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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6956, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061410

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although many molecular-targeted drugs for NSCLC have been developed in recent years, the 5-year survival rate of patients with NSCLC remains low. Therefore, an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of NSCLC is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of NSCLC. In this study, we examined the role of miR-130b in NSCLC. Our results showed that high expression of miR-130b in clinical specimens was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with NSCLC. Moreover, miR-130b expression was significantly increased in NSCLC clinical specimens from patients with vascular and lymphatic invasion. Consistent with this, overexpression of miR-130b promoted invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in A549 cells. Argonaute2 immunoprecipitation and gene array analysis identified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) as a target of miR-130b. Invasion activity promoted by miR-130b was attenuated by TIMP-2 overexpression in A549 cells. Furthermore, TIMP-2 concentrations in serum were inversely correlated with relative miR-130b expression in tumor tissues from the same patients with NSCLC. Overall, miR-130b was found to act as an oncomiR, promoting metastasis by downregulating TIMP-2 and invasion activities in NSCLC cells.

2.
Biopsychosoc Med ; 12: 15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450124

RESUMO

Background: The neural mechanisms underlying body dissatisfaction and emotional problems evoked by social comparisons in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are currently unclear. Here, we elucidate patterns of brain activation among recovered patients with AN (recAN) during body comparison and weight estimation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We used fMRI to examine 12 patients with recAN and 13 healthy controls while they performed body comparison and weight estimation tasks with images of underweight, healthy weight, and overweight female bodies. In the body comparison task, participants rated their anxiety levels while comparing their own body with the presented image. In the weight estimation task, participants estimated the weight of the body in the presented image. We used between-group region of interest (ROI) analyses of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to analyze differences in brain activation patterns between the groups. In addition, to investigate activation outside predetermined ROIs, we performed an exploratory whole-brain analysis to identify group differences. Results: We found that, compared to healthy controls, patients with recAN exhibited significantly greater activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) when comparing their own bodies with images of underweight female bodies. In addition, we found that, compared with healthy controls, patients with recAN exhibited significantly smaller activation in the middle temporal gyrus corresponding to the extrastriate body area (EBA) when comparing their own bodies, irrespective of weight, during self-other comparisons of body shape. Conclusions: Our findings from a group of patients with recAN suggest that the pathology of AN may lie in an inability to regulate negative affect in response to body images via pgACC activation during body comparisons. The findings also suggest that altered body image processing in the brain persists even after recovery from AN.

3.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 26(9): 707-709, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347993

RESUMO

A 46-year-old woman was found to have an aneurysm of the superior segmental pulmonary artery in the right lower lung lobe on computed tomography images. Moreover, angiography revealed dilated bronchial arteries flowing into the aneurysm with neovascularization, and the contrast medium was partially pooled in the basal segment of the same lobe. The patient's hemoptysis could not be controlled by an interventional radiology procedure. Therefore, lobectomy was carried out instead of aneurysmectomy. There has been no recurrence for 4 years after surgery. We considered that that angiographic information allowed for the most appropriate operation in this case.

4.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 82(11): 1880-1888, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096024

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing was conducted on two Aspergillus oryzae strains used for the manufacturing of food enzymes, Acrylaway® and Shearzyme®, with the aim of identifying the inserted locus of randomly integrated expression plasmid and obtaining flanking sequences for safety assessment. Illumina paired-end sequencing was employed, and the obtained reads were mapped to two references: the public genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 and the in-house sequence of the used expression plasmid. Introducing the concept of linking-reads, one locus for each was successfully identified as the integrated site. In the case of Acrylaway®, the obtained sequences suggested that the expression plasmid had been integrated as multiple copies in tandem form. In the case of Shearzyme®, however, information on one edge of the insert was missing, which required extra polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning for safety assessment. A 4-kb deletion was detected at the integrated site. There was also evidence of rearrangement occurring in Shearzyme® strain.

5.
Cognition ; 177: 172-176, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704855

RESUMO

Comprehenders' perception of the world is mediated by the mental models they construct. During discourse processing, incoming information allows comprehenders to update their model of the events being described. At the same time, comprehenders use these models to generate expectations about who or what will be mentioned next. The temporal dynamics of this interdependence between language processing and mental event representation has been difficult to disentangle. The present visual world eye-tracking experiment measures listeners' coreference expectations during an intersentential pause between a sentence about a transfer-of-possession event and a continuation mentioning either its Source or Goal. We found a temporally dispersed but sustained preference for fixating the Goal that was significantly greater when the event was described as completed rather than incomplete (passed versus was passing). This aligns with reported offline sensitivity to event structure, as conveyed via verb aspect, and provides new evidence that our mental model of an event leads to early and, crucially, proactive expectations about subsequent mention in the upcoming discourse.

6.
Surg Today ; 48(6): 640-648, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary lymphatic fluid predominately flows along the bronchi. However, there are reports suggesting that an alternative lymphatic pathway exist, which may result in skip metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subpleural lymph flow in vivo using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence. METHODS: One hundred cases were enrolled. ICG was injected into the macroscopically healthy subpleural space. Intraoperative fluorescence images were then observed in real time. RESULTS: ICG fluorescence was observed moving through subpleural channels in 58/100 cases. ICG flowed into adjacent lobes over interlobar lines in 18 cases and flowed from the visceral pleura directly into the mediastinum in 5 cases. The frequency of mediastinal detection without hilar lymph node detection was significantly higher in the left lung compared to the right (p < 0.05). The subpleural lymph flow detection rates were significantly lower in patients with smoking pack-years ≥ 40 than those with < 40 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The flow of lymphatic fluid directly into the mediastinum suggests one mechanism of skip metastasis. In addition, the reduction of the subpleural lymph flows in smokers with ≥ 40 pack-years suggests that smoking might modify lymph flow patterns. These findings may assist in selecting the optimal therapy for patients with possible skip metastasis.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Verde de Indocianina , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfa/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Linfáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brônquios , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Masculino , Mediastino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonectomia
7.
J Nat Med ; 72(1): 260-266, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151157

RESUMO

Erypoegin K is an isoflavone isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina poeppigiana. It contains a furan group at the A-ring of the core isoflavone structure and can inhibit the activity of glyoxalase I, an enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a by-product of glycolysis. In the present study, we found that erypoegin K has a potent cytotoxic effect on human leukemia HL-60 cells. Its cytotoxic effect was much stronger than that of a known glyoxalase I inhibitor S-p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester. Conversely, erypoegin K demonstrated weak cytotoxicity toward normal human peripheral lymphocytes. The treatment of HL-60 cells with erypoegin K significantly induced caspase-3 activity, whereas the pretreatment of the cells with caspase-3 inhibitor suppressed erypoegin K-induced cell death. Furthermore, nuclear condensation and apoptotic genome DNA fragmentation were observed in erypoegin K-treated HL-60 cells. These results indicated that the observed cell death was mediated by apoptosis. In addition, the toxic compound MG was highly accumulated in the culture medium of erypoegin K-treated HL-60 cells, suggesting that cell apoptosis was triggered by extracellular MG. The present study showed that erypoegin K has a potent apoptosis-inducing effect on cancerous cell lines, such as HL-60.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Erythrina/química , Células HL-60/química , Isoflavonas/química , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia
8.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 6(2): 183-198, 2013 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23833690

RESUMO

Actomyosin kinetics in both skinned skeletal muscle fibers at maximum Ca2+-activation and unregulated in vitro motility assays are modulated by solvent microviscosity in a manner consistent with a diffusion limited process. Viscosity might also influence cardiac thin filament Ca2+-regulatory protein dynamics. In vitro motility assays were conducted using thin filaments reconstituted with recombinant human cardiac troponin and tropomyosin; solvent microviscosity was varied by addition of sucrose or glucose. At saturating Ca2+, filament sliding speed (s) was inversely proportional to viscosity. Ca2+-sensitivity (pCa50 ) of s decreased markedly with elevated viscosity (η/η0 ≥ ~1.3). For comparison with unloaded motility assays, steady-state isometric force (F) and kinetics of isometric tension redevelopment (kTR ) were measured in single, permeabilized porcine cardiomyocytes when viscosity surrounding the myofilaments was altered. Maximum Ca2+-activated F changed little for sucrose ≤ 0.3 M (η/η0 ~1.4) or glucose ≤ 0.875 M (η/η0 ~1.66), but decreased at higher concentrations. Sucrose (0.3 M) or glucose (0.875 M) decreased pCa50 for F. kTR at saturating Ca2+ decreased steeply and monotonically with increased viscosity but there was little effect on kTR at sub-maximum Ca2+. Modeling indicates that increased solutes affect dynamics of cardiac muscle Ca2+-regulatory proteins to a much greater extent than actomyosin cross-bridge cycling.

9.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 65(4): 326-32, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21545673

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was conducted to clarify the mortality of patients with eating disorders associated with alcoholism. We focused on the mortality rate 6 years after inpatient treatment of patients with eating disorders associated with alcoholism compared with eating disorder patients without alcoholism and alcoholic patients without eating disorders. METHODS: The subjects were 164 female Japanese patients 30 years of age or younger with eating disorders or alcoholism who were inpatients at some time during the period from 1990 to 1998 at the Japanese National Hospital Organization, Kurihama Alcoholism Center. A semi-structured interview concerning alcohol problems, eating problems, psychiatric disorders and other clinical characteristics was conducted at the time of the first admission. A survey concerning survival was conducted in October 2001, and 100% of the patients were followed up. RESULTS: The mortality of the 47 eating disorder patients with alcoholism, 86 eating disorder patients without alcoholism, and 31 alcoholics without eating disorders was 27.7%, 3.5%, and 19.4%, respectively, at 6 years after inpatient treatment, showing significant differences. On the Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the mortality of the eating disorder patients with alcoholism was significantly higher than that of the patients without alcoholism, but not significantly higher than that of young female alcoholics without eating disorders. The 13 eating disorder patients with alcoholism who had died were five anorexia nervosa and seven bulimia nervosa patients. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that comorbid alcoholism is a major factor in the death of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Entrevista Psicológica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
10.
DNA Cell Biol ; 30(9): 653-9, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21438758

RESUMO

Ca(2+) signaling in striated muscle cells is critically dependent upon thin filament proteins tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) to regulate mechanical output. Using in vitro measurements of contractility, we demonstrate that even in the absence of actin and Tm, human cardiac Tn (cTn) enhances heavy meromyosin MgATPase activity by up to 2.5-fold in solution. In addition, cTn without Tm significantly increases, or superactivates sliding speed of filamentous actin (F-actin) in skeletal motility assays by at least 12%, depending upon [cTn]. cTn alone enhances skeletal heavy meromyosin's MgATPase in a concentration-dependent manner and with sub-micromolar affinity. cTn-mediated increases in myosin ATPase may be the cause of superactivation of maximum Ca(2+)-activated regulated thin filament sliding speed in motility assays relative to unregulated skeletal F-actin. To specifically relate this classical superactivation to cardiac muscle, we demonstrate the same response using motility assays where only cardiac proteins were used, where regulated cardiac thin filament sliding speeds with cardiac myosin are >50% faster than unregulated cardiac F-actin. We additionally demonstrate that the COOH-terminal mobile domain of cTnI is not required for this interaction or functional enhancement of myosin activity. Our results provide strong evidence that the interaction between cTn and myosin is responsible for enhancement of cross-bridge kinetics when myosin binds in the vicinity of Tn on thin filaments. These data imply a novel and functionally significant molecular interaction that may provide new insights into Ca(2+) activation in cardiac muscle cells.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Troponina/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Fluorescência , Humanos , Miosinas/fisiologia , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Sus scrofa
11.
Biophys J ; 100(4): 1014-23, 2011 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21320446

RESUMO

Three HCM-causing tropomyosin (Tm) mutants (V95A, D175N, and E180G) were examined using the thin-filament extraction and reconstitution technique. The effects of Ca(2+), ATP, phosphate, and ADP concentrations on cross-bridge kinetics in myocardium reconstituted with each of these mutants were studied at 25°C, and compared to wild-type (WT) Tm at physiological ionic strength (200 mM). All three mutants showed significantly higher (2-3.5 fold) low Ca(2+) tension (T(LC)) and stiffness than WT at pCa 8.0. High Ca(2+) tension (T(HC)) was significantly higher for E180G than that for WT, whereas T(HC) of V95A and D175N was similar to WT; high Ca(2+) stiffness (Y(HC)) had the same trend. The Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric force was significantly greater for V95A and E180G than for WT, whereas that of D175N remained the same as for WT; for all mutants, cooperativity was lower than for WT. Nine kinetic constants and the cross-bridge distribution were deduced using sinusoidal analysis. The number of force-generating cross bridges was similar among the D175N, E180G, and WT Tm forms, but it was significantly larger in the case of V95A than WT. We conclude that the increased number of actively cycling cross bridges at pCa 8 is the major cause of Tm mutation-related HCM pathogenesis, which may result in diastolic dysfunction. Decreased contractility (T(act)) in V95A and D175N may further contribute to the severity of myocyte hypertrophy and related prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Sarcômeros/fisiologia , Tropomiosina/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Cinética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Coelhos
12.
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi ; 46(5): 470-85, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22256595

RESUMO

This article reports the first longitudinal cohort study on Japanese adolescent alcohol use and abuse from 1997 to 2007. The purpose of the cohort study is to show that factors which promote adolescent problem drinking, will develop into the early alcohol dependence syndrome. A total of 802 subjects with a mean age 13.5 years old was recruited from four junior high schools in Kanagawa prefecture. The survey was conducted annually by mail using self-reported questionnaires concerning drinking status and alcohol-related problems. In the 2007 survey at 10 years after the first survey, the respondents numbered 493 with a mean age of 23.8 years old, and the follow-up rate was 61.5%. In the 2007 survey, 25.2% of male and 14.3% of female subjects were found to be problem drinkers from the scores of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). We divided the subjects into two groups according to the AUDIT scores, problem drinkers and non-problem drinkers. The two groups were compared concerning family relationships, first drinking age and drinking status of parents with the respons- es of the 1997 survey. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine problem drink promoting factors. The factors determined were fathers with moderate to heavy drinking in male subjects and having drinking experiences at 13.5 years old at the start of the survey in female subjects. Furthermore, we confirmed a continuity of problem drinking from adolescents to young adults. Problem drinkers in the 2002 survey had significantly increased in the 2007 survey when compared with non-problem drinkers in the 2002 survey. We concluded that first drinking in junior high school and having moderate to heavy drinking fathers promote adult problem drinking, and problem drinking continued from adolescents to young adults.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18402056

RESUMO

This study is the first prospective study correlating smoking and drinking among Japanese adolescents. The aim of the study is to determine if adolescent smoking experience predicts future adult alcohol abuse. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study on adolescent drinking from 1997 to 2007. The study subjects were about 800 male and female junior high school students. Their mean age was 13.5 years old at the starting point. We conducted surveys by post on the subjects concerning drinking status, alcohol-related problems and smoking experience once a year for 10 years. This study attempted to determine if smoking experiences in 1999 (mean age, 15.8 years old) correlated with alcohol abuse in 2005 (mean age, 22 years old) among the subjects of the prospective study. The result showed that male students who had had smoking experiences in 1999 were more likely to become alcohol abusers in 2005 than those without smoking experiences according to the AUDIT. On the other hand, females with smoking experiences as teenagers showed no correlation with alcohol abuse as young adults. Adolescent tobacco use could be called a gateway drug to adult alcohol abuse among Japanese males, but not among females.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi ; 40(6): 559-71, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16440675

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This report outlines factors promoting adolescent problem drinking at 5 years after the start of a cohort study. We started the first longitudinal cohort study on Japanese adolescent alcohol use and misuse in 1997. The purpose of the cohort study was to show factors that promote adolescent drinking and whether adolescent problem drinking will develop into the early alcohol dependence syndrome. Eight hundred and two subjects whose mean age was 13.5 years old were recruited from four junior high schools in Kanagawa prefecture. The survey was conducted annually by mail using self-reported questionnaires concerning adolescent drinking and alcohol-related problems. In the 2002 survey at 5 years after the starting point, the respondents numbered 557 with a mean age of 18.8 year old, and the follow-up rate was 70%. In the 2002 survey, 17.5% of the subjects were found to be problem drinkers from the scores of the core-AUDIT. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the scores of the core- AUDIT: problem drinkers, drinkers and abstainers. The three groups were compared concerning family relationships, first drinking age and drinking status of parents with the responses of the 1997 survey. In the comparison of the three groups, many factors were significantly different, and a logistic regression analysis was performed on these factors to determine drink promoting factors. Three factors were determined: having drinking experiences at 13.5 years old at the start of the survey, not refusing friends' temptations to drink and less communication with their parents. The results were very important because these three factors were described by many authors as adolescent drinking promoting factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 128B(1): 114-7, 2004 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15211642

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence support possible serotonin transporter (5-HTT) involvement in modulating eating disorders (ED). The 5-HTT gene is a good candidate for genetic studies on the course of ED, despite controversy concerning the association between polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and ED. Comparison of 5-HTTLPR distribution in 195 female Japanese ED patients and 290 age- and gender-matched control subjects facilitated examining the association between the course of the disease and 5-HTTLPR in 138 of 195 ED subjects. The 5-HTTLPR S allele frequency was significantly higher in subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) than in control subjects. Among subjects observed > or =3 years, the S allele frequency was significantly higher in those diagnosed as AN at ED onset than in those diagnosed as AN in this study. The 5-HTTLPR S allele might play some role in the development of AN with persistent disease.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina
16.
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi ; 38(6): 475-82, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14750357

RESUMO

Adolescent smoking, drinking and illegal drug abuse (drug-related problems) in Japan were treated as a legal model in the second prevention area. This study showed the necessity and usefulness of early intervention concerning adolescent drug-related problems as adolescent mental health problems. First, school nurses were asked if they were consulted about drug-related problems by students. Many school nurses in junior and senior high schools were consulted about drug-related problems by students, and they emphasized the need for counseling systems for drug-related problems by professionals. The second part of the study involved brief interventions by the authors in high school students with a high risk of drug-related problems. The authors went to three high schools and conducted brief interventions on students who had drug-related problems and sought advice. We prepared several screening tests for assessment of drug-related problems, such as the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS). Quantity-Frequency Scale (QF Scale). Core Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Core AUDIT), CAGE and Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST-20). In the brief interventions, the authors assessed drug-related problems of students using these scales and advised them how to revolve such problems two or three times. Twenty-two students accepted brief interventions. All of them smoked, 62% of them showed problem drinking and 33% illegal drug use. At 6 months after the brief interventions, 16 out of 21 students reported their drug-related problems. Nineteen percent of them had reduced smoking, 67% of them decreased drinking and one half of them decreased their use of illegal drugs. Results of this study revealed the necessity and the usefulness of the brief intervention for high school students with drug-related problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia Breve , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 26(8): 1223-7, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12198397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies may have underestimated the potential importance of the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive traits among persons with alcoholism. Although many studies have examined the characteristics of young alcoholics compared with middle-aged alcoholics, none has compared the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive traits in young and middle-aged alcoholics. METHODS: This study compared the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive traits (Leyton Obsessional Inventory) and depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) among young (n=41) and middle-aged (n=34) hospitalized Japanese male alcoholics and in young (n=28) and middle-aged (n=25) nonalcoholic subjects. RESULTS: Both young and middle-aged male alcoholics reported more obsessive-compulsive personality traits and depressive symptoms than their comparison groups. However, the alcoholic subjects' obsessive-compulsive personality traits were not related to their level of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Young and middle-aged male Japanese alcoholics have more obsessive-compulsive personality traits than nonalcoholic males of similar ages. Their alcohol-related psychological and behavioral characteristics may derive, in part, from their obsessive-compulsive symptoms.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
18.
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi ; 37(6): 577-85, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12607945

RESUMO

Japanese adolescent drinking has increased during the past 20 years. Two national surveys on adolescent drinking problems were conducted, but no prospective study has been performed in Japan. We started the first longitudinal cohort study on Japanese adolescent alcohol use and misuse in 1997. The purpose of the cohort study was to show factors that promote adolescent drinking, and whether adolescent problem drinkers will develop the early alcohol dependence syndrome. Eight hundred and two subjects were recruited from four junior high schools in Kanagawa prefecture. They were in grades 7 to 9, and the mean age was 13.5 years in 1997. The survey was conducted annually by mail using self reported questionnaires concerning adolescent drinking and alcohol-related problems. This report indicates the sociodemographic backgrounds of the subjects and showed increasing of drinking of the subjects from 1997 to 1999. At 1999 survey from 2 years after the starting point, the respondents numbered 629, and the follow-up rate was 78%. Drinking frequencies and quantities of the subjects increased year by year, and alcohol-related problems also increased. We divided the subjects into two groups based on changes in drinking status from the 1997 to the 1999 survey, the increased drinking group and no increased group, and compared these two groups concerning their family relationships, first drinking age and drinking status of parents with the responses of the 1997 survey. In the comparison of the two groups, many factors were significantly different, and logistic regression analyses were performed on these factors to determine drink promoting factors. Three factors were determined: earlier age of the first drink, not refusing friends' temptations to drink and less communication with their parents. We will continue the longitudinal cohort study to determine if these three factors promote adolescent drinking in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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