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1.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(2): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load (VL) testing is fraught with challenges in resource-limited settings which lead to longer turnaround times for the return of VL results. We assessed the turnaround times for VL testing and factors associated with long turnaround (>30 days) in Marondera, Zimbabwe, between January and September 2018. METHODS: This was an analytical study of routine program data. Data were extracted from electronic records and paper-based reports at two laboratories and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) facilities. The unit of analysis was the VL sample. Duration (in days) between sample collection and sample testing (pre-test turnaround time), duration between sample testing and receipt of VL result at ART the site (post-test turnaround time), and duration between sample collection and receipt of result at the ART site (overall turnaround time) were calculated. Days on which the VL testing machine was not functional, and workload (number of tests done per month) were used to assess associations. We used binomial log models to assess the factors associated with longer turnaround time. RESULTS: A total of 3348 samples were received at the two VL testing laboratories, and 3313 were tested, of these, 1111 were analyzed for overall turnaround time. Pre-test, post-test, and overall turnaround times were 22 days (interquartile range (IQR): 11-41), 51 days (IQR: 30-89), and 67 days (IQR: 46-100), respectively. Laboratory workload (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.14) and machine break down (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.14-1.17) were associated with long turnaround time. CONCLUSIONS: Routine VL turnaround time was long. Decentralizing VL testing and enhancing laboratory capacity may help shorten the turnaround time.

2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201324

RESUMO

Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings to policy makers for timely action. This paper aims to illustrate the use of real-time operational research and discuss how to make it happen. Four case studies are presented from the field of tuberculosis. These include (i) mis-registration of recurrent tuberculosis in Malawi; (ii) HIV testing and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to reduce mortality in TB patients in Malawi; (iii) screening TB patients for diabetes mellitus in India; and (iv) mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection in capital cities in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The important ingredients of real-time operational research are sound ethics; relevant research; adherence to international standards of conducting and reporting on research; consideration of comparison groups; timely data collection; dissemination to key stakeholders; capacity building; and funding. Operational research can improve the delivery of established health interventions and ensure the deployment of new interventions as they become available, irrespective of diseases. This is particularly important when public health emergencies, including pandemics, threaten health services.

3.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208424

RESUMO

The Post-Ebola era (2017-2019) presented an opportunity for laboratory investments in Sierra Leone. US CDC supported the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to establish a microbiological unit for routine antimicrobial sensitivity testing in two referral (pediatric and maternity) hospitals in Freetown. This study describes resistance patterns among patients' laboratory samples from 2017 to 2019 using routine data. Samples included urine, stool, cerebrospinal fluid, pus-wound, pleural fluid, and high vaginal swabs. Selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of 200 samples received by the laboratory, 89 returned positive bacterial isolates with urine and pus-wound swabs accounting for 75% of positive isolates. The number of positive isolates increased annually from one in 2017 to 42 in 2018 and 46 in 2019. Resistance of the cultures to at least one antibiotic was high (91%), and even higher in the pediatric hospital (94%). Resistance was highest with penicillin (81%) for Gram-positive bacteria and lowest with nitrofurantoin (13%). Gram-negative bacteria were most resistant to ampicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and penicillin (100%) and least resistant to novobiocin (0%). Antibiotic resistance for commonly prescribed antibiotics was high in two referral hospitals, highlighting the urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship and access to reserve antibiotics.

4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066602

RESUMO

Blood culture (BC) processes are critical to the utility of diagnostic testing, bloodstream infection (BSI) management, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. While Uganda has established BC guidelines, often laboratory practice does not meet the desired standards. This compromises pathogen recovery, reliability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and diagnostic test utility. This study assessed laboratory BC process outcomes among non-malarial febrile children below five years of age at five AMR surveillance sites in Uganda between 2017 and 2018. Secondary BC testing data was reviewed against established standards. Overall, 959 BC specimens were processed. Of these, 91% were from female patients, neonates, infants, and young children (1-48 months). A total of 37 AMR priority pathogens were identified; Staphylococcus aureus was predominant (54%), followed by Escherichia coli (19%). The diagnostic yield was low (4.9%). Only 6.3% of isolates were identified. AST was performed on 70% (18/26) of identified AMR priority isolates, and only 40% of these tests adhered to recommended standards. Interventions are needed to improve laboratory BC practices for effective patient management through targeted antimicrobial therapy and AMR surveillance in Uganda. Further research on process documentation, diagnostic yield, and a review of patient outcomes for all hospitalized febrile patients is needed.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069434

RESUMO

Antimicrobial consumption (AMC) surveillance at global and national levels is necessary to inform relevant interventions and policies. This study analyzed central warehouse antimicrobial supplies to health facilities providing inpatient care in Uganda. We collected data on antimicrobials supplied by National Medical Stores (NMS) and Joint Medical Stores (JMS) to 442 health facilities from 2017 to 2019. Data were analyzed using the World Health Organization methodology for AMC surveillance. Total quantity of antimicrobials in defined daily dose (DDD) were determined, classified into Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) and AMC density was calculated. There was an increase in total DDDs distributed by NMS in 2019 by 4,166,572 DDD. In 2019, Amoxicillin (27%), Cotrimoxazole (20%), and Metronidazole (12%) were the most supplied antimicrobials by NMS while Doxycycline (10%), Amoxicillin (19%), and Metronidazole (10%) were the most supplied by JMS. The majority of antimicrobials supplied by NMS (81%) and JMS (66%) were from the Access category. Increasing antimicrobial consumption density (DDD per 100 patient days) was observed from national referral to lower-level health facilities. Except for NMS in 2019, total antimicrobials supplied by NMS and JMS remained the same from 2017 to 2019. This serves as a baseline for future assessments and monitoring of stewardship interventions.

7.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/economia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load (VL) testing among persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) enables earlier detection of sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and for appropriate management of treatment failure. Since adoption of this policy by Zimbabwe in 2016, the extent of implementation is unclear. Therefore we set out to determine among PLHIV ever enrolled on ART from 2004-2017 and in ART care for ≥12 months at health facilities providing ART in Zimbabwe: numbers (proportions) with VL testing uptake, VL suppression and subsequently switched to 2nd-line ART following confirmed virologic failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used retrospective data from the electronic Patient Monitoring System (ePMS) in which PLHIV on ART are registered at 525 public and 4 private health facilities. RESULTS: Among the 392,832 PLHIV in ART care for ≥12 months, 99,721 (25.4%) had an initial VL test done and results available of whom 81,932 (82%) were virally suppressed. Among those with a VL>1000 copies/mL; 6,689 (37.2%) had a follow-up VL test and 4,086 (61%) had unsuppressed VLs of whom only 1,749 (42.8%) were switched to 2nd-line ART. Lower age particularly adolescents (10-19 years) were more likely (ARR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.25-1.44) to have virologic failure. CONCLUSION: The study findings provide insights to implementation gaps including limitations in VL testing; low identification of high- risk PLHIV in care and lack of prompt utilization of test results. The use of electronic patient-level data has demonstrated its usefulness in assessing the performance of the national VL testing program. By end of 2017 implementation of VL testing was sub-optimal, and virological failure was relatively common, particularly among adolescents. Of concern is evidence of failure to act on VL test results that were received. A quality improvement initiative has been planned in response to these findings and its effect on patient management will be monitored.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the scale-up of the HIV "Treat All" recommendation, evidence on its real-world effect on predictors of attrition (either death or lost to follow-up) is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study using Zimbabwe ART program data to assess the association between "Treat All" and, patient-mix, programmatic characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition. METHODS: We used patient-level data from the electronic patient monitoring system (ePMS) from the nine districts, which piloted the "Treat All" recommendation. We compared patient-mix, programme characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition (lost to follow-up, death or stopping ART) in two cohorts; before (April/May 2016) and after (January/February 2017) "Treat All". Retention was estimated using survival analysis. Predictors of attrition were determined using a multivariable Cox regression model. Interactions were used to assess the change in predictors of attrition before and after "Treat All". RESULTS: We analysed 3787 patients, 1738 (45.9%) and 2049 (54.1%) started ART before and after "Treat All", respectively. The proportion of men was higher after "Treat All" (39.4.% vs 36.2%, p = 0.044). Same-day ART initiation was more frequent after "Treat All" (43.2% vs 16.4%; p<0.001) than before. Retention on ART was higher before "Treat All" (p<0.001). Among non-pregnant women and men, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of attrition after compared to before "Treat All" was 1.73 (95%CI: 1.30-2.31). The observed hazard of attrition for women being pregnant at ART initiation decreased by 17% (aHR: 1.73*0.48 = 0.83) after "Treat All". Being male (vs female; aHR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12-1.87) and WHO Stage IV (vs WHO Stage I-III; aHR: 2.89; 95%CI: 1.16-7.11) predicted attrition both before and after "Treat All" implementation. CONCLUSION: Attrition was higher after "Treat All"; being male, WHO Stage 4, and pregnancy predicted attrition in both before and after Treat All. However, pregnancy became a less strong risk factor for attrition after "Treat All" implementation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Zimbábue
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual violence can have a destructive impact on the lives of people. It is more common in unstable conditions such as during displacement or migration of people. On the Greek island of Lesvos, Médecins Sans Frontières provided medical care to survivors of sexual violence among the population of asylum seekers. This study describes the patterns of sexual violence reported by migrants and asylum seekers and the clinical care provided to them. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, using routine program data. The study population consisted of migrants and asylum seekers treated for conditions related to sexual violence at the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic on Lesvos Island (September 2017-January 2018). RESULTS: There were 215 survivors of sexual violence who presented for care, of whom 60 (28%) were male. The majority of incidents reported (94%) were cases of rape; 174 (81%) of survivors were from Africa and 185 (86%) of the incidents occurred over a month before presentation. Half the incidents (118) occurred in transit, mainly in Turkey, and 76 (35%) in the country of origin; 10 cases (5%) occurred on Lesvos. The perpetrator was known to the survivor in 23% of the cases. The need for mental health care exceeded the capacity of available mental care services. CONCLUSION: Even though the majority of cases delayed seeking medical care after the incident, it is crucial that access to mental health services is guaranteed for those in need. Such access and security measures for people in transit need to be put in place along migration routes, including in countries nominally considered safe, and secure routes need to be developed.


Assuntos
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia
11.
F1000Res ; 9: 287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934801

RESUMO

Background: In Zimbabwe, Harare was the first province to implement "Treat All" for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Since its roll out in July 2016, no study has been conducted to assess the changes in key programme indicators. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake, time to ART initiation from diagnosis, and retention before and during "Treat All". Methods: We conducted an ecological study to assess ART uptake among all PLHIV newly diagnosed before and during "Treat All". We conducted a cohort study to assess time to ART initiation and retention in care among all PLHIV newly initiated on ART from all electronic patient management system-supported sites (n=50) before and during "Treat All". Results: ART uptake increased from 65% (n=4619) by the end of quarter one, 2014 to 85% (n=5152) by the end of quarter four, 2018.  A cohort of 2289 PLHIV were newly initiated on ART before (April-June 2015) and 1682 during "Treat all" (April-June 2017). Their age and gender distribution was similar. The proportion of PLHIV in early stages of disease was significantly higher during "Treat all" (73.2% vs. 55.6%, p<0.001). The median time to ART initiation was significantly lower during "Treat All" (31 vs. 88 days, p<0.001). Cummulative retention at three, six and 12 months was consistently lower during "Treat all" and was significant at six months (74.9% vs.78.1% p=0.022). Conclusion: Although there were benefits of early ART initiation during "Treat All", the programme should consider strategies to improve retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Zimbábue
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874410

RESUMO

This was a cross-sectional study describing HIV testing uptake and ART initiation for pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants after one-off clinical mentorship training in 2013 for nurses in 56 peripheral health-facilities, Zimbabwe. Between 2014-2018, 92% of 106411 pregnant women were HIV tested and 98% of HIV-positive women initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). There were 15846 HIV-exposed infants, of whom 96% had dried blood spots collected for virologic diagnosis and 51% of those diagnosed HIV-positive initiated ART. In conclusion, this one-off clinical mentorship training in 2013 was associated with consistently high HIV testing and ART initiation in pregnant women and their children.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Tutoria/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Medicina Preventiva/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 893-900, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The isoniazid-resistant TB poses a threat to TB control efforts. Zimbabwe, one of the high TB burden countries, has not explored the burden of isoniazid resistant TB. Hence among all bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients diagnosed in Bulawayo City during March 2017 and December 2018, we aimed to assess the proportion with isoniazid resistant TB and associated factors. Also, we aimed to describe the TB treatment outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study involving routinely collected data by the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL) in Bulawayo City and National TB programme of Zimbabwe. The percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to express the proportion with isoniazid-resistant TB. The modified Poisson regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. RESULTS: Of 2160 bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients, 1612 (74.6%) had their sputum received at the NTBRL and 743 (46.1%) had culture growth. Among those with culture growth, 34 (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.5-6.7) had isoniazid mono-resistant TB, 25 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.2-4.9) had MDR-TB. Thus, 59 (7.9%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.1) had isoniazid-resistant TB. Children < 15 years had a higher prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant TB (aPR= 3.93; 95% CI: 1.24-12.45). Among those with rifampicin sensitive TB, patients with isoniazid-sensitive TB had higher favourable treatment outcomes compared to those with isoniazid-resistant TB (86.3% versus 75.5%, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of isoniazid-resistant TB was low compared to neighbouring countries with high burden of TB-HIV. However, Zimbabwe should consider reviewing treatment guidelines for isoniazid mono-resistant TB due to the observed poor treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 36S-41S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, Ethiopia included scabies management within the responsibility of health extension workers. In Kamba (the intervention district) workers were trained on scabies management. Whereas, in Arba Minch Zuria (the control district) there was no such training. This study assesses whether decentralization of scabies management to communities would reduce the load on health facilities and allow earlier scabies treatment access. METHODOLOGY: All individuals presenting with scabies before (January - June 2018) and after (August 2018-January 2019) the introduction of training (July 2018) in Kamba district and the Arba Minch Zuria district were included. We compared between the two districts in the period before and after training, the numbers of scabies cases presenting to health facilities, their demography, clinical characteristics and treatment. RESULTS: There were 1,891 scabies cases in the intervention district and 809 in the control district. Scabies cases declined in the intervention district from 7.6 to 1.6 per 1,000 population (a 4.8-fold reduction). In the control district, scabies cases increased from 1.3 to 2.4 per 1,000 population (a 1.8-fold increase). In intervention district, the proportion of scabies patients with secondary skin infections reduced from 1,227 (78%, n = 1,565) to 156 (48%, n = 326, P < 0.001). In the control district the difference was insignificant 39 (14%, n = 288) to 86 (17%, n = 521, P = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Introducing trained health extension workers at community level were associated with reductions in health facility load for scabies and secondary infections. This is a wider community health benefit.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Escabiose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Operacional , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 42S-47S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In three health care facilities in the Oromia region, the aim of this study is to report on 1) the number of VL cases registered over time (2013-2018) and 2) the clinical profile, type of treatment used and response to treatment. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all VL cases admitted with a diagnosis of VL. RESULTS: A total of 434 VL cases were registered at the three health facilities, but patient files were available for only 188. Most (51.6%) were children and only three presented with VL relapse. 78 (41.5%) of the 188 patients presented within one month of symptom onset. Concurrent severe acute malnutrition (27.1%), tuberculosis (6.4%) and malaria (6.4%) were common. There were only two cases with HIV coinfection. Fourty-three percent were treated with antimonials, 34% with antimonials combined with paromomycin and 23% with AmBisome. Amongst the 188 patients with patient files there were no deaths and one treatment failure. Six months outcome data were however missing for all. Aggregated data from the 434 VL cases reported three deaths, two treatment failures and one relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Children were most commonly affected, suggesting long-term endemicity. While short-term outcomes are encouraging, long-term follow-up data are required.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(7): 450-457, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four partner notification approaches were introduced in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire to increase human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing uptake among the type of contacts (sex partners and biological children younger than 15 years). The study assessed the 4 approaches: client referral (index cases refer the contacts for HIV testing), provider referral (health care providers refer the contacts), contract referral (index case-provider hybrid approach), and dual referral (both the index and their partner are tested simultaneously). METHODS: Program data were collected at 4 facilities from October 2018 to March 2019 from index case files and HIV testing register. We compared uptake of the approaches, uptake of HIV testing, and HIV positivity percentages, stratified by contact type and gender. RESULTS: There were 1089 sex partners and 469 children from 1089 newly diagnosed index cases. About 90% of children were contacted through client referral: 85.2% of those were tested and 1.4% was positive. Ninety percent of the children came from female index cases. The provider referral brought in 56.3% of sex partners, of whom 97.2% were HIV-tested. The client referral brought in 30% of sex partners, of whom only 81.5% were HIV-tested. The HIV positivity percentages were 75.5% and 72.7%, respectively, for the 2 approaches. Male index cases helped to reach twice as many HIV-positive sexual contacts outside the household (115) than female index cases (53). The contract and dual referrals were not preferred by index cases. CONCLUSIONS: Provider referral is a successful and acceptable strategy for bringing in sex partners for testing. Client referral is preferred for children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Parceiros Sexuais , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033035, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: WHO recommended strengthening the linkages between various HIV prevention programmes and adolescent sexual reproductive health (ASRH) services. The Smart-LyncAges project piloted in Bulawayo city and Mt Darwin district of Zimbabwe established a referral system to link the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clients to ASRH services provided at youth centres. Since its inception in 2016, there has been no assessment of the performance of the referral system. Thus, we aimed to assess the proportion of young (10-24 years) VMMC clients getting 'successfully linked' to ASRH services and factors associated with 'not being linked'. DESIGN: This was a cohort study using routinely collected secondary data. SETTING: All three VMMC clinics of Mt Darwin district and Bulawayo province. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of 'successfully linked' was summarised as the percentage with a 95% CI. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) using a generalised linear model was calculated as a measure of association between client characteristics and 'not being linked'. RESULTS: Of 1773 young people registered for VMMC services, 1478 (83%) were referred for ASRH services as they had not registered for ASRH previously. Of those referred for ASRH services, the mean (SD) age of study participants was 13.7 (4.3) years and 427 (28.9%) were out of school. Of the referred, 463 (31.3%, 95% CI: 30.0 to 33.8) were 'successfully linked' to ASRH services and the median (IQR) duration for linkage was 6 (0-56) days. On adjusted analysis, receiving referral from Bulawayo circumcision clinic (aRR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7)) and undergoing circumcision at outreach sites (aRR: 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3)) were associated with 'not being linked' to ASRH services. CONCLUSION: Linkage to ASRH services from VMMC is feasible as one-third VMMC clients were successfully linked. However, there is need to explore reasons for not accessing ASRH services and take corrective actions to improve the linkages.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is one of the thirty countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). Since 2010, patients diagnosed with MDR/RR-TB are being treated with 20-24 months of standardized second-line drugs (SLDs). The profile, management and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes of MDR/RR TB have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis Programme in all the district hospitals and urban healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe between January 2010 and December 2015. METHODS: A cohort study using routinely collected programme data. The 'death', 'loss to follow-up' (LTFU), 'failure' and 'not evaluated' were considered as "unfavourable outcome". A generalized linear model with a log-link and binomial distribution or a Poisson distribution with robust error variances were used to assess factors associated with "unfavourable outcome". The unadjusted and adjusted relative risks were calculated as a measure of association. A 𝑝value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients in the study, the median age was 34 years [interquartile range, 29-42] and 230 (49%) were males. There were 352 (74%) patients co-infected with HIV, of whom 321 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Severe adverse events (SAEs) were recorded in 118 (25%) patients; mostly hearing impairments (70%) and psychosis (11%). Overall, 184 (39%) patients had 'unfavourable' treatment outcomes [125 (26%) were deaths, 39 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 4 (<1%) were failures and 16 (3%) not evaluated]. Being co-infected with HIV but not on ART [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.33-5.09] was independently associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The high unfavourable treatment outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients on standardized SLDs were coupled with a high occurrence of SAEs in this predominantly HIV co-infected cohort. Switching to individualized all oral shorter treatment regimens should be considered to limit SAEs and improve treatment outcomes. Improving the ART uptake and timeliness of ART initiation can reduce unfavourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
19.
F1000Res ; 9: 191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399206

RESUMO

Background: Zimbabwe is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus. In the "treat all" era, we assessed the gaps in routine viral load (VL) monitoring at six months for children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) newly initiated on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) from January 2017 to September 2018 at a large tertiary hospital in Bulawayo. Methods: In this cohort study using secondary data, we considered first VL done within six to nine months of starting therapy as 'undergoing VL test at six months'. We classified repeat VL≥1000 copies/ml despite enhanced adherence counselling as virally unsuppressed. Results: Of 295 patients initiated on ART, 196 (66%) were children and 99 (34%) adolescents. A total 244 (83%) underwent VL test at six months, with 161 (54%) virally suppressed, 52 (18%) unsuppressed and 82 (28%) with unknown status (due to losses in the cascade). Switch to second line was seen in 35% (18/52). When compared to children, adolescents were less likely to undergo a VL test at six months (73% versus 88%, p=0.002) and more likely to have an unknown VL status (40% versus 22%, p=0.001). Conclusion: At six months of ART, viral suppression was low and losses in the cascade high.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e034721, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are known to have a tuberculosis (TB) protective effect at the individual level among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In Zimbabwe where TB is driven by HIV infection, we have assessed whether there is a population-level association between IPT and ART scale-up and annual TB case notification rates (CNRs) from 2000 to 2018. DESIGN: Ecological study using aggregate national data. SETTING: Annual aggregate national data on TB case notification rates (stratified by TB category and type of disease), numbers (and proportions) of PLHIV in ART care and of these, numbers (and proportions) ever commenced on IPT. RESULTS: ART coverage in the public sector increased from <1% (8400 PLHIV) in 2004 to ~88% (>1.1 million PLHIV patients) by December 2018, while IPT coverage among PLHIV in ART care increased from <1% (98 PLHIV) in 2012 to ~33% (373 917 PLHIV) by December 2018. These HIV-related interventions were associated with significant declines in TB CNRs: between the highest CNR prior to national roll-out of ART (in 2004) to the lowest recorded CNR after national IPT roll-out from 2012, these were (1) for all TB case (510 to 173 cases/100 000 population; 66% decline, p<0.001); (2) for those with new TB (501 to 159 cases/100 000 population; 68% decline, p<0.001) and (3) for those with new clinically diagnosed PTB (284 to 63 cases/100 000 population; 77.8% decline, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the population-level impact of the continued scale-up of ART among PLHIV and the national roll-out of IPT among those in ART care in reducing TB, particularly clinically diagnosed TB which is largely associated with HIV. There are further opportunities for continued mitigation of TB with increasing coverage of ART and in particular IPT which still has a low coverage.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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