the mosaic karyotype. Sanger sequencing was carried out to genetically diagnose RTT. Furthermore, we assessed the X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern. MECP2 expression levels were examined via RT-PCR. RESULTS: The patient presented with preserved speech variant, the milder form of RTT. Genetic examination revealed a de novo, heterozygous, truncating variant of MECP2. FISH revealed mosaicism in the 47,XXX karyotype in 6% of her cells. The XCI assay revealed unbalanced inactivation with skewing in favor of the paternal X chromosome. MECP2 was downregulated to only 84% of the control, indicating that the patient's variant was probably of paternal origin. Unbalanced XCI in this patient might have contributed to the alleviation of the phenotype. However, her supernumerary X chromosome was derived from maternal X chromosome harboring the wild-type allele and might have had no preferential effect on her RTT-related phenotype. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that phenotypic effects of X chromosome aneuploidy depend on the nature of the supernumerary X chromosome, the pattern of mosaicism, and XCI status.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 523(4): 1007-1013, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973821

RESUMO

The glomerular filtration barrier is composed of podocytes, glomerular basement membrane, and endothelial cells. Disruption of these structures causes several glomerular injuries, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The surface of podocyte apical membranes is coated by negatively charged sialic acids on core 1-derived mucin-type O-glycans. Here, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of core 1-derived O-glycans in the podocytes using adult mice lacking podocyte-specific core 1-derived O-glycans (iPod-Cos). iPod-Cos mice exhibited early and transient proteinuria with foot process effacements and developed typical FSGS-like disease symptoms. To identify the key molecules responsible for the FSGS-like phenotype, we focused on podocalyxin and podoplanin, which possess mucin-type O-glycans. Expression and localization of podocalyxin did not change in iPod-Cos glomeruli. Besides, western blot analysis revealed significantly lower levels of intact podocalyxin in isolated glomeruli of iPod-Cos mice, and high levels of processed forms in iPod-Cos glomeruli, as compared to that in control glomeruli. Conversely, podoplanin mRNA, and protein levels were lower in iPod-Cos mice than in control mice. These results demonstrated that core 1-derived O-glycan on podocytes is required for normal glomerular filtration and may contribute to the stable expression of podocalyxin and podoplanin.

9.
BJU Int ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a novel and selective ß3-adrenoreceptor agonist vibegron on urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed in patients with UUI (>0 episodes/day) who were assigned to receive vibegron or placebo in a vibegron phase 3 study. Patients were subclassified into mild/moderate (>0 to <3 UUI episodes/day) or severe UUI (≥3 UUI episodes/day) subgroup. Changes from baseline in number of UUI episodes/day, in number of urgency episodes/day, and in voided volume/micturition were compared between the groups. The percentage of patients who became UUI-free ('diary-dry' rate) and the response rate (percentage of patients with scores 1 [feeling much better] or 2 [feeling better] assessed by the Patient Global Impression scale [PGI]) were evaluated. RESULTS: Changes in numbers of UUI episodes at week 12 in the vibegron 50 mg, vibegron 100 mg and placebo groups, respectively, were -1.35, -1.47 and -1.08 in all patients, -1.04, -1.13 and -0.89 in the mild/moderate UUI subgroup, and -2.95, -3.28 and -2.10 in the severe UUI subgroup. The changes were significant in the vibegron 50 and 100 mg groups vs placebo regardless of symptom severity. Change in number of urgency episodes/day was significant in the vibegron 100 mg group vs placebo in all patients and in both severity subgroups. In the vibegron 50 mg group, a significant change vs placebo was observed in all patients and in the mild/moderate UUI subgroup. Change in voided volume/micturition was significantly greater in the vibegron 50 and 100 mg groups vs placebo in all patients, as well as in the both severity subgroups. Diary-dry rates in the vibegron 50 and 100 mg groups were significantly greater vs placebo in all patients and in the mild/moderate UUI subgroup. In the severe UUI subgroup, however, a significant difference was observed only in the vibegron 50 mg group. Response rates assessed by the PGI were significantly higher in the vibegron groups vs placebo in all patients and in the both severity subgroups. Vibegron administration, OAB duration ≤37 months, mean number of micturitions/day at baseline <12.0 and mean number of UUI episodes/day at baseline <3.0 were identified as factors significantly associated with normalization of UUI. CONCLUSIONS: Vibegron, a novel ß3-adrenoreceptor agonist, significantly reduced the number of UUI episodes/day and significantly increased the voided volume/micturition in patients with OAB including those with severe UUI, with the response rate exceeding 50%. These results suggest that vibegron can be an effective therapeutic option for OAB patients with UUI.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994822

RESUMO

Luteolin is a natural flavonoid with strong anti-oxidative properties that is reported to have an anti-cancer effect in several malignancies other than bladder cancer. In this study, we describe the effect of luteolin on a human bladder cancer cell line, T24, in the context of the regulation of p21, thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Luteolin inhibited cell survival and induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest, p21 upregulation and downregulation of phospho(p)-S6, which is downstream of mTOR signaling. Luteolin also upregulated TRX1 and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production. In a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model using the rat bladder cancer cell line, BC31, tumor volumes were significantly decreased in mice orally administered luteolin compared to control. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that increased p21 and decreased p-S6 expression were induced in the luteolin treatment group. Moreover, in another in vivo N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced rat bladder cancer model, the oral administration of luteolin led to a trend of decreased bladder tumor dimension and significantly decreased the Ki67-labeling index and p-S6 expression. Furthermore, the major findings on the metabolism of luteolin suggest that both plasma and urine luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide concentrations are strongly associated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and mTOR signaling. Moreover, a significant decrease in the squamous differentiation of bladder cancer is attributed to plasma luteolin-3'-glucuronide concentration. In conclusion, luteolin, and in particular its metabolized product, may represent another natural product-derived therapeutic agent that acts against bladder cancer by upregulating p21 and inhibiting mTOR signaling.

11.
Exp Anim ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969519

RESUMO

The transcription factor c-Maf is a member of the large Maf family, members of which possess transactivation and bZIP domains. c-Maf plays an important role in lens formation, T-lymphocyte differentiation, hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, and kidney development in mouse embryos. However, because homozygous deletion of c-Maf in C57BL/6J mice causes embryonic lethality, the functions of c-Maf in adult mice remain largely uninvestigated. To address this issue, we generated c-Maf floxed (c-Maffl/fl) C57BL/6J mice and established tamoxifen-inducible c-Maf knockout mice (c-Maffl/fl; CAG-Cre-ERTMmice, c-MafΔTAM). After tamoxifen injection, adult c-MafΔTAMmice showed successful deletion of c-Maf protein and developed severe cataracts; cataracts are also seen in human patients who have mutations in the c-MAF DNA binding domain. Furthermore, adult c-MafΔTAMmice exhibited abnormal lens structure and impaired differentiation of lens fiber cells. In summary, we established c-Maffl/fland c-MafΔTAMC57BL/6J mice, which can be useful animal models for the investigation of c-Maf function in various developmental stages and can also be used as a disease model for cataracts.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945018

RESUMO

Macrophages have been linked to tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and treatment resistance. However, the transcriptional regulation of macrophages driving the protumor function remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Maf is a critical controller for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and function in cancer. c-Maf controls many M2-related genes and has direct binding sites within a conserved noncoding sequence of the Csf-1r gene and promotes M2-like macrophage-mediated T cell suppression and tumor progression. c-Maf also serves as a metabolic checkpoint regulating the TCA cycle and UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis, thus promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and activation. Additionally, c-Maf is highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulates TAM immunosuppressive function. Deletion of c-Maf specifically in myeloid cells results in reduced tumor burden with enhanced antitumor T cell immunity. Inhibition of c-Maf partly overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in a subcutaneous LLC tumor model. Similarly, c-Maf is expressed in human M2 and tumor-infiltrating macrophages/monocytes as well as circulating monocytes of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and critically regulates their immunosuppressive activity. The natural compound ß-glucan downregulates c-Maf expression on macrophages, leading to enhanced antitumor immunity in mice. These findings establish a paradigm for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and transcriptional regulation by c-Maf and suggest that c-Maf is a potential target for effective tumor immunotherapy.

13.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 314-319, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941845

RESUMO

It can be judged that if the detection frequency of prevalent pathogenic viruses decreases, biosecurity has been enhanced. To monitor bovine farm biosecurity levels, one-step multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the simultaneous detection of group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine torovirus (BToV), bovine enterovirus (BEV), and bovine coronavirus (BCV) was designed, with the aim of configuring candidates for "viral pathogen indicators". A total of 322 bovine fecal samples were collected from calves aged less than three months at 48 bovine farms in Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. At farm A, 20 calves were selected and sampled weekly for 12 weeks (184 samples); at farm B, 10 calves were selected and sampled for five weeks (50 samples); and at the rest of the 46 farms, 88 calves were sampled once. The screening on the 358 field samples proved positive for 27 RVA, 4 BToV, 55 BEV, and 52 BCV. In the successive sampling, RVA was detected once but not continuously, whereas BEV and BCV were detected in succession for up to five weeks. The results revealed that RVA was the primary agent among the positive samples obtained from calves aged three weeks or less, while BEV was the primary among those from the older than three weeks old. They can be employed as useful viral pathogen indicators for soundly evaluating biosecurity at bovine farms.

14.
Toxicology ; 429: 152325, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678612

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. In a previous study, nicotine enhanced rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis using a rat urinary bladder two-stage carcinogenesis model. In the present study, nicotine metabolites (cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxy cotinine and N'-nitrosonornicotine) were evaluated in a cell proliferation assay using urinary bladder urothelial cell lines. Cotinine (0.1 to 1 mM) induced the highest cell proliferation compared to the others, including nicotine, in three bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, T24 and UMUC3 cells). By Western blot, cotinine induced phosphorylation of Stat3 and expression of cyclin D1 in UMUC3 cells. The cell proliferation induced by cotinine was blocked by inhibitors of nicotinic receptors (10 nM SR16584 or 10 µM methyllycaconitine citrate) and Stat3 (100 nM stattic). In an in vivo study, cotinine (13, 40 and 120 ppm) in drinking water also induced cell proliferation and simple hyperplasia in urinary bladder and renal pelvis urothelium of rats, but to a lesser degree compared to nicotine (40 ppm). Cytotoxicity detected by scanning electron microscopy and apoptosis in the bladder urothelium were induced by nicotine but not cotinine. These data suggest that cotinine is able to induce urothelial cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and high urinary concentrations may enhance urothelial carcinogenesis.

15.
Intern Med ; 59(5): 649-656, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735797

RESUMO

Pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), such as serous cystadenoma (SCA), are generally recognized as benign because malignant counterparts of SCNs have been extremely rare. In clinical practice, pancreatic cystic neoplasms diagnosed as SCNs have been managed by conservative observation, as long as the patients remained asymptomatic. We herein report a case of metachronous ductal adenocarcinoma that was discovered during long-term follow-up of SCN and review the related literature. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of the local presence of ductal adenocarcinoma adjacent to SCA that was preoperatively diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.

16.
Exp Anim ; 69(1): 1-10, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582643

RESUMO

The transcription factor MafB regulates macrophage differentiation. However, studies on the phenotype of Mafb-deficient macrophages are still limited. Recently, it was shown that the specific expression of MafB permits macrophages to be distinguished from dendritic cells. In addition, MafB has been reported to be involved in various diseases related to macrophages. Studies using macrophage-specific Mafb-deficient mice show that MafB is linked to atherosclerosis, autoimmunity, obesity, and ischemic stroke, all of which exhibit macrophage abnormality. Therefore, MafB is hypothesized to be indispensable for the regulation of macrophages to maintain systemic homeostasis and may serve as an innovative target for treating macrophage-related diseases.

17.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 54-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645370

RESUMO

The bile acid (BA) composition in mice is substantially different from that in humans. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is an end product in the human liver; however, mouse Cyp2c70 metabolizes CDCA to hydrophilic muricholic acids (MCAs). Moreover, in humans, the gut microbiota converts the primary BAs, cholic acid and CDCA, into deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), respectively. In contrast, the mouse Cyp2a12 reverts this action and converts these secondary BAs to primary BAs. Here, we generated Cyp2a12 KO, Cyp2c70 KO, and Cyp2a12/Cyp2c70 double KO (DKO) mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to study the regulation of BA metabolism under hydrophobic BA composition. Cyp2a12 KO mice showed the accumulation of DCAs, whereas Cyp2c70 KO mice lacked MCAs and exhibited markedly increased hepatobiliary proportions of CDCA. In DKO mice, not only DCAs or CDCAs but also DCAs, CDCAs, and LCAs were all elevated. In Cyp2c70 KO and DKO mice, chronic liver inflammation was observed depending on the hepatic unconjugated CDCA concentrations. The BA pool was markedly reduced in Cyp2c70 KO and DKO mice, but the FXR was not activated. It was suggested that the cytokine/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and the pregnane X receptor-mediated pathway are the predominant mechanisms, preferred over the FXR/small heterodimer partner and FXR/fibroblast growth factor 15 pathways, for controlling BA synthesis under hydrophobic BA composition. From our results, we hypothesize that these KO mice can be novel and useful models for investigating the roles of hydrophobic BAs in various human diseases.

18.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 196: 105493, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614207

RESUMO

17ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17ß-HSDs) catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the oxidation of 17ß-hydroxysteroids to regulate the production of androgens and estrogens. Among them, 17ß-HSD type 3 (HSD17B3) is expressed almost exclusively in testicular Leydig cells and contributes to development of male sexual characteristics by converting androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T). Mutations of HSD17B3 genes cause a 46,XY disorder of sexual development (46,XY DSD) as a result of low T production. Therefore, the evaluation of 17ß-HSD3 enzymatic activity is important for understanding and diagnosing this disorder. We adapted a method that easily evaluates enzymatic activity of 17ß-HSD3 by quantifying the conversion from A4 to T using androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transactivation. HEK293 cells were transduced to express human HSD17B3, and incubated medium containing A4. Depending on the incubation time with HSD17B3-expressing cells, the culture media progressively increased luciferase activities in CV-1 cells, transfected with the AR expression vector and androgen-responsive reporter. Culture medium from HSD17B1 and HSD17B5-expressing cells also increased the luciferase activities. This system is also applicable to detect the conversion of 11-ketoandrostenedione to 11-ketotestosterone by HSD17B3. Establishment of HEK293 cells expressing various missense mutations in the HSD17B3 gene associated with 46,XY DSD revealed that this system is effective to evaluate the enzymatic activities of mutant proteins.

19.
Intern Med ; 59(3): 395-399, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619598

RESUMO

We analyzed the ERG gene status using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in two chemotherapy-naïve cases with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in which abiraterone demonstrated a long-term durable complete response. FISH identified Class 1 Edel and Class 2+ Edel in case 1, and Class 1 Edel in case 2. Our experience suggests that abiraterone may be effective in cases with mCRPC and ERG gene abnormalities, particularly Class 2+ Edel or Class 1 Edel. This is the first report of two cases with mCRPC that simultaneously investigated the ERG gene status and clinical aspects, including image evaluations and pathology.

20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 521(3): 590-595, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679694

RESUMO

The transcription factor MafB is specifically expressed in macrophages. We have recently demonstrated that MafB is expressed in anti-inflammatory alternatively activated M2 macrophages in vitro. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a subset of M2 type macrophages that can promote immunosuppressive activity, induce angiogenesis, and promote tumor cell proliferation. To examine whether MafB express in TAMs, we analyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in Lewis lung carcinoma tumors of MafB-GFP knock-in heterozygous mice. FACS analysis demonstrated GFP fluorescence in cells positive for macrophage-markers (F4/80, CD11b, CD68, and CD204). Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis with F4/80+GFP+ and F4/80+GFP- sorted cells showed that the GFP-positive macrophages express IL-10, Arg-1, and TNF-α, which were known to be expressed in TAMs. These results indicate that MafB is expressed in TAMs. Furthermore, immunostaining analysis using an anti-MAFB antibody revealed that MAFB is expressed in CD204-and CD68-positive macrophages in human lung cancer samples. In conclusion, MafB can be a suitable marker of TAMs in both mouse and human tumor tissues.

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