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1.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 27(7): 1219-26, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098411

RESUMO

We propose detecting a fragment ion (Ph2As(+)) using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for sensitive air monitoring of chemical warfare vomiting agents diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The liquid sample containing of DA, DC, and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO) was heated in a dry air line, and the generated vapor was mixed into the humidified air flowing through the sampling line of a mass spectrometer. Humidity effect on the air monitoring was investigated by varying the humidity of the analyzed air sample. Evidence of the in-line conversion of DA and DC to diphenylarsine hydroxide (DPAH) and then BDPAO was obtained by comparing the chronograms of various ions from the beginning of heating. Multiple-stage mass spectrometry revealed that the protonated molecule (MH(+)) of DA, DC, DPAH, and BDPAO could produce Ph2As(+) through their in-source fragmentation. Among the signals of the ions that were investigated, the Ph2As(+) signal was the most intense and increased to reach a plateau with the increased air humidity, whereas the MH(+) signal of DA decreased. It was suggested that DA and DC were converted in-line into BDPAO, which was a major source of Ph2As(+). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

3.
Anal Chem ; 87(2): 1314-22, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25553788

RESUMO

A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment.

4.
Anal Chem ; 86(9): 4316-26, 2014 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24678766

RESUMO

A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Pressão Atmosférica , Limite de Detecção
5.
Anal Chem ; 85(5): 2659-66, 2013 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23339735

RESUMO

A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 µg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 µg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring.

6.
J Cardiol ; 44(1): 27-31, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15334882

RESUMO

A 29-year-old man developed diabetes mellitus in 1983 and diabetic nephropathy which gradually worsened from 1998. He was admitted to our hospital for initiation of peritoneal dialysis in May 2002. However, the efficiency of dialysis was not sufficient to improve elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. His body weight and cardiothoracic index by chest roentgenography gradually increased starting 9 days after admission. To improve the efficiency of dialysis, we tried to increase the dialysis fluid. Nevertheless, the efficiency of peritoneal dialysis remained low, and the patient complained of nausea 14 days after admission. Hypotension suddenly occurred 16 days after admission. Echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion and collapse of the right ventricle. The diagnosis was cardiac tamponade. We performed cardiac centesis and pericardial drainage which revealed bloody pericardial effusion. Urgent hemodialysis was performed. The differential diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was established. After hemodialysis, the amount of pericardial effusion decreased, the gastro-intestinal symptoms disappeared, and the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels decreased. We speculated that the cause of cardiac tamponade was uremic pericarditis after ruling out infectious disease, collagen disease, malignant disease, and aortic dissection. Cardiac tamponade due to uremic pericarditis has become very rare since hemodialysis was developed.


Assuntos
Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Pericardite/complicações , Uremia/complicações , Adulto , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pericardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Diálise Peritoneal , Ultrassonografia
7.
Jpn J Pharmacol ; 89(2): 120-5, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12120753

RESUMO

The presence of nonischemic regional dysfunction at the adjacent region of the ischemic myocardium was demonstrated in clinical studies. Recent studies demonstrated an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist reduced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the role of the adjacent region after reperfusion by studying the effects of AT1-receptor antagonist on myocardial function and infarct size. We investigated 12 open-chest anesthetized dogs undergoing 90 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion. Six dogs injected with an AT1-receptor antagonist (CV11974) immediately after reperfusion were compared with 6 control dogs. Percent systolic shortening (%SS) was measured by two sets of the pair sonomicrometer crystals implanted to adjacent and remote nonischemic myocardium. After 4 h of reperfusion, infarct size was measured. There were no significant differences of the %SS at baseline between two regions. In both groups, %SS at adjacent region after reperfusion was significantly decreased as compared with remote region. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Infarct size, as a percentage of the area at risk, was smaller in the AT, group than in control group (25.49+/-7.53% vs 68.58+/-26.88% P<0.01). AT1-receptor antagonist reduces infarct size. This effect is not related to the change of regional myocardial function at adjacent region after reperfusion.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Cães , Hemodinâmica , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 282(4): H1510-20, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11893589

RESUMO

The ventricular myocardium consists of a syncytium of myocytes organized into branching, transmurally oriented laminar sheets approximately four cells thick. When systolic deformation is expressed in an axis system determined by the anatomy of the laminar architecture, laminar sheets of myocytes shear and laterally extend in an approximately radial direction. These deformations account for ~90% of normal systolic wall thickening in the left ventricular free wall. In the present study, we investigated whether the changes in systolic and diastolic function of the sheets were sensitive to alterations in systolic and diastolic load. Our results indicate that there is substantial reorientation of the laminar architecture during systole and diastole. Moreover, this reorientation is both site and load dependent. Thus as end-diastolic pressure is increased and the left ventricular wall thins, sheets shorten and rotate away from the radial direction due to transverse shearing, opposite of what occurs in systole. Both mechanisms of thickening contribute substantially to normal left ventricular wall function. Whereas the relative contributions of shear and extension are comparable at the base, sheet shear is the predominant factor at the apex. The magnitude of shortening/extension and shear increases with preload and decreases with afterload. These findings underscore the essential contribution of the laminar myocardial architecture for normal ventricular function throughout the cardiac cycle.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Hemodinâmica , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Animais , Diástole , Cães , Coração/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelos Teóricos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Contração Miocárdica , Pericárdio/anatomia & histologia , Pericárdio/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Sístole
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