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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gout, caused by chronic elevation of serum uric acid levels, is the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis. The causative effect of common and rare variants of ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2/BCRP) on gout risk has been studied, but, little attention has been paid to the effect of common (rs121907892, p. W258X) and rare variants of urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12) on gout, despite dysfunctional variants of URAT1 having been identified as pathophysiological causes of renal hypouricemia. METHODS: To address this important but overlooked issue, we investigated the effects of these URAT1 variants on gout susceptibility, using targeted exon sequencing on 480 clinically-defined gout cases and 480 controls of Japanese male in combination with a series of functional analyses of newly-identified URAT1 variants. RESULTS: Our results show that both common and rare dysfunctional variants of URAT1 markedly decrease the risk of gout (OR 0.0338, reciprocal OR 29.6, p = 7.66 × 1 0 -8). Interestingly, we also found that the URAT1-related protective effect on gout eclipsed the ABCG2-related causative effect (OR 2.30 - 3.32). Our findings reveal only one dysfunctional variant of URAT1 to have a substantial anti-gout effect, even in the presence of causative variants of ABCG2, a "gout gene". CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a better understanding of gout/hyperuricemia and its aetiology that is highly relevant to personalized health care. The substantial anti-gout effect of common and rare variants of URAT1 identified in the present study support the genetic concept of a 'Common Disease, Multiple Common and Rare Variant' model.

2.
Waste Manag ; 126: 360-366, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813313

RESUMO

Over the years, China has imported a significant quantity of plastic waste from the rest of the world. In December 2017, however, it implemented a ban on the import of plastic waste, used paper, and miscellaneous scrap goods. This study aims to provide new insight on the waste trade, with specific focus on the market for recyclable plastics. By employing an economic surplus analysis, we investigate the impact of China's import ban on the market for recyclable plastics in China and Japan. Obtained results suggest a significant change in economic surpluses; Japan and China's surpluses reduced by 58 billion yen and 1,304 billion yen at the maximum, respectively.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

4.
Xenobiotica ; 51(5): 522-535, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663326

RESUMO

Brexpiprazole, a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and also adjunctive therapy to antidepressants for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. To determine the drug-drug interaction risk for cytochrome P450, and SLC and ABC transporters, brexpiprazole and its metabolite, DM-3411 were assessed in this in vitro investigation.Brexpiprazole exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 >13 µmol/L) on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities, but had moderate inhibitor activity on CYP2B6 (IC50 8.19 µmol/L). The ratio of systemic unbound concentration (3.8 nmol/L) to the Ki value was sufficiently low. DM-3411 had comparable inhibitory potentials with brexpiprazole only for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. The mRNA expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 were not changed by the exposure of brexpiprazole to human hepatocytes.Brexpiprazole and DM-3411 exhibited weak or no inhibitory effects for hepatic and renal transporters (OATPs, OATs, OCTs, MATE1, and BSEP), except for MATE-2K (0.156 µmol/L of DM-3411), even for which the ratio to systemic unbound concentration (5.3 nmol/L) was sufficiently low.Brexpiprazole effected the functions of P-gp and BCRP with IC50 values of 6.31 and 1.16 µmol/L, respectively, however, the pharmacokinetic alteration was not observed in the clinical concomitant study on P-gp and BCRP substrates.These in vitro data suggest that brexpiprazole is unlikely to cause clinically relevant drug interactions resulting from the effects on CYPs or transporters mediating the absorption, metabolism, and/or disposition of co-administered drugs.

5.
Xenobiotica ; 51(5): 590-604, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685346

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of brexpiprazole were investigated in the in vitro and in vivo.The total body clearance of brexpiprazole in rat and monkey was 2.32 and 0.326 L/h/kg, respectively, after intravenous administration, and oral availability was 13.6% and 31.0%, respectively. Dose-dependent exposures were observed at dose ranges between 1-30 mg/kg in the rat and 0.1-3 mg/kg in the monkey.Brexpiprazole distributed widely to body tissues, and Vd,z were 2.81 and 1.82 L/kg in rat and monkey, respectively. The serum protein binding of brexpiprazole was 99% or more in animals and human. Uniform distribution character among the species was suggested by a traditional animal scale-up method.A common main metabolite, DM-3411 was found in animals and humans in the metabolic reactions with the liver S9 fraction. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were predominantly involved in the metabolism.The affinity of DM-3411 for D2 receptors was lower than that of brexpiprazole, and neither DM-3411 nor any metabolites with affinity other than M3 were detected in the brain, demonstrating that brexpiprazole is only involved in the pharmacological effects.Overall, brexpiprazole has a simple pharmacokinetic profile with good metabolic stability, linear kinetics, and no remarkable species differences with regard to metabolism and tissue distribution.

6.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

7.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

8.
Nutrition ; 84: 111114, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although consumption of vegetable and 100% fruit juices are an acceptable alternative for vegetable and fruit intake, information about their actual effects on kidney function is sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the consumption of vegetable and fruit juices and changes in kidney function in a Japanese population over a 5-y period. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 2755 Japanese (742 men and 2013 women) individuals who participated in both the baseline and follow-up surveys in the Daiko study (a study within the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by age, sex, and serum creatinine level. For each beverage, we categorized all participants into four groups-rare (rarely consumed), low (≤2 cups/wk), moderate (3-4 cups/wk), or frequent (≥5 cups/wk) consumers of the beverage-based on a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean baseline and follow-up eGFR (SD) were 82.4 (14.6) and 72.2 (12.6), respectively. In fully adjusted regression analyses, moderate consumption of vegetable juice was associated a lower decline in eGFR compared with the rare consumption group (ß = -1.30; P = 0.01). Moreover, stratified analyses revealed that this significant association remained in those who were young, female, non-obese, normotensive, smoked cigarettes, consumed alcohol, or exercised. However, no significant association was found in analyses for fruit juices. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-y prospective study suggested an association between self-reported moderate consumption of vegetable juice and changes (possibly smaller decline) in kidney function in a relatively healthy Japanese population.

9.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Qual Life Res ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral health has been reported to have an impact on the activities of daily life such as chewing, eating, and laughing, while psychological factors such as depression and loneliness have been reported to affect oral health. Little is known, however, about the association between laughter and oral health in older adults. This study examined the bidirectional association between the frequency of daily laughter and oral health in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study employed data from the 2013 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study's self-reported survey, which included 11,239 male and 12,799 female community-dwelling independent individuals aged 65 years or older. We defined the oral health status by the number of remaining teeth. The association between the self-reported frequency of laughter (almost every day, 1-5 days per week, 1-3 days per month, or almost never) and oral health was examined using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The participants with 10 or more teeth were significantly more likely to laugh compared with the edentulous participants, after adjusting for all covariates. Compared with those who almost never laughed, those who laughed 1-5 days per week were significantly less likely to be edentulous. After stratifying by sex, similar results were found only in the men for both analyses. CONCLUSION: There was a significant bidirectional association between frequency of laughter and oral health that was independent of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors among older adults.

11.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(1): 31-42, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408299

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which has been rapidly increasing in the world in recent years, is roughly classified into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This study was based on our previous reports that stated that the combination treatment of N1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) and hydralazine (HYD) improves fatty liver in NAFL model rats. This finding was attributed to the MNA metabolism inhibition by HYD, which is a strong inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase (AO); this results in an increase in hepatic MNA and improved fatty liver. We hypothesized that orally administered nicotinamide (NAM), which is the precursor of MNA and is a form of niacin, would be efficiently metabolized by nicotinamide N-methyltransferase in the presence of exogenous S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in NAFL rats. To address this issue, NAFL model rats were orally administered with NAM, SAM, and/or HYD. As a result, liver triglyceride (TG) and lipid droplet levels were barely altered by the administration of NAM, SAM, NAM+SAM, or NAM+HYD. By contrast, the triple combination of NAM+SAM+HYD significantly reduced hepatic TG and lipid droplet levels and significantly increased hepatic MNA levels. These findings indicated that the combination of exogenous SAM with AO inhibitors, such as HYD, has beneficial effects for improving fatty liver with NAM.

12.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(3): 368-377, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368494

RESUMO

AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is known to develop into liver fibrosis, which increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The association between periodontal condition and fibrotic progression of NAFL is unclear. This study aimed to clarify this longitudinal association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 4812 participants aged 35-64 years undergoing annual health check-ups between 2003 and 2004, and follow-up 5 years later, 392 participants were diagnosed with NAFL. After excluding participants with liver fibrosis at baseline, 341 participants were followed up for 5 years. NAFL disease fibrosis score of ≥-1.455 was used to evaluate the probability of the presence of liver fibrosis. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 10.6% of participants progressed to liver fibrosis. A higher clinical attachment level (CAL) tended to be associated with the incidence of liver fibrosis in the logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-3.49, p = .074). The stratified analysis by obesity revealed a significant association with higher CAL in obese participants (OR 2.87, 95% CI, 1.23-6.69, p = .015), but not in non-obese participants. CONCLUSION: Higher CAL was associated with an increased probability of liver fibrosis in obese adults with NAFL.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Periodontite , Adulto , Fibrose , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

15.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

17.
Gene ; 762: 145019, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755657

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we examined the associations between PPAR-γ polymorphisms (rs1801282, rs3856806, rs12497191, rs1151999, and rs1152003) and serum lipids in two cross-sectional studies. In the Shizuoka area of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined 4,952 participants (3,356 men and 1,596 women) in a baseline survey and 2,245 participants (1,550 men and 695 women) in a second survey 5 years later. Outcome measures were the prevalence of dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs) and the prevalence of high LDL-C (LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dl and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 2,114 and 1,431 individuals (42.7% and 28.9%) had dyslipidemia and high LDL-C in the baseline survey, respectively, as did 933 and 716 (41.6% and 31.9%), respectively, in the second survey. In the baseline study, compared with major allele homozygotes, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 and rs12497191 had a 42% (OR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.85) and 23% (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99) lower risk of dyslipidemia, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In addition, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 had a 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86) lower risk of high LDL-C. Similar risk reductions were found in the second survey. In conclusion, rs3856806 and rs12497191 polymorphisms may be related to a lower risk of dyslipidemia and high LDL-C.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Nanoscale ; 12(38): 19628-19637, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627791

RESUMO

Reverse osmosis membranes of aromatic polyamide (PA) reinforced with a crystalline cellulose nanofiber (CNF) were synthesized and their desalination performance was studied. Comparison with plain PA membranes shows that the addition of CNF reduced the matrix mobility resulting in a molecularly stiffer membrane because of the attractive forces between the surface of the CNFs and the PA matrix. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed complex formation between the carboxy groups of the CNF surface and the m- phenylenediamine monomer in the CNF-PA composite. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the CNF-PA had higher hydrophilicity which was key for the higher water permeability of the synthesized nanocomposite membrane. The CNF-PA reverse osmosis nanocomposite membranes also showed enhanced antifouling performance and improved chlorine resistance. Therefore, CNF shows great potential as a nanoreinforcing material towards the preparation of nanocomposite aromatic PA membranes with longer operation lifetime due to its antifouling and chlorine resistance properties.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486113

RESUMO

The association between dietary acid load and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was performed on 14,042 men and 14,105 women (aged 35-69 years) who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Dietary acid load was assessed using the net-endogenous-acid-production (NEAP) score that is closely correlated with the rate of renal net acid excretion. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009 using body-mass index instead of waist circumference. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher NEAP scores were associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of MetS, obesity, high blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for carbohydrate intake or two nutrient-pattern scores significantly associated with MetS. After adjustment for fiber, iron, potassium, and vitamin pattern scores, the OR of MetS for the highest quartile of NEAP scores, relative to the lowest quartile, was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.39). There was no significant interaction between sex, age, or body-mass index and NEAP. Higher dietary acid load was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS and several of its components, independently of carbohydrate intake or nutrient patterns.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While laughter is broadly recognized as a good medicine, a potential preventive effect of laughter on disability and death is still being debated. Accordingly, we investigated the association between the frequency of laughter and onset of functional disability and all-cause mortality among the older adults in Japan. METHODS: The data for a 3-year follow-up cohort including 14,233 individuals (50.3% men) aged ≥ 65 years who could independently perform the activities of daily living and participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study were analyzed. The participants were classified into four categories according to their frequency of laughter (almost every day, 1-5 days/week, 1-3 days/month, and never or almost never). We estimated the risks of functional disability and all-cause mortality in each category using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During follow-up, 605 (4.3%) individuals developed functional disability, identified by new certification for the requirement of Long-Term Care Insurance, and 659 (4.6%) deaths were noted. After adjusting for the potential confounders, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of functional disability increased with a decrease in the frequency of laughter (p for trend = 0.04). The risk of functional disability was 1.42 times higher for individuals who laughed never or almost never than for those who laughed almost every day. No such association was observed with the risk of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Low frequency of laughter is associated with increased risks of functional disability. Laughter may be an early predictor of functional disability later on in life.

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