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1.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201324

RESUMO

Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings to policy makers for timely action. This paper aims to illustrate the use of real-time operational research and discuss how to make it happen. Four case studies are presented from the field of tuberculosis. These include (i) mis-registration of recurrent tuberculosis in Malawi; (ii) HIV testing and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to reduce mortality in TB patients in Malawi; (iii) screening TB patients for diabetes mellitus in India; and (iv) mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection in capital cities in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The important ingredients of real-time operational research are sound ethics; relevant research; adherence to international standards of conducting and reporting on research; consideration of comparison groups; timely data collection; dissemination to key stakeholders; capacity building; and funding. Operational research can improve the delivery of established health interventions and ensure the deployment of new interventions as they become available, irrespective of diseases. This is particularly important when public health emergencies, including pandemics, threaten health services.

2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load (VL) testing among persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) enables earlier detection of sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and for appropriate management of treatment failure. Since adoption of this policy by Zimbabwe in 2016, the extent of implementation is unclear. Therefore we set out to determine among PLHIV ever enrolled on ART from 2004-2017 and in ART care for ≥12 months at health facilities providing ART in Zimbabwe: numbers (proportions) with VL testing uptake, VL suppression and subsequently switched to 2nd-line ART following confirmed virologic failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used retrospective data from the electronic Patient Monitoring System (ePMS) in which PLHIV on ART are registered at 525 public and 4 private health facilities. RESULTS: Among the 392,832 PLHIV in ART care for ≥12 months, 99,721 (25.4%) had an initial VL test done and results available of whom 81,932 (82%) were virally suppressed. Among those with a VL>1000 copies/mL; 6,689 (37.2%) had a follow-up VL test and 4,086 (61%) had unsuppressed VLs of whom only 1,749 (42.8%) were switched to 2nd-line ART. Lower age particularly adolescents (10-19 years) were more likely (ARR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.25-1.44) to have virologic failure. CONCLUSION: The study findings provide insights to implementation gaps including limitations in VL testing; low identification of high- risk PLHIV in care and lack of prompt utilization of test results. The use of electronic patient-level data has demonstrated its usefulness in assessing the performance of the national VL testing program. By end of 2017 implementation of VL testing was sub-optimal, and virological failure was relatively common, particularly among adolescents. Of concern is evidence of failure to act on VL test results that were received. A quality improvement initiative has been planned in response to these findings and its effect on patient management will be monitored.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the scale-up of the HIV "Treat All" recommendation, evidence on its real-world effect on predictors of attrition (either death or lost to follow-up) is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study using Zimbabwe ART program data to assess the association between "Treat All" and, patient-mix, programmatic characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition. METHODS: We used patient-level data from the electronic patient monitoring system (ePMS) from the nine districts, which piloted the "Treat All" recommendation. We compared patient-mix, programme characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition (lost to follow-up, death or stopping ART) in two cohorts; before (April/May 2016) and after (January/February 2017) "Treat All". Retention was estimated using survival analysis. Predictors of attrition were determined using a multivariable Cox regression model. Interactions were used to assess the change in predictors of attrition before and after "Treat All". RESULTS: We analysed 3787 patients, 1738 (45.9%) and 2049 (54.1%) started ART before and after "Treat All", respectively. The proportion of men was higher after "Treat All" (39.4.% vs 36.2%, p = 0.044). Same-day ART initiation was more frequent after "Treat All" (43.2% vs 16.4%; p<0.001) than before. Retention on ART was higher before "Treat All" (p<0.001). Among non-pregnant women and men, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of attrition after compared to before "Treat All" was 1.73 (95%CI: 1.30-2.31). The observed hazard of attrition for women being pregnant at ART initiation decreased by 17% (aHR: 1.73*0.48 = 0.83) after "Treat All". Being male (vs female; aHR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12-1.87) and WHO Stage IV (vs WHO Stage I-III; aHR: 2.89; 95%CI: 1.16-7.11) predicted attrition both before and after "Treat All" implementation. CONCLUSION: Attrition was higher after "Treat All"; being male, WHO Stage 4, and pregnancy predicted attrition in both before and after Treat All. However, pregnancy became a less strong risk factor for attrition after "Treat All" implementation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Zimbábue
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual violence can have a destructive impact on the lives of people. It is more common in unstable conditions such as during displacement or migration of people. On the Greek island of Lesvos, Médecins Sans Frontières provided medical care to survivors of sexual violence among the population of asylum seekers. This study describes the patterns of sexual violence reported by migrants and asylum seekers and the clinical care provided to them. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, using routine program data. The study population consisted of migrants and asylum seekers treated for conditions related to sexual violence at the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic on Lesvos Island (September 2017-January 2018). RESULTS: There were 215 survivors of sexual violence who presented for care, of whom 60 (28%) were male. The majority of incidents reported (94%) were cases of rape; 174 (81%) of survivors were from Africa and 185 (86%) of the incidents occurred over a month before presentation. Half the incidents (118) occurred in transit, mainly in Turkey, and 76 (35%) in the country of origin; 10 cases (5%) occurred on Lesvos. The perpetrator was known to the survivor in 23% of the cases. The need for mental health care exceeded the capacity of available mental care services. CONCLUSION: Even though the majority of cases delayed seeking medical care after the incident, it is crucial that access to mental health services is guaranteed for those in need. Such access and security measures for people in transit need to be put in place along migration routes, including in countries nominally considered safe, and secure routes need to be developed.


Assuntos
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia
7.
F1000Res ; 9: 287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934801

RESUMO

Background: In Zimbabwe, Harare was the first province to implement "Treat All" for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Since its roll out in July 2016, no study has been conducted to assess the changes in key programme indicators. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake, time to ART initiation from diagnosis, and retention before and during "Treat All". Methods: We conducted an ecological study to assess ART uptake among all PLHIV newly diagnosed before and during "Treat All". We conducted a cohort study to assess time to ART initiation and retention in care among all PLHIV newly initiated on ART from all electronic patient management system-supported sites (n=50) before and during "Treat All". Results: ART uptake increased from 65% (n=4619) by the end of quarter one, 2014 to 85% (n=5152) by the end of quarter four, 2018.  A cohort of 2289 PLHIV were newly initiated on ART before (April-June 2015) and 1682 during "Treat all" (April-June 2017). Their age and gender distribution was similar. The proportion of PLHIV in early stages of disease was significantly higher during "Treat all" (73.2% vs. 55.6%, p<0.001). The median time to ART initiation was significantly lower during "Treat All" (31 vs. 88 days, p<0.001). Cummulative retention at three, six and 12 months was consistently lower during "Treat all" and was significant at six months (74.9% vs.78.1% p=0.022). Conclusion: Although there were benefits of early ART initiation during "Treat All", the programme should consider strategies to improve retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Zimbábue
8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(7): 450-457, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four partner notification approaches were introduced in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire to increase human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing uptake among the type of contacts (sex partners and biological children younger than 15 years). The study assessed the 4 approaches: client referral (index cases refer the contacts for HIV testing), provider referral (health care providers refer the contacts), contract referral (index case-provider hybrid approach), and dual referral (both the index and their partner are tested simultaneously). METHODS: Program data were collected at 4 facilities from October 2018 to March 2019 from index case files and HIV testing register. We compared uptake of the approaches, uptake of HIV testing, and HIV positivity percentages, stratified by contact type and gender. RESULTS: There were 1089 sex partners and 469 children from 1089 newly diagnosed index cases. About 90% of children were contacted through client referral: 85.2% of those were tested and 1.4% was positive. Ninety percent of the children came from female index cases. The provider referral brought in 56.3% of sex partners, of whom 97.2% were HIV-tested. The client referral brought in 30% of sex partners, of whom only 81.5% were HIV-tested. The HIV positivity percentages were 75.5% and 72.7%, respectively, for the 2 approaches. Male index cases helped to reach twice as many HIV-positive sexual contacts outside the household (115) than female index cases (53). The contract and dual referrals were not preferred by index cases. CONCLUSIONS: Provider referral is a successful and acceptable strategy for bringing in sex partners for testing. Client referral is preferred for children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Parceiros Sexuais , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033035, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: WHO recommended strengthening the linkages between various HIV prevention programmes and adolescent sexual reproductive health (ASRH) services. The Smart-LyncAges project piloted in Bulawayo city and Mt Darwin district of Zimbabwe established a referral system to link the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clients to ASRH services provided at youth centres. Since its inception in 2016, there has been no assessment of the performance of the referral system. Thus, we aimed to assess the proportion of young (10-24 years) VMMC clients getting 'successfully linked' to ASRH services and factors associated with 'not being linked'. DESIGN: This was a cohort study using routinely collected secondary data. SETTING: All three VMMC clinics of Mt Darwin district and Bulawayo province. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of 'successfully linked' was summarised as the percentage with a 95% CI. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) using a generalised linear model was calculated as a measure of association between client characteristics and 'not being linked'. RESULTS: Of 1773 young people registered for VMMC services, 1478 (83%) were referred for ASRH services as they had not registered for ASRH previously. Of those referred for ASRH services, the mean (SD) age of study participants was 13.7 (4.3) years and 427 (28.9%) were out of school. Of the referred, 463 (31.3%, 95% CI: 30.0 to 33.8) were 'successfully linked' to ASRH services and the median (IQR) duration for linkage was 6 (0-56) days. On adjusted analysis, receiving referral from Bulawayo circumcision clinic (aRR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7)) and undergoing circumcision at outreach sites (aRR: 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3)) were associated with 'not being linked' to ASRH services. CONCLUSION: Linkage to ASRH services from VMMC is feasible as one-third VMMC clients were successfully linked. However, there is need to explore reasons for not accessing ASRH services and take corrective actions to improve the linkages.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is one of the thirty countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). Since 2010, patients diagnosed with MDR/RR-TB are being treated with 20-24 months of standardized second-line drugs (SLDs). The profile, management and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes of MDR/RR TB have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis Programme in all the district hospitals and urban healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe between January 2010 and December 2015. METHODS: A cohort study using routinely collected programme data. The 'death', 'loss to follow-up' (LTFU), 'failure' and 'not evaluated' were considered as "unfavourable outcome". A generalized linear model with a log-link and binomial distribution or a Poisson distribution with robust error variances were used to assess factors associated with "unfavourable outcome". The unadjusted and adjusted relative risks were calculated as a measure of association. A 𝑝value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients in the study, the median age was 34 years [interquartile range, 29-42] and 230 (49%) were males. There were 352 (74%) patients co-infected with HIV, of whom 321 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Severe adverse events (SAEs) were recorded in 118 (25%) patients; mostly hearing impairments (70%) and psychosis (11%). Overall, 184 (39%) patients had 'unfavourable' treatment outcomes [125 (26%) were deaths, 39 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 4 (<1%) were failures and 16 (3%) not evaluated]. Being co-infected with HIV but not on ART [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.33-5.09] was independently associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The high unfavourable treatment outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients on standardized SLDs were coupled with a high occurrence of SAEs in this predominantly HIV co-infected cohort. Switching to individualized all oral shorter treatment regimens should be considered to limit SAEs and improve treatment outcomes. Improving the ART uptake and timeliness of ART initiation can reduce unfavourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four partner notification approaches were introduced in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire to increase HIV testing uptake amongst the type of contacts (sex partners and biological children under 15). The study assessed the four approaches: client referral (index cases refer the contacts for HIV testing), provider referral (healthcare providers refer the contacts), contract referral (index case-provider hybrid approach), and dual referral (both the index and their partner are tested simultaneously). METHODS: Program data were collected at four facilities from October 2018 to March 2019 from index case files and HIV-testing register. We compared uptake of the approaches, uptake of HIV testing, and HIV positivity percentages, stratified by contact type and gender. RESULTS: There were 1,089 sex partners and 469 children from 1,089 newly diagnosed index cases. About 90% of children were contacted through client referral: 85.2% of those were tested and 1.4% was positive. 90% of children came from female index cases. The provider referral brought in 56.3% of sex partners, of whom 97.2% were HIV-tested. The client referral brought in 30% of sex partners, of whom only 81.5% were HIV-tested. HIV positivity percentages were 75.5% and 72.7% respectively for the two approaches. Male index cases helped to reach twice as many HIV positive sexual contacts outside the household (115) than female index cases (53). The contract and dual referrals were not preferred by index cases. CONCLUSION: Provider referral is a successful and acceptable strategy for bringing in sex partners for testing. Client referral is preferred for children.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e034721, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are known to have a tuberculosis (TB) protective effect at the individual level among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In Zimbabwe where TB is driven by HIV infection, we have assessed whether there is a population-level association between IPT and ART scale-up and annual TB case notification rates (CNRs) from 2000 to 2018. DESIGN: Ecological study using aggregate national data. SETTING: Annual aggregate national data on TB case notification rates (stratified by TB category and type of disease), numbers (and proportions) of PLHIV in ART care and of these, numbers (and proportions) ever commenced on IPT. RESULTS: ART coverage in the public sector increased from <1% (8400 PLHIV) in 2004 to ~88% (>1.1 million PLHIV patients) by December 2018, while IPT coverage among PLHIV in ART care increased from <1% (98 PLHIV) in 2012 to ~33% (373 917 PLHIV) by December 2018. These HIV-related interventions were associated with significant declines in TB CNRs: between the highest CNR prior to national roll-out of ART (in 2004) to the lowest recorded CNR after national IPT roll-out from 2012, these were (1) for all TB case (510 to 173 cases/100 000 population; 66% decline, p<0.001); (2) for those with new TB (501 to 159 cases/100 000 population; 68% decline, p<0.001) and (3) for those with new clinically diagnosed PTB (284 to 63 cases/100 000 population; 77.8% decline, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the population-level impact of the continued scale-up of ART among PLHIV and the national roll-out of IPT among those in ART care in reducing TB, particularly clinically diagnosed TB which is largely associated with HIV. There are further opportunities for continued mitigation of TB with increasing coverage of ART and in particular IPT which still has a low coverage.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034436, 2020 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peer education is an intervention within the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC)-adolescent sexual reproductive health (ASRH) linkages project in Bulawayo and Mount Darwin, Zimbabwe since 2016. Little is known if results extend beyond increasing knowledge. We therefore assessed the extent of and factors affecting referral by peer educators and receipt of HIV testing services (HTS), contraception, management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and VMMC services by young people (10-24 years) counselled. DESIGN: A cohort study involving all young people counselled by 95 peer educators during October-December 2018, through secondary analysis of routinely collected data. SETTING: All ASRH and VMMC sites in Mt Darwin and Bulawayo. PARTICIPANTS: All young people counselled by 95 peer educators. OUTCOME MEASURES: Censor date for assessing receipt of services was 31 January 2019. Factors (clients' age, gender, marital and schooling status, counselling type, location, and peer educators' age and gender) affecting non-referral and non-receipt of services (dependent variables) were assessed by log-binomial regression. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 3370 counselled (66% men), 65% were referred for at least one service. 58% of men were referred for VMMC. Other services had 5%-13% referrals. Non-referral for HTS decreased with clients' age (aRR: ~0.9) but was higher among group-counselled (aRR: 1.16). Counselling by men (aRR: 0.77) and rural location (aRR: 0.61) reduced risks of non-referral for VMMC, while age increased it (aRR ≥1.59). Receipt of services was high (64%-80%) except for STI referrals (39%). Group counselling and rural location (aRR: ~0.52) and male peer educators (aRR: 0.76) reduced the risk of non-receipt of VMMC. Rural location increased the risk of non-receipt of contraception (aRR: 3.18) while marriage reduced it (aRR: 0.20). CONCLUSION: We found varying levels of referral ranging from 5.1% (STIs) to 58.3% (VMMC) but high levels of receipt of services. Type of counselling, peer educators' gender and location affected receipt of services. We recommend qualitative approaches to further understand reasons for non-referrals and non-receipt of services.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Grupo Associado , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Circuncisão Masculina/métodos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(2): 162-172, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multimonth dispensing (MMD) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) aims to reduce patient-related barriers to access long-term treatment and improve health system efficiency. However, randomized evidence of its clinical effectiveness is lacking. We compared MMD within community ART refill groups (CARGs) vs. standard-of-care facility-based ART delivery in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A three-arm, cluster-randomized, pragmatic noninferiority trial was performed. Thirty health care facilities and associated CARGs were allocated to either ART collected three-monthly at facility (3MF, control); ART delivered three-monthly in CARGs (3MC); or ART delivered six-monthly in CARGs (6MC). Stable adults receiving ART ≥six months with baseline viral load (VL) <1000 copies/ml were eligible. Retention in ART care (primary outcome) and viral suppression (VS) 12 months after enrollment were compared, using regression models specified for clustering (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03238846). RESULTS: 4800 participants were recruited, 1919, 1335, and 1546 in arms 3MF, 3MC, and 6MC, respectively. For retention, the prespecified noninferiority limit (-3.25%, risk difference [RD]) was met for comparisons between all arms, 3MC (94.8%) vs. 3MF (93.0%), adjusted RD = 1.1% (95% CI: -0.5% to 2.8%); 6MC (95.5%) vs. 3MF: aRD = 1.2% (95% CI: -1.0% to 3.6%); and 6MC vs. 3MC: aRD = 0.1% (95% CI: -2.4% to 2.6%). VL completion at 12 months was 49%, 45%, and 8% in 3MF, 3MC, and 6MC, respectively. VS in 3MC (99.7%) was high and not different to 3MF (99.1%), relative risk = 1.0 (95% CI: 1.0-1.0). VS was marginally reduced in 6MC (92.9%) vs. 3MF, relative risk = 0.9 (95% CI: 0.9-1.0). CONCLUSION: Retention in CARGs receiving three- and six-monthly MMD was noninferior versus standard-of-care facility-based ART delivery. VS in 3MC was high. VS in six-monthly CARGs requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Assistência Ambulatorial , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0222309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The last evaluation to assess outcomes for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the Zimbabwe public sector was conducted in 2011, covering the 2007-2010 cohorts. The reported retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 90.7%, 78.1%, 68.8% and 64.4%, respectively. We report findings of a follow-up evaluation for the 2012-2015 cohorts to assess the implementation and impact of recommendations from this prior evaluation. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in 2016. Multi-stage proportional sampling was used to select health facilities and study participants records. The data extracted from patient manual records included demographic, baseline clinical characteristics and patient outcomes (active on treatment, died, transferred out, stopped ART and lost to follow-up (LTFU)) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. The data were analysed using Stata/IC 14.2. Retention was estimated using survival analysis. The predictors associated with attrition were determined using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 3,810 participants were recruited in the study. The median age in years was 35 (IQR: 28-42). Overall, retention increased to 92.4% (p-value = 0.060), 86.5% (p-value<0.001), 79.2% (p-value<0.001) and 74.4% (p-value<0.001) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. LTFU accounted for 98% of attrition. Being an adolescent or a young adult (15-24 years) (vs adult;1.41; 95% CI:1.14-1.74), children (<15years) (vs adults; aHR 0.64; 95% CI:0.46-0.91), receiving care at primary health care facility (vs central and provincial facility; aHR 1.23; 95% CI:1.01-1.49), having initiated ART between 2014-2015 (vs 2012-2013; aHR1.45; 95%CI:1.24-1.69), having WHO Stage IV (vs Stage I-III; aHR2.06; 95%CI:1.51-2.81) and impaired functional status (vs normal status; aHR1.25; 95%CI:1.04-1.49) predicted attrition. CONCLUSION: The overall retention was higher in comparison to the previous 2007-2010 evaluation. Further studies to understand why attrition was found to be higher at primary health care facilities are warranted. Implementation of strategies for managing patients with advanced HIV disease, differentiated care for adolescents and young adults and tracking of LTFU clients should be prioritised to further improve retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
16.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 14(2): 195-208, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760848

RESUMO

Introduction: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a crucial but neglected component of global tuberculosis control. The 2018 United Nations High-Level Meeting committed world leaders to provide LTBI treatment to at least 30 million people, including 4 million children<5 years, 20 million other household contacts and 6 million HIV-infected people by 2022.Areas covered: This review searched MEDLINE between 1990 and 2019 and discussed: i) high-risk groups to be prioritized for diagnosis and treatment of LTBI; ii) challenges with diagnosing LTBI in programmatic settings; iii) LTBI treatment options including isoniazid monotherapy, shorter regimens (rifampicin-monotherapy, rifampicin-isoniazid and rifapentine-isoniazid) and treatments for contacts of drug-resistant patients; iv) issues with programmatic scale-up of treatment including policy considerations, ruling out active TB, time to start treatment, safety, uninterrupted drug supplies and treatment adherence; and v) recording and reporting.Expert opinion: In 2017, <1.5 million persons were reported to be treated for LTBI. This must rapidly increase to 6 million persons annually. If HIV programs focus on HIV-infected people already accessing or about to start antiretroviral therapy and TB programs focus on household contacts, these targets could be achieved. Isoniazid remains the current treatment of choice although shorter courses of rifapentine-isoniazid are possible alternatives.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/análogos & derivados , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581271

RESUMO

SETTING: Four primary health care clinics providing tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVES: To assess isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) initiation and completion, factors associated with IPT uptake and incidence of TB, and TB and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: This was a cohort study using routine data in the records for PLHIV initiated on ART from October 2013 to March 2014 with 31 December 2017 as the end of the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 408 PLHIV were eligible for IPT, 214 (52%) were initiated on IPT and 201 (94%) completed IPT. No person in the IPT-initiated group developed Tuberculosis (TB). Six persons with TB were reported among the non-IPT-initiated group leading to an incidence of 9 cases/1,000 person-years of follow-up. About 70% of those who developed and were treated for TB had a successful TB treatment outcome. The survival on ART at four years of follow-up was 88% among the IPT-initiated PLHIV that was significantly higher than the 75% survival in the group not- initiated on IPT. CONCLUSION: The study revealed low IPT initiation among eligible PLHIV who, if started on IPT, completed the six month regimen. TB was reported only among the PLHIV not-initiated on IPT and the four year ART survival was higher in the IPT-initiated group than in the non-initiated group. These findings reinforce the need to strengthen IPT uptake among PLHIV in Bulawayo.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 284, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In high syphilis prevalence settings, the syphilis testing and treatment strategy for mothers and newborns must be tailored to balance the risk of over treatment against the risk of missing infants at high-risk for congenital syphilis. Adding a non-treponemal test (Rapid Plasma Reagin - RPR) to a routine rapid treponemal test (SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0) for women giving birth can help distinguish between neonates at high and low-risk for congenital syphilis to tailor their treatment. Treatment for neonates born to RPR-reactive mothers (high-risk) is 10 days of intravenous penicillin, while one dose of intramuscular penicillin is sufficient for those born to RPR non-reactive mothers (low-risk). This strategy was adopted in March 2017 in a Médecins Sans Frontières supported hospital in Bangui, Central African Republic. This study examined the operational consequences of this algorithm on the treatment of newborns. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort study. Routine programmatic data were analysed. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. Total antibiotic days, hospitalization days and estimated costs were compared to scenarios without RPR testing and another where syphilis treatment was the sole reason for hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 202 babies born to SD Bioline positive mothers 89 (44%) and 111(55%) were RPR-reactive and non-reactive respectively (2 were unrecorded) of whom 80% and 88% of the neonates received appropriate antibiotic treatment respectively. Neonates born to RPR non-reactive mothers were 80% less likely to have sepsis [Relative risk (RR) = 0.20; 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.92] and 9% more likely to be discharged [RR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.00-1.18] compared to those of RPR-reactive mothers. There was a 52%, and 49% reduction in antibiotic and hospitalization days respectively compared to a scenario with SD-Bioline testing only. Total hospitalization costs were also 52% lower compared to a scenario without RPR testing. CONCLUSIONS: This testing strategy can help identify infants at high and low risk for congenital syphilis and treat them accordingly at substantial cost savings. It is especially appropriate for settings with high syphilis endemicity, limited resources and overcrowded maternities. The babies additionally benefit from lower risks of exposure to unnecessary antibiotics and nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/métodos , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , República Centro-Africana , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 113(10): 610-616, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends retesting of HIV-positive patients before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is no evidence on implementation of retesting guidelines from programmatic settings. We aimed to assess implementation of HIV retesting among clients diagnosed HIV-positive in the public health facilities of Harare, Zimbabwe, in June 2017. METHODS: This cohort study involved analysis of secondary data collected routinely by the programme. RESULTS: Of 1729 study participants, 639 (37%) were retested. Misdiagnosis of HIV was found in six (1%) of the patients retested-all were infants retested with DNA-PCR. There was no HIV misdiagnosis among adults. Among those retested, 95% were retested on the same day and two-thirds were tested by a different provider as per national guidelines. Among those retested and found positive, 95% were started on ART, while none of those with negative retest results were started on ART. Of those not retested, about half (51%) were started on ART. The median (IQR) time to ART initiation from diagnosis was 0 (0-1) d. CONCLUSION: The implementation of HIV-retesting policy in Harare was poor. While most HIV retest positives were started on ART, only half non-retested received ART. Future research is needed to understand the reasons for non-retesting and non-initiation of ART among those not retested.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coverage among pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe, the MTCT rate is still high. Therefore in 2016, the country adopted World Health Organization recommendations of stratifying pregnant women into "High" or"Low" MTCT risk for subsequent provision of HIV exposed infant (HEI) with appropriate follow-up care according to risk status. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to ascertain, among pregnant women who delivered in clinics of Harare in August 2017: the extent to which high risk MTCT pregnancies were identified at time of delivery; and whether their newborns were initiated on appropriate ARV prophylaxis, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, subjected to early HIV diagnostic testing and initiated on ARV treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using review of records of routinely collected program data. RESULTS: Of the 1,786 pregnant women who delivered in the selected clinics, HIV status at the time of delivery was known for 1,756 (98%) of whom 197 (11%) were HIV seropositive. Only 19 (10%) could be classified as "high risk" for MTCT and the remaining 90% lacked adequate information to classify them into high or low risk for MTCT due to missing data. Of the 197 live births, only two (1%) infants had a nucleic-acid test (NAT) at birth and 32 (16%) infants had NAT at 6 weeks. Of all 197 infants, 183 (93%) were initiated on single ARV prophylaxis (Nevirapine), 15 (7%) infants' ARV prophylaxis status was not documented and one infant got dual ARV prophylaxis (Nevirapine+Zidovudine). CONCLUSION: There was paucity of data requisite for MTCT risk stratification due to poor recording of data; "high risk" women were missed in the few circumstances where sufficient data were available. Thus "high risk" HEI are deprived of dual ARV prophylaxis and priority HIV NAT at birth and onwards which they require for PMTCT. Health workers need urgent training, mentorship and supportive supervision to master data management and perform MTCT risk stratification satisfactorily.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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