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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 1-5, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580009

RESUMO

The Urogenital Sub-committee and the Surveillance Committee of the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology conducted the second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis. In this second surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 26 hospitals and clinics from May 2016 to July 2017. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 41 isolates; the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and solithromycin were 2 µg/ml (2 µg/ml), 1 µg/ml (0.5 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.063 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.031 µg/ml (0.031 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), and 0.016 µg/ml (0.008 µg/ml), respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any strains resistant to fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. In addition, the MIC of solithromycin was favorable and lower than that of other antimicrobial agents. However, the MIC of azithromycin had a slightly higher value than that reported in the first surveillance report, though this might be within the acceptable margin of error. Therefore, the susceptibility of azithromycin, especially, should be monitored henceforth.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis , Uretrite , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Uretrite/epidemiologia
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767147

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Suppression of starch branching enzymes 1 and 2 in cassava leads to increased resistant starch content through the production of high-amylose and modification of the amylopectin structure. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop used for human consumption as a staple food and industrial applications. Starch is synthesized by various isoforms of several enzymes. However, the function of starch branching enzymes (SBEs) in starch biosynthesis and mechanisms of starch regulation in cassava have not been understood well. In this study, we aimed to suppress the expression of SBEs in cassava to generate starches with a range of distinct properties, in addition to verifying the functional characteristics of the SBEs. One SBE1, two SBE2, and one SBE3 genes were classified by phylogenetic analysis and amino acid alignment. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed tissue-specific expression of SBE genes in the tuberous roots and leaves of cassava. We introduced RNAi constructs containing fragments of SBE1, SBE2, or both genes into cassava by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and assessed enzymatic activity of SBE using tuberous roots and leaves from these transgenic plants. Simultaneous suppression of SBE1 and SBE2 rendered an extreme starch phenotype compared to suppression of SBE2 alone. Degree of polymerization of 6-13 chains in amylopectin was markedly reduced by suppression of both SBE1 and SBE2 in comparison to the SBE2 suppression; however, no change in chain-length profiles was observed in the SBE1 suppression alone. The role of SBE1 and SBE2 may have functional overlap in the storage tissue of cassava. Simultaneous suppression of SBE1 and SBE2 resulted in highly resistant starch with increased apparent amylose content compared to suppression of SBE2 alone. This study provides valuable information for understanding starch biosynthesis and suggests targets for altering starch quality.

3.
Perception ; 50(11): 917-932, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841972

RESUMO

Although previous studies have shown that semantic multisensory integration can be differentially modulated by attention focus, it remains unclear whether attentionally mediated multisensory perceptual facilitation could impact further cognitive performance. Using a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm, the present study investigated the effect of semantically congruent bimodal presentation on subsequent unisensory working memory (WM) performance by manipulating attention focus. The results showed that unisensory WM retrieval was faster in the semantically congruent condition than in the incongruent multisensory encoding condition. However, such a result was only found in the divided-modality attention condition. This result indicates that a robust multisensory representation was constructed during semantically congruent multisensory encoding with divided-modality attention; this representation then accelerated unisensory WM performance, especially auditory WM retrieval. Additionally, an overall faster unisensory WM retrieval was observed under the modality-specific selective attention condition compared with the divided-modality condition, indicating that the division of attention to address two modalities demanded more central executive resources to encode and integrate crossmodal information and to maintain a constructed multisensory representation, leaving few resources for WM retrieval. Additionally, the present finding may support the amodal view that WM has an amodal central storage component that is used to maintain modal-based attention-optimized multisensory representations.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Memória de Curto Prazo , Estimulação Acústica , Atenção , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual
4.
Leukemia ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815516

RESUMO

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an alternative donor transplantation method and has the advantages of rapid availability and the possibility of inducing a more potent graft-versus-leukemia effect, leading to a lower relapse rate for patients with non-remission relapse and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML). This study aimed to investigate the impact of CBT, compared to human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor transplantation (MRDT). This study included 2451 adult patients with non-remission R/R AML who received CBT (1738 patients) or MRDT (713 patients) between January 2009 and December 2018. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and the prognostic impact of CBT were evaluated using a propensity score (PS) matching analysis. After PS matching, the patient characteristics were well balanced between the groups. The five-year PFS was 25.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.2-29.5%) in the CBT group and 18.1% (95% CI: 14.5-22.0%) in the MRDT group (P = 0.009). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69-1.00, P = 0.045); this was due to a more pronounced decrease in the relapse rate (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, P < 0.001) than an increase in the NRM (1.42, 1.15-1.76, P = 0.001). In this population, CBT was associated with a better 5-year PFS than MRDT after allogeneic HSCT.

5.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829742

RESUMO

In recent years, the diversity of cancer cells in tumor tissues as a result of intratumor heterogeneity has attracted attention. In particular, the development of single-cell analysis technology has made a significant contribution to the field; technologies that are centered on single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) have been reported to analyze cancer constituent cells, identify cell groups responsible for therapeutic resistance, and analyze gene signatures of resistant cell groups. However, although single-cell analysis is a powerful tool, various issues have been reported, including batch effects and transcriptional noise due to gene expression variation and mRNA degradation. To overcome these issues, machine learning techniques are currently being introduced for single-cell analysis, and promising results are being reported. In addition, machine learning has also been used in various ways for single-cell analysis, such as single-cell assay of transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis, and multi-omics analysis; thus, it contributes to a deeper understanding of the characteristics of human diseases, especially cancer, and supports clinical applications. In this review, we present a comprehensive introduction to the implementation of machine learning techniques in medical research for single-cell analysis, and discuss their usefulness and future potential.

6.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825349

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cassava genetic transformation has mostly been reported for African cassava varieties, but not for Asian varieties. This is the first report of cassava transformation in Asian elite varieties using friable embryogenic calli. Agrobacterium-mediated cassava transformation via friable embryogenic calli (FEC) has enabled the robust production of transgenic cassava. So far, mostly the model cassava variety 60444 and African varieties have been transformed because of their good production and regeneration from embryogenic tissues. It is important to develop transformation methods for elite Asian cassava varieties to meet the changing needs in one of the world's major cassava production areas. However, a suitable transformation method for the Asian elite variety Kasetsart 50 (KU50) has not been developed. Here, we report a transformation method for KU50, the cultivar with the highest planting area in Thailand and Vietnam. In cassava transformation, the preparation of FEC as the target tissue for transgene integration is a key step. FEC induction from KU50 was improved by using media with reduced nutrients and excess vitamin B1, and somatic embryo and plant regeneration optimized by manipulation of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and benzylamino purine (BAP). The transformation efficiency for KU50 was 22%, approximately half that of 60444 at 45%. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of genes related to cell-wall loosening was upregulated in FEC from KU50 compared with 60444, indicating that cell-wall production and assembly were disproportionate in the Asian variety. The transformation system for KU50 reported here will contribute to the molecular breeding of cassava plants for Asian farmers using transgenic and genome-editing technologies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625663

RESUMO

Relapsed acute leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is associated with poor prognosis. In a subset of patients, durable remissions can be achieved with a second allo-HSCT (allo-HSCT2). However, many patients experience relapse after allo-HSCT2 and they may be considered for a third allo-HSCT (allo-HSCT3). Nevertheless, the benefit of allo-HSCT3 remains unconfirmed. Thus, herein a retrospective analysis of 253 allo-HSCT3s in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia was carried out. In total, 29 (11.5%) survived at a median follow-up of 794 days (range: 87-4 619). The 3-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 9.7% and 10.9%, respectively. Patients who maintained remission for ≥2 years after allo-HSCT2 had a significantly better 3-year OS (35.8%) than those who experienced early relapse (<1 year, 7.8%; 1-2 years, 14.0%; P = 0.004). Complete remission at allo-HSCT3, performance status score of 0-1 at allo-HSCT3, grade I acute graft-versus-host disease after allo-HSCT2, and relapse ≥2 years after allo-HSCT2 were associated with better survival in patients who received allo-HSCT3. The prognosis after allo-HSCT3 in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia is generally unfavorable. However, given the lack of alternative treatment options, allo-HSCT3 may be considered in a group of patients.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 60(21): 16678-16685, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652136

RESUMO

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the self-assembly process of a Pd(II) coordination M6L4 square-based pyramid (SP) were conducted. It was found that the probable self-assembly pathway, in which the dimerization of M2L2 with two M leads to SP, expected from the connectivity of the building blocks is not a major self-assembly pathway to the M6L4 SP. Whether the M6L4 SP is assembled or M2L2 is trapped is determined by an inter- or intramolecular reaction in a chain-like M2L2X, where X is a leaving ligand. The kinetically trapped state where the M6L4 SP is produced from M2L2 beyond the Boltzmann distribution was realized by a concentration-induced process and was kept for at least 2 months at 298 K.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635798

RESUMO

The impact of GVHD and graft-versus-leukemia effect in unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is controversial. In the Eurocord/ALWP EBMT and JSTCT/JDCHCT collaborative study, we evaluated the impact of GVHD on UCBT outcomes in Japanese and European registries. A total of 3,690 adult patients with acute leukemia who received their first single UCBT were included. A multivariate analysis of overall survival (OS) revealed a positive impact of grade II acute GVHD compared with grade 0-I GVHD, in the Japanese cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.81; P = 0.001), and an adverse impact in the European cohort (HR, 1.37; P = 0.007). A negative impact of grade III-IV acute GVHD on OS was observed regardless of registries. In the analysis of relapse, a positive impact of grade II acutes GVHD compared with grade 0-I GVHD was observed only in the Japanese cohort, regardless of disease risk. The positive impact of limited chronic GVHD on OS was observed only in the Japanese cohort. In conclusion, a positive impact of mild GVHD after a single UCBT was observed only in the Japanese cohort. This could explain the ethnic difference in UCBT outcomes and might contribute to the preference usage of UCBT in Japan.

10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(5): 663-667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703052

RESUMO

The aim of this report is to introduce an on-going, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether tailored antimicrobial prophylaxis guided by rectal culture screening prevents acute bacterial prostatitis following transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). Patients will be randomized into an intervention or non-intervention group; tazobactam-piperacillin or levofloxacin will be prophylactically administered according to the results of rectal culture prior to TRPB in the intervention group whereas levofloxacin will be routinely given in the non-intervention group. The primary endpoint is the occurrence rate of acute bacterial prostatitis after TRPB. Recruitment begins in April, 2021 and the target total sample size is 5,100 participants.

11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(1): 115556, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678714

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and glucosuria, and is a risk factor for Candida infections. To reveal the potential effects of glucosuria on Candida spp., we investigated their growth and antifungal susceptibilities in normal human urine to which glucose was added. The viable cell numbers of Candida spp. were more than 10 fold higher in the urine added 3000 mg/dL glucose than in plain urine. In antifungal susceptibility, more than 80% of Candida albicans clinical isolates increased minimum inhibitory concentrations of azoles and 5-fluorocytosine with the addition of glucose, and exceeded their breakpoints. In most of the C. albicans clinical isolates, the mRNA expression of the azole resistance genes ERG11, CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 in the presence of glucose in urine. These observations provide valuable information about the clinical course and therapeutic effects of azoles against C. albicans infections in patients with diabetes mellitus and hyperglucosuria.

12.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575663

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began at the end of December 2019, giving rise to a high rate of infections and causing COVID-19-associated deaths worldwide. It was first reported in Wuhan, China, and since then, not only global leaders, organizations, and pharmaceutical/biotech companies, but also researchers, have directed their efforts toward overcoming this threat. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) has recently surged internationally and has been applied to diverse aspects of many problems. The benefits of using AI are now widely accepted, and many studies have shown great success in medical research on tasks, such as the classification, detection, and prediction of disease, or even patient outcome. In fact, AI technology has been actively employed in various ways in COVID-19 research, and several clinical applications of AI-equipped medical devices for the diagnosis of COVID-19 have already been reported. Hence, in this review, we summarize the latest studies that focus on medical imaging analysis, drug discovery, and therapeutics such as vaccine development and public health decision-making using AI. This survey clarifies the advantages of using AI in the fight against COVID-19 and provides future directions for tackling the COVID-19 pandemic using AI techniques.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19323, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588591

RESUMO

Despite the continuous discovery of host and guest proteins in membraneless organelles, complex host-guest interactions hinder the understanding of the molecular grammar governing liquid-liquid phase separation. In this study, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of guest proteins in liquid droplets using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Eighteen guest proteins of different sizes, structures, and oligomeric states were examined in host p53 liquid droplets. Recruitment did not significantly depend on the structural properties of the guest proteins, but was moderately correlated with their length, total charge, and number of R and Y residues. In contrast, the diffusion of disordered guest proteins was comparable to that of host p53, whereas that of folded proteins varied widely. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that folded proteins diffuse within the voids of the liquid droplet while interacting weakly with neighboring host proteins, whereas disordered proteins adapt their structures to form tight interactions with the host proteins. Our study provides insights into the key molecular principles of the localization and dynamics of guest proteins in liquid droplets.

14.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572329

RESUMO

In 2019, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. With the advancing development of COVID-19 vaccines and their administration globally, it is expected that COVID-19 will converge in the future; however, the situation remains unpredictable because of a series of reports regarding SARS-CoV-2 variants. Currently, there are still few specific effective treatments for COVID-19, as many unanswered questions remain regarding the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19. Continued elucidation of COVID-19 pathogenic mechanisms is a matter of global importance. In this regard, recent reports have suggested that epigenetics plays an important role; for instance, the expression of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, an important factor in human infection with SARS-CoV-2, is epigenetically regulated; further, DNA methylation status is reported to be unique to patients with COVID-19. In this review, we focus on epigenetic mechanisms to provide a new molecular framework for elucidating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and of COVID-19, along with the possibility of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

15.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591162

RESUMO

An intensified myeloablative conditioning regimen, involving the addition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-combined high-dose cytarabine (12 g/m2) to standard total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide, has been performed for adult patients with myeloid malignancies in single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) since 1998 in our institute. We update the results of CBT, as the first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after this conditioning regimen, in 169 patients with a median long-term follow-up of 10.4 years. The median age was 43 years (range, 16 to 59 years). Ninety-four patients (56%) were in non-remission at the time of CBT, and 124 patients (73%) were acute myeloid leukemia. The median cryopreserved cord blood total nucleated cell dose and CD34+ cell dose was 2.40 × 107/kg and 0.93 × 105/kg, respectively. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at 42 days was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.6-97.3%). Among the whole cohort, 105 patients were still alive at the end of the study period. The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality at 10 years were 26.0% (95% CI: 19.5-33.0%) and 16.9% (95% CI: 11.4-23.4%), respectively. There was an overall survival probability of 62.5% (95% CI: 54.3-69.7%) at 10 years. Higher disease risk index alone significantly affected higher overall mortality (hazard ratio 2.21, P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. These outcomes demonstrate that G-CSF-combined myeloablative conditioning could have favorable long-term remission rates for adult patients with myeloid malignancies undergoing single-unit CBT.

16.
Int J Urol ; 28(12): 1198-1211, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480379

RESUMO

The Committee for the Development of Guidelines for Infection Control in the Urological Field, including Urinary Tract Management of the Japanese Urological Association, together with its systematic review team and external reviewers, have prepared a set of practice guidelines, an abridged version of which is published herein. These guidelines cover the following topics: (i) foundations of infection control, standard precautions, route-specific precautions, and occupational infection control (including vaccines); (ii) the relationship between urologists and infection control; (iii) infection control in urological wards and outpatient clinics; (iv) response to hepatitis B virus reactivation; (v) infection control in urological procedures and examinations; (vi) prevention of infections occurring in conjunction with medical procedures and examinations; (vii) responses to urinary tract tuberculosis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin; (viii) aseptic handling, cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of urinary tract endoscopes (principles of endoscope manipulation, endoscope lumen cleaning, and disinfection); (ix) infection control in the operating room (principles of hand washing, preoperative rubbing methods, etc.); (x) prevention of needlestick and blood/bodily fluid exposure and response to accidental exposure; (xi) urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection and purple urinary bag syndrome; and (xii) urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infections in conjunction with home care. In addressing these topics, the relevant medical literature was searched to the extent possible, and content was prepared for the purpose of providing useful information for clinical practice.

17.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 27: 150-155, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fluoroquinolone (FQ)- and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli are increasing in Japan. In the early 2000s, the FQ-resistant E. coli clone ST131 increased in clinical settings worldwide. It frequently produces extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) such as CTX-M. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of FQ-resistant E. coli isolated in Japan during 2008-2009 and 2020. METHODS: We compared FQ-resistant E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples collected in 2020 (151 isolates) with a FQ-resistant E. coli collection isolated in 2008-2009 (42 isolates). Identification of E. coli ST131 clades and blaCTX-M were determined by multiplex PCR. Sequence types of non-ST131 isolates were determined by whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of ST131 was comparable in 2020 (74.2%) and 2008-2009 (78.6%), the subclades differed during the two time periods (C1-nM27: 40.2% in 2008-2009 vs. 78.8% in 2020; C1-M27: 32.1% in 2008-2009 vs. 9.1% in 2020). The incidence of blaCTX-M among ST131 isolates increased from 27.3% in 2008-2009 to 64.3% in 2020. blaCTX-M was found in 80.6% and 93.8% of C1-M27 and C2 in 2020, respectively, and blaCTX-M possession in C1-nM27 increased from 19.2% in 2008-2009 to 40% in 2020. FQ-resistant ST1193 was detected only in 2020 (17.9% of 151 isolates, of which 14.8% possessed blaCTX-M). CONCLUSION: Increased resistance of E. coli to FQs and third-generation cephalosporins in Japan can be attributed to the accumulation of blaCTX-M in C1-nM27 and the increase of C1-M27 and C2 clades with high blaCTX-M possession, alongside the spread of ST1193.

18.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2763-2771, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357435

RESUMO

The efficacy and clinical significance of pre-conditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) not in remission remain inconclusive. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to clarify the clinical significance of PCI before HCT in patients with non-remission ALL. Patients with non-remission ALL who received HCT between 2005 and 2015 at 16 institutions were included. PCI was objectively defined and classified to three groups according to the intensity of PCI (no, intensive, or moderate). The study cohort consisted of 104 patients with a median age of 38 (range 17-68). A significant decrease of blast percentage in the peripheral blood (PB) was confirmed in both PCI groups, suggesting that PCIs were effective to stabilize the disease activity. The group with moderate PCI had higher nucleated cell count in the BM compared to the group with intensive PCI or the group without PCI. The overall survival (OS) rates of groups with intensive and no PCI showed comparable and significantly better compared to the group with moderate PCI (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the OS of moderate PCI group was significantly worse compared to that of intensive PCI group (HR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.32-4.14, P = 0.004), while the OS of intensive PCI group was comparable to that of the group without PCI. These results suggest that the intensity of PCI rather than the response to PCI may contribute to improve the transplant outcome in patients with ALL not in remission.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Elife ; 102021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431785

RESUMO

Leukemic oncoproteins cause uncontrolled self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors by aberrant gene activation, eventually causing leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying aberrant gene activation remains elusive. Here, we showed that leukemic MLL fusion proteins associate with the HBO1 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex through their trithorax homology domain 2 (THD2) in various human cell lines. MLL proteins associated with the HBO1 complex through multiple contacts mediated mainly by the ING4/5 and PHF16 subunits in a chromatin-bound context where histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation marks were present. Of the many MLL fusions, MLL-ELL particularly depended on the THD2-mediated association with the HBO1 complex for leukemic transformation. The C-terminal portion of ELL provided a binding platform for multiple factors including AF4, EAF1, and p53. MLL-ELL activated gene expression in murine hematopoietic progenitors by loading an AF4/ENL/P-TEFb (AEP) complex onto the target promoters wherein the HBO1 complex promoted the association with AEP complex over EAF1 and p53. Moreover, the NUP98-HBO1 fusion protein exerted its oncogenic properties via interaction with MLL but not its intrinsic HAT activity. Thus, the interaction between the HBO1 complex and MLL is an important nexus in leukemic transformation, which may serve as a therapeutic target for drug development.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298824

RESUMO

Radiogenomics use non-invasively obtained imaging data, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to predict critical biomarkers of patients. Developing an accurate machine learning (ML) technique for MRI requires data from hundreds of patients, which cannot be gathered from any single local hospital. Hence, a model universally applicable to multiple cohorts/hospitals is required. We applied various ML and image pre-processing procedures on a glioma dataset from The Cancer Image Archive (TCIA, n = 159). The models that showed a high level of accuracy in predicting glioblastoma or WHO Grade II and III glioma using the TCIA dataset, were then tested for the data from the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan (NCC, n = 166) whether they could maintain similar levels of high accuracy. Results: we confirmed that our ML procedure achieved a level of accuracy (AUROC = 0.904) comparable to that shown previously by the deep-learning methods using TCIA. However, when we directly applied the model to the NCC dataset, its AUROC dropped to 0.383. Introduction of standardization and dimension reduction procedures before classification without re-training improved the prediction accuracy obtained using NCC (0.804) without a loss in prediction accuracy for the TCIA dataset. Furthermore, we confirmed the same tendency in a model for IDH1/2 mutation prediction with standardization and application of dimension reduction that was also applicable to multiple hospitals. Our results demonstrated that overfitting may occur when an ML method providing the highest accuracy in a small training dataset is used for different heterogeneous data sets, and suggested a promising process for developing an ML method applicable to multiple cohorts.

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