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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598877

RESUMO

Lemierre's syndrome is a serious disease that typically causes oropharyngeal infection with internal jugular vein thrombosis, followed by distant infection focus, such as septic pulmonary embolism. The main causative organisms are anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity, namely Fusobacterium necrophorum. We encountered an extremely rare case of Lemierre's syndrome, where double vision was found to be the first symptom. The patient's blood culture results showed the presence of F. nucleatum, which spread from the sphenoid sinus to the skull base because of chronic sinusitis; the patient presented with longus colli abscess, clivus osteomyelitis, venous thrombosis, and hematogenous infection. Antibiotic treatment with sulbactam/ampicillin was continued for 14 weeks, and no recurrence has been observed so far. Lemierre's syndrome can be complicated with atypical symptoms such as double vision if the cranial nerves are involved. It might be important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis in the presence of cranial nerve symptoms of unknown origin with fever or inflammatory findings.

2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470963

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally distributed and cause a range of respiratory symptoms. Reports of the clinical features of HCoV infection are limited, especially in adults because of mild upper respiratory tract disease and no specific therapy available. Here we aim to evaluate the features of HCoV infection in clinical settings. Adult patients with respiratory symptoms from October 2014 to September 2019 at Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital were enrolled. The multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for 15 viruses including HCoVs and 8 bacterial species on their respiratory specimens. A total of 121 cases were recruited with HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63 strains in 80, 21, 12 and 11 cases, respectively. The percent of HCoV-infected patients peaked (47.5%) in winter. Symptoms of fever (69.4%) and cough (47.9%), and comorbidities of asthma/cough variant asthma (34.7%) were frequently observed. Lymphocytopenia and increased C-reactive protein were observed on the laboratory test. Co-infection with other viruses was identified in 38.8% of cases. In the repeat-positive cases, 42% cases were repeat positive within 100 days. HCoV-infected patients showed winter seasonality with a high frequency of comorbidity with asthma, and co-infection. Re-infection within an early period was suspected but required further consideration.

3.
Respir Investig ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify the involvement of anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), which are metabolites of anaerobic bacteria in the mouth. METHODS: This study included 84 older adult patients (mean age, 82.5 ± 7.34 years) who had dementia and were hospitalized for more than 6 months. We measured the VSCs in the patient's mouth with Oral Chroma and obtained the data of pneumonia development in the past 6 months. We also evaluated the association or correlation of VSCs and some factors which might be the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia. RESULTS: The development of pneumonia had no significant association with the VSCs in the patient's mouth. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study suggests that anaerobes might not be the main causative pathogens of aspiration pneumonia in older adult patients.

4.
Respir Med ; 188: 106612, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory-related hospitalization and an important prognostic factor in patients with chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, the relationship between the incidence of pneumonia and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between HLA serotype and the incidence of pneumonia in Japanese patients with ILD. METHODS: The medical records of patients with ILD treated at any of three centers in Japan were reviewed to determine their HLA-A and HLA-B serotypes. The characteristics of patients with and without pneumonia were compared. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for pneumonia and death in these patients. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four patients with ILD (pneumonia group, n = 27; non-pneumonia group, n = 117) and complete HLA serology data available were included. HLA-B54 positivity was significantly more common in the pneumonia group than in the non-pneumonia group (37.0% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.010). HLA-B54 positivity was also a significant risk factor for pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR] 4.166, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.862-9.320, p = 0.001) and death (HR 4.050, 95% CI 1.581-10.374, p = 0.004) in patients with ILD. Furthermore, HLA-B54 positivity was a significant risk factor for pneumonia (HR 3.964, 95% CI 1.392-11.090, p = 0.010) and death (HR 8.131, 95% CI 1.763-37.494, p = 0.007) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HLA-B54 positivity was a significant risk factor for pneumonia and death in patients with ILD, including those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574555

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Real-time RT-PCR is the most commonly used method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, serological assays are urgently needed as complementary tools to RT-PCR. Hachim et al. 2020 and Burbelo et al. 2020 demonstrated that anti-nucleocapsid(N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher and appear earlier than the spike antibodies. Additionally, cross-reactive antibodies against N protein are more prevalent than those against spike protein. We developed a less cross-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect ELISA by using a truncated recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein as assay antigen. A highly conserved region of coronaviruses N protein was deleted and the protein was prepared using an E. coli protein expression system. A total of 177 samples collected from COVID-19 suspected cases and 155 negative control sera collected during the pre-COVID-19 period were applied to evaluate the assay's performance, with the plaque reduction neutralization test and the commercial SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG ELISA as gold standards. The SARS-CoV-2 N truncated protein-based ELISA showed similar sensitivity (91.1% vs. 91.9%) and specificity (93.8% vs. 93.8%) between the PRNT and spike IgG ELISA, as well as also higher specificity compared to the full-length N protein (93.8% vs. 89.9%). Our ELISA can be used for the diagnosis and surveillance of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Teste para COVID-19 , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced sensitivity of tuberculosis (TB) interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) among the elderly has been reported, which is presumably due to diminished immune function. We evaluated the clinical performance of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold plus (QFT-Plus) compared with QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and T-Spot®.TB (T-SPOT) in the elderly. METHODS: Blood samples for all three IGRAs were drawn at the same time from all the participants. Both CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts in patients' peripheral blood were also measured. RESULTS: A total of 142 active pulmonary TB patients (median age: 84, interquartile range; 76-89 years) were recruited. The sensitivities of the tested IGRAs (excluding invalid/indeterminate cases) were as follows: QFT-Plus, 93.6%; QFT-GIT, 91.4%; and T-SPOT 68.1%. QFT-Plus displayed significantly higher sensitivity than T-SPOT (p < 0.00001). All three IGRAs exhibited the same specificity (100%), as assessed using blood samples from healthy, low TB-risk individuals (n = 118; median age: 39, IQR; 32-47 years). Positivity in 43 active TB patients with CD4 T-cell counts <200/µL, 39 of whom were ≥80 years of age, was as follows: QFT-Plus, 83.7%; QFT-GIT, 74.4%; and T-SPOT, 58.1%. The difference between TB2-TB1 of the QFT-Plus assay was statistically correlated with CD8 but not CD4 T-cell counts in blood (r = 0.193, p = 0.0298). CONCLUSIONS: QFT-Plus showed high performance in the detection of TB infection in patients irrespective of their advanced age (≥80 years) or lower CD4 counts. QFT-Plus can be useful for the diagnosis of TB infection in all patients, including those who are elderly and/or immunocompromised.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1525-1528, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294531

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is necessary for confirming a diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we present a COVID-19 case of an elderly woman whose SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests showed false negative repeatedly by evaluating with different sampling sites and procedures. Nasopharyngeal swabs, suctioned sputum, and tongue swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2-PCR. As for tongue swabs, we compared between two different sample conditions; one obtained with dry condition and the other obtained with moistened condition inside the oral cavity. SARS-CoV-2-PCR showed positive for an extended period with suctioned sputum samples compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and tongue swabs. No SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained on day 46 after symptoms onset was isolated despite high viral load (183740.5 copies/5µL). An adequate production of neutralizing antibody in a serum sample on day 46 was also confirmed. The number of RNA copies of the tongue swab samples was higher with moistened condition than with dry condition. The present case suggests that the difference of sampling site or sample condition can affect PCR results. High loads viral RNA detection does not always correlate with infectivity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Manejo de Espécimes
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245250

RESUMO

Prompt antiviral treatment has the potential to reduce influenza virus transmission to close contacts, but rigorous data on the magnitude of treatment effects on transmission are limited. Animal model data indicate that rapid reductions in viral replication following antiviral treatment reduce the risk of transmission. Observational and clinical trial data with oseltamivir and other neuraminidase inhibitors indicate that prompt treatment of household index patients appears to reduce the risk of illness in contacts, although the magnitude of the reported effects has varied widely across studies. In addition, the potential risk of transmitting drug-resistant variants exists with all approved classes of influenza antivirals. A controlled trial examining baloxavir treatment efficacy to reduce transmission, including the risk of transmitting virus with reduced baloxavir susceptibility, is currently in progress. If reduced transmission risk is confirmed, modelling studies indicate that early treatment would have major epidemiologic benefits in seasonal and pandemic influenza.

9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 240, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) occur in patients administered liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a wide-spectrum anti-fungicidal drug. However, the association between potassium supplementation and the occurrence of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB is not well understood. METHODS: Using nationwide claims data and laboratory data, the occurrence of AKI during L-AMB treatment was retrospectively compared between patients with hypokalemia who were or were not supplemented with potassium and between those adequately or inadequately supplemented with potassium (serum potassium levels corrected to ≥3.5 mEq/L or remained < 3.5 mEq/L, respectively) before or after L-AMB treatment initiation. RESULTS: We identified 118 patients who developed hypokalemia before L-AMB treatment initiation (43 received potassium supplementation [25 adequate and 18 inadequate supplementation] and 75 did not receive potassium supplementation), and 117 patients who developed hypokalemia after L-AMB initiation (79 received potassium supplementation [including 23 adequate and 15 inadequate supplementation] and 38 did not receive potassium supplementation). The occurrence of any stage of AKI was similar between patients with hypokalemia, regardless of potassium supplementation (i.e., before L-AMB treatment initiation [supplementation, 51%; non-supplementation, 45%; P = 0.570] or after L-AMB initiation [supplementation, 28%; non-supplementation, 32%; P = 0.671]). After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that the occurrence of any stage of AKI was not associated with potassium supplementation before L-AMB initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.291, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.584-2.852, P = 0.528) or after L-AMB initiation (OR: 0.954, 95% CI: 0.400-2.275, P = 0.915). The occurrence of any stage of AKI tended to decline in patients with hypokalemia who were adequately supplemented with potassium (44%) before, but not after, L-AMB initiation relative to that in patients inadequately supplemented with potassium (61%), however this result was not significant (P = 0.358). CONCLUSION: Potassium supplementation was not associated with any stage of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment in patients with aspergillosis and involves various cyp51A point mutations or non-cyp51A mutations. The prognosis of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) with patient-derived ARAf infection remains unclear. In this study, we reported the case of a patient with ARAf due to HapE mutation, as well as the virulence of the isolate. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male was presented with productive cough and low-grade fever. The patient was diagnosed with CPA based on the chronic course, presence of a fungus ball in the upper left lobe on chest computed tomography (CT), positivity for Aspergillus-precipitating antibody and denial of other diseases. The patient underwent left upper lobe and left S6 segment resection surgery because of repeated haemoptysis during voriconazole (VRC) treatment. The patient was postoperatively treated with VRC for 6 months. Since then, the patient was followed up without antifungal treatment but relapsed 4 years later, and VRC treatment was reinitiated. Although an azole-resistant isolate was isolated after VRC treatment, the patient did not show any disease progression in either respiratory symptoms or radiological findings. The ARAf isolated from this patient showed slow growth, decreased biomass and biofilm formation in vitro, and decreased virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model compared with its parental strain. These phenotypes could be caused by the HapE splice site mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first to report a case demonstrating the clinical manifestation of a CPA patient infected with ARAf with a HapE splice site mutation, which was consistent with the in vitro and in vivo attenuated virulence of the ARAf isolate. These results imply that not all the ARAf infections in immunocompetent patients require antifungal treatment. Further studies on the virulence of non-cyp51A mutations in ARAf are warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Azóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Aspergilose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Fenótipo , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Virulência/genética , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1471-1476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad spectrum anti-fungicidal drug, is often administered to treat invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, the most suitable time to initiate treatment in septic shock patients with IFI is unknown. METHODS: Patients with septic shock treated with L-AMB were identified from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national database and were stratified according to L-AMB treatment initiation either at septic shock onset (early L-AMB group) or after the onset (delayed L-AMB group) to determine their survival rates following septic shock onset and the shock cessation period. RESULTS: We identified 141 patients administered L-AMB on the day of or after septic shock onset: 60 patients received early treatment, whereas 81 patients received delayed treatment. Survival rates after septic shock onset were higher in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (4 weeks: 68.4% vs 57.9%, P = 0.197; 6 weeks: 62.2% vs 44.5%, P = 0.061; 12 weeks: 43.4% vs 35.0%, P = 0.168, respectively). The septic shock cessation period was shorter in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (7.0 ± 7.0 days vs 16.5 ± 15.4 days, P < 0.001), with a significant difference confirmed after adjusting for confounding factors with propensity score matching (7.1 ± 7.2 days vs 16.7 ± 14.0 days, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early L-AMB administration at septic shock onset may be associated with early shock cessation.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1033-1038, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests exists commercially; however, their performance using clinical samples is limited. Although insufficient to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the early phase of infection, antibody assays can be of great use for surveillance studies or for some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presenting late to the hospital. METHODS: This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of four commercial SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow antibody tests using 213 serum specimens from 90 PCR-positive confirmed COVID-19 patients. Of 59 negative control sera, 50 were obtained from patients with other respiratory infectious diseases before COVID-19 pandemic began while nine were from patients infected with other respiratory viruses, including two seasonal coronaviruses. RESULTS: The varied sensitivities for the four commercial kits were 70.9%, 65.3%, 45.1%, and 65.7% for BioMedomics, Autobio Diagnostics, Genbody, and KURABO, respectively, between sick days 1 and 155 in COVID-19 patients. The sensitivities of the four tests gradually increased over time after infection before sick day 5 (15.0%, 12.5%, 15.0%, and 20.0%); from sick day 11-15 (95.7%, 87.2%, 53.2%, and 89.4%); and after sick day 20 (100%, 100%, 68.6%, and 96.1%), respectively. For severe illness, the sensitivities were quite high in the late phase after sick day 15. The specificities were over 96% for all four tests. No cross-reaction due to other pathogens, including seasonal coronaviruses, was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the large differences in the antibody test performances. This ought to be considered when performing surveillance analysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
14.
J Med Econ ; 24(1): 244-254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470138

RESUMO

AIMS: Estimating the monetary value of the convenience of using influenza antivirals approved in Japan from a patient perspective using a conjoint analysis. METHODS: An online survey (August 2020) was performed on individuals aged 20-64 years living in Japan who had taken oral or inhalant antivirals for influenza treatment in the 2018/19 or 2019/20 seasons. Efficacy and safety were assumed to be equivalent among the antivirals. The attributes for the conjoint analysis included route (oral or inhalant), duration, frequency of administration, and out-of-pocket expenses. A conditional logit model was applied as a baseline model. The monetary value of each attribute was calculated by comparing the same utility of the linearly interpolated level of the out-of-pocket attribute. Another survey to determine the experiences of the latest antiviral intake was also conducted on the same respondents. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 1,550 were men and 1,587 were women. The monetary value for oral antivirals was estimated to be higher, saving JPY 741 (USD 7.06, as of August 2020), compared with inhalant. Regarding the length and frequency of administration, five days corresponds to an increase of JPY 2,072, compared with one day, and twice a day corresponds to a JPY 574 increase compared to once a day. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that - among the antivirals approved in Japan - the monetary value of the utility is the highest in the single dose oral antiviral, baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir). Although the drug cost was highest in baloxavir among the brand antivirals, the difference in the value of utility for influenza patient was estimated to be larger than the difference in the drug costs. LIMITATIONS: Although individuals with diverse attributes from all over the country were included in the survey, they are not necessarily a representative population of the Japanese society.


Assuntos
Dibenzotiepinas , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Dibenzotiepinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Neuraminidase/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e859-e867, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) is expected to reduce influenza transmission by rapid reduction of viral load. The incidence of household transmission was compared between index patients (IPs) treated with baloxavir and those treated with neuraminidase inhibitors. METHODS: Using a Japanese claims database, the first family members with influenza diagnosis during the 2018-2019 influenza season were identified as IPs, and the diagnosis date was designated day 1. According to the anti-influenza drug dispensed to the IP, their families were classified into the oral baloxavir group and 3 controls: oral oseltamivir group (a primary control), inhaled zanamivir group, and inhaled laninamivir group. A household transmission was defined as influenza diagnosed for any non-IP family members during days 3-8. The incidence of household transmission was compared between groups using a logistic regression model adjusting backgrounds of IPs. RESULTS: The proportion of families with household transmission was 17.98% (15 226 of 84 672) in the baloxavir group and 24.16% (14 983 of 62 004) in the oseltamivir group. The covariate-adjusted odds ratio (oseltamivir/baloxavir) was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05-1.12), which indicated significantly lower incidence in the baloxavir group. The adjusted odds ratios (controls/baloxavir) against zanamivir and laninamivir were 0.93 (95% CI, .89-.97) and 0.99 (95% CI, .96-1.02), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Baloxavir may contribute to reduction in household transmission compared with oseltamivir. In comparison between baloxavir and inhalants, a similar reduction was not shown and it might be due to unmeasured confounding by administration route differences.

18.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(3): 279-287, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad-spectrum antifungicidal drug, is often used to treat fungal infections. However, clinical evidence of its use in patients with renal dysfunction, especially those receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the usage and occurrence of adverse reactions during L-AMB therapy in patients undergoing RRT. METHODS: Using claims data and laboratory data, we retrospectively evaluated patients who were administered L-AMB. The presence of comorbidities, mortality rate, treatment with L-AMB and other anti-infective agents, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between patients receiving RRT, including continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and maintenance hemodialysis (HD), and those that did not receive RRT. RESULTS: In total, 900 cases met the eligibility criteria: 24, 19, and 842 cases in the maintenance HD, CRRT, and non-RRT groups, respectively. Of the patients administered L-AMB, mortality at discharge was higher for those undergoing either CRRT (15/19; 79%) or maintenance HD (16/24; 67%) than for those not receiving RRT (353/842; 42%). After propensity score matching, the average daily and cumulative dose, treatment duration, and dosing interval for L-AMB were not significantly different between patients receiving and not receiving RRT. L-AMB was used as the first-line antifungal agent for patients undergoing CRRT in most cases (12/19; 63%). Although the number of subjects was limited, the incidence of adverse events did not markedly differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: L-AMB may be used for patients undergoing maintenance HD or CRRT without any dosing, duration, or interval adjustments.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 33-36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217572

RESUMO

A 60-year-old Japanese woman presented with subacute progressive muscle pain and weakness in her proximal extremities. She was diagnosed with influenza A (H3N2) infection a week before the onset of muscle pain. At the time of admission, she exhibited weakness in the proximal muscles of the upper and lower limbs, elevated serum liver enzymes and creatinine kinase, and myoglobinuria. She did not manifest renal failure and cardiac abnormalities, indicating myocarditis. Electromyography revealed myogenic changes, and magnetic resonance imaging of the upper limb showed abnormal signal intensities in the muscles, suggestive of myopathy. Muscle biopsy of the biceps revealed numerous necrotic regeneration fibers and mild inflammatory cell infiltration, suggesting immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Necrotized muscle cells were positive for human influenza A (H3N2). Autoantibody analysis showed the presence of antibodies against the signal recognition particle (SRP), and the patient was diagnosed with anti-SRP-associated IMNM. She was resistant to intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy but recovered after administration of oral systemic corticosteroids and immunoglobulins. We speculate that the influenza A (H3N2) infection might have triggered her IMNM. Thus, IMNM should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proximal muscle weakness that persists after viral infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/microbiologia , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Necrose
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(3): 480-485, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza remains a clinically heavy burden worldwide. The objective of this study was to clarify clinical manifestations of severely ill patients infected with influenza. METHODS: The clinical data for patients who were severely ill with influenza, and required hospitalization were gathered and analyzed between November 2014 and August 2019 (5 influenza seasons) using an internet-surveillance system. RESULTS: A total of 924 patients were enrolled and analyzed. The median age was 78 years (IQR, 67-84), and the patients in the 2015-2016 season were significantly younger than those in other seasons. Pneumonia was the most common disease indicated as a cause for hospitalization, followed by a poor general condition and exacerbation of underlying respiratory diseases. Antiviral drugs were administered in 97.0% of the patients with peramivir being the most-frequently use antiviral. In-hospital death was recorded for 44 patients (4.8%). Multivariate analysis indicated that nursing home resident (OR: 6.554) and obesity (OR: 24.343) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Complications of influenza infection remain a heavy burden especially among the elderly. Continuous nationwide surveillance will be required to grasp the actual situation of influenza epidemics. (UMIN000015989).


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Adulto , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano
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