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1.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614159

RESUMO

This study presents the final report of the multicenter, prospective tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation study, D-STOP, after a 3-year follow-up of 54 patients with chronic CML who discontinued dasatinib after a sustained deep molecular response (DMR) for ≥2 years with dasatinib treatment. Estimated treatment-free remission (TFR) rates at 12 and 36 months were 63.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.7-74.3] and 59.3% (95% CI: 45.0-71.0), respectively. CD3-CD56+ NK, CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD57+CD56+ NK large granular lymphocyte (NK-LGL), CD8+CD4- cytotoxic T cell, and CD57+CD3+ T-LGL cell numbers were relatively elevated throughout the 24-month consolidation only in failed patients who molecularly relapsed within 12 months. In successful patients, these subsets elevated transiently after 12 months, but returned to basal levels after 24-month consolidation. Therefore, smaller changes in NK/T, particularly the NK subset throughout consolidation, reflected higher TFR rates. TFR rates of those patients exhibiting elevation in CD3-CD56+ NK >376 cells/µL, CD16+CD56+ NK > 241 cells/µL, or CD57+CD56+ NK-LGL >242 cells/µL during consolidation compared with others were 26.7% (8.3%-49.6%) vs 78.3% (55.4%-90.3%), HR 0.032 (0.0027-0.38; P = .0064), 31.2% (11.4%-53.6%) vs 85.0% (60.4%-94.9%), HR 0.039 (0.0031-0.48; P = .011), or 36.8% (16.5%-57.5%) vs 77.3% (53.7%-89.8%), HR 0.21 (0.065-0.69; P = .010), respectively. Therefore, silent responses of T/NK subsets to dasatinib throughout consolidation were significant for longer TFR. Elevated NK/T, particularly NK lymphocytes responsive to dasatinib, may be immunologically insufficient to maintain TFR. Their decline, subsequently replaced by altered lymphocyte population with less response to dasatinib during sustained DMR, might be immunologically significant. (D-STOP, NCT01627132).

2.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 1063-1072, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248251

RESUMO

These are the results of phase II study of bortezomib-melphalan-prednisolone (VMP) induction therapy followed by lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), overall response rates (ORRs), and safety. Eighty-three eligible patients were enrolled between October 2012 and August 2014. The median PFS was 28.0 months (95% CI 19.6-36.7) and the median OS was 55.3 months (95% CI 51.6-NA). Among the patients who received lenalidomide maintenance therapy, median PFS was significantly improved in patients who had achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or better (41.8 vs 20.7 months, p = 0.0070). As the best response, the rates of partial response or better were 85.5% comprising stringent complete response (sCR, 21.7%), complete response (CR, 10.8%), VGPR (18.1%), and partial response (PR, 34.9%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the VMP therapy were anemia (28.9%), neutropenia (15.6%), thrombocytopenia (6.0%), and peripheral neuropathy (2.4%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the Rd therapy were anemia (3.5%), neutropenia (1.8%), and skin rush (5.3%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during lenalidomide maintenance therapy were anemia (7.4%) and neutropenia (24.1%). Thus, VMP induction therapy followed by Rd consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance is considered a well-tolerated and effective regimen in transplant-ineligible NDMM. This trial is registered with UMIN-CTR with the identification number UMIN000009042.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Cancer Sci ; 111(6): 2116-2122, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297407

RESUMO

In the phase 3 OPTIMISMM trial, pomalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (PVd) significantly improved the progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall response rate (ORR) vs bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. All patients were previously treated with lenalidomide (70% refractory to lenalidomide) and had received one to three prior regimens. Here we report the first efficacy and safety analysis of PVd vs Vd in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients enrolled in the OPTIMISMM trial in Japan. With a median follow-up of 14.8 months, the median PFS was 17.6 months with PVd (n = 12) vs 4.4 months with Vd (n = 5), and the ORR was 100% vs 60.0%, respectively. The safety profile was as expected for PVd. Toxicities were managed with dose reductions and interruptions, and no patients discontinued PVd due to treatment-emergent adverse events. These results are consistent with those in the overall OPTIMISMM patient population and confirm the clinical benefit of PVd in Japanese patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Blood ; 135(26): 2413-2419, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253422

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by neutralizing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. In white individuals, HLA allele DRB1*11 is a predisposing factor for iTTP, whereas DRB1*04 is a protective factor. However, the role of HLA in Asians is unclear. In this study, we analyzed 10 HLA loci using next-generation sequencing in 52 Japanese patients with iTTP, and the allele frequency in the iTTP group was compared with that in a Japanese control group. We identified the following HLA alleles as predisposing factors for iTTP in the Japanese population: DRB1*08:03 (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; corrected P [Pc] = .005), DRB3/4/5*blank (OR, 2.3; Pc = .007), DQA1*01:03 (OR, 2.25; Pc = .006), and DQB1*06:01 (OR,: 2.41; Pc = .003). The estimated haplotype consisting of these 4 alleles was significantly more frequent in the iTTP group than in the control group (30.8% vs 6.0%; Pc < .001). DRB1*15:01 and DRB5*01:01 were weak protective factors for iTTP (OR, 0.23; Pc = .076; and OR, 0.23, Pc = .034, respectively). On the other hand, DRB1*11 and DRB1*04 were not associated with iTTP in the Japanese. These findings indicated that predisposing and protective factors for iTTP differ between Japanese and white individuals. HLA-DR molecules encoded by DRB1*08:03 and DRB1*11:01 have different peptide-binding motifs, but interestingly, bound to the shared ADAMTS13 peptide in an in silico prediction model.

5.
Leukemia ; 34(7): 1875-1884, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001798

RESUMO

In POLLUX, daratumumab (D) plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 63% and increased the overall response rate (ORR) versus Rd in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Updated efficacy and safety after >3 years of follow-up are presented. Patients (N = 569) with ≥1 prior line received Rd (lenalidomide, 25 mg, on Days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle; dexamethasone, 40 mg, weekly) ± daratumumab at the approved dosing schedule. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by next-generation sequencing. After 44.3 months median follow-up, D-Rd prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat population (median 44.5 vs 17.5 months; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < 0.0001) and in patient subgroups. D-Rd demonstrated higher ORR (92.9 vs 76.4%; P < 0.0001) and deeper responses, including complete response or better (56.6 vs 23.2%; P < 0.0001) and MRD negativity (10-5; 30.4 vs 5.3%; P < 0.0001). Median time to next therapy was prolonged with D-Rd (50.6 vs 23.1 months; HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.31-0.50; P < 0.0001). Median PFS on subsequent line of therapy (PFS2) was not reached with D-Rd versus 31.7 months with Rd (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42-0.68; P < 0.0001). No new safety concerns were reported. These data support using D-Rd in patients with RRMM after first relapse.

6.
Int J Hematol ; 111(3): 401-408, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894533

RESUMO

Treatment outcomes for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have dramatically improved with the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, due to the improved prognosis for CML, problems have arisen from long-term administration of TKI. The present study sought to verify whether more patients could achieve treatment-free remission (TFR) after stopping the administration of dasatinib using dasatinib as frontline treatment. Treatment-naïve chronic phase CML cases were treated with dasatinib as frontline treatment. Dasatinib treatment was stopped for 26 patients who achieved deep molecular response (DMR) within 24 months and were able to maintain DMR for an additional 2 years. Ten patients (38.5%) achieved DMR maintenance after 12 months. Recurrence was confirmed in 16 patients, and the median recurrence-free survival time was 5.1 months. The cumulative DMR rates at six and 12 months after restarting treatment were 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the DMR maintenance rate after 12 months was 38.5%, which was not significantly different from previous TKI stop trials. The 2-year dasatinib administration period after reaching DMR did not contribute to improve TFR rates. These results suggest that the type of TKI is not associated with better TFR rates.

7.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(3): e218-e225, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous dasatinib discontinuation (DADI) trial showed that 31 (49%) of 63 patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia who were treated with second-line or subsequent dasatinib could discontinue the drug safely. However, the safety and efficacy of discontinuing first-line dasatinib remains unclear. In this trial (the first-line DADI trial) we aimed to assess molecular relapse-free survival at 6 months after discontinuation of dasatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who had been treated with first-line dasatinib and had maintained deep molecular response for at least 1 year. METHODS: The first-line DADI trial was a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial done at 23 hospitals in Japan. Patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia without hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary mass, who received at least 24-month dasatinib treatment and had a sustained deep molecular response (defined as BCR-ABL1/ABL1 international scale ≤0·0069% in at least four successive samples spanning a 12 month period) were enrolled. Other eligibility criteria were an age of 15 years or older, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2, and no primary organ dysfunction. The primary outcome was molecular relapse-free survival (also known as treatment-free remission) after discontinuation of dasatinib at 6 months and was analysed in all patients who completed the 12-month consolidation phase. Safety was assessed in all patients who received treatment. This study closed early due to accrual and is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000011099). FINDINGS: Between Sept 20, 2013 and July 12, 2016, 68 patients who had a deep molecular response after receiving first-line dasatinib for at least 24 months were enrolled and assigned to the consolidation phase. Nine patients were excluded during the consolidation phase and one patient was excluded after study completion because of meeting exclusion criteria. 58 patients discontinued dasatinib and were assessed. 32 (55%) of 58 patients had treatment-free remission at 6 months after dasatinib discontinuation, and median follow-up was 23·3 months (IQR 11·7-31·0). Treatment-free remission at 6 months was 55·2% (95% CI 43·7-69·6). No non-haematological adverse events worse than grade 2 occurred before dasatinib discontinuation. The most common haematological adverse event was anaemia (14 [21%] of 68 treated patients); three (4%) of 68 treated patients had grade 3 neutropenia and one (1%) had grade 4 lymphopenia. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that dasatinib could be safely discontinued after first-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who had received at least 36 months of therapy and sustained deep molecular response; however, further confirmation in larger trials is needed. FUNDING: Epidemiological and Clinical Research Information Network.


Assuntos
Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suspensão de Tratamento
8.
Int J Hematol ; 111(1): 65-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701481

RESUMO

Novel therapies are needed for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Elotuzumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). This phase 2 study in Japan evaluated ELd vs lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Ld) in patients with NDMM who were ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Elotuzumab infusion was accelerated to 5 mL/min by dose 3, cycle 1, allowing most subsequent infusions to be completed within 1 h. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) in the ELd arm. Secondary endpoints were the difference in ORR between treatments, and progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were randomized to ELd (n = 40) or Ld (n = 42); median number of treatment cycles was 13 (ELd) and 12 (Ld). In the ELd arm, ORR was 88% [70% confidence interval (CI) 80-93]. The estimated difference in ORR between treatments was 13% (95% CI - 4, 30) in favor of ELd. Progression-free survival data were immature. Safety was consistent with previous findings of ELd in Japanese patients with RRMM. No infusion reactions occurred at the maximum rate of 5 mL/min, which was used in 89% of elotuzumab infusions. ELd may be an effective, well-tolerated frontline treatment for patients with NDMM ineligible for stem cell transplantation.

9.
Int J Hematol ; 111(1): 57-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664647

RESUMO

We report the final results from a multicenter, open-label phase I study of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in Japanese patients with heavily pretreated relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Twenty-six RRMM patients were enrolled and received a median of 4.0 prior regimens; 12/26 patients (46.2%) completed the planned 18 administration cycles (mean number of cycles: 14.5 ± 4.9). The safety profile was consistent with that of previous carfilzomib studies. All patients experienced adverse events (AEs), but no new safety concerns were observed. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs (incidence: ≥ 10%) were lymphocyte count decreased (46.2%), platelet count decreased (42.3%), and neutrophil count decreased (34.6%). The overall response rate was 88.5% (23/26; 90% confidence interval: 72.8-96.8). Complete response (CR) or better was achieved by 30.8% of patients compared with 3.8% in the interim analysis. The median time to CR or better response was 9.4 months. Median progression-free survival and duration of response were 19.5 months and 20.3 months, respectively. Median overall survival was not reached. Long-term administration of carfilzomib produced deep response and long-term disease control. The combination of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone was well tolerated and showed promising clinical efficacy for heavily pretreated RRMM patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered in the database clinicaltrials.jp (clinical trial registration number: Japic CTI 142677).

10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 73(6): 547-552, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871340

RESUMO

Elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients, who are generally ineligible for transplantation, have high risks of death and treatment discontinuation, and require a regimen incorporating novel agents that balance safety, tolerability, and efficacy. We evaluated alternating bortezomib-dexamethasone and lenalidomide-dexamethasone treatments administered over a 63-day cycle in transplant-ineligible elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM. Subcutaneous bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 was administered weekly on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22; oral lenalidomide 15 mg daily on Days 36-56; and oral dexamethasone 20 mg on Days 1, 8, 15, 22, 36, 43, 50, and 57 for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino
11.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(10): 83, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594919

RESUMO

Pomalidomide is a third generation immunomodulatory drug which in combination with dexamethasone, has been shown to be active in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. However, the data in Asian patients remain limited. We conducted a prospective phase two clinical trial in major cancer centers in Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong to assess the efficacy and safety of pomalidomide and dexamethasone combination (PomDex) +/- cyclophosphamide in Asian patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who failed lenalidomide and bortezomib. Patients were treated with pomalidomide (4 mg daily for 21 days every 4 weeks) and dexamethasone (40 mg weekly). If there is less than a minimal response after three cycles of PomDex, cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 can be added (PomCyDex). A total of 136 patients were enrolled. The median PFS was 9 and 10.8 months for the PomDex and PomCyDex group, respectively. The median OS was 16.3 months. This regimen appears to be active across age groups and prior lines of treatment. This combination was overall well tolerated with grade 3 and 4 adverse events of mainly cytopenias. PomDex is highly active and well-tolerated in Asian patients. The addition of cyclophosphamide can improve the response and outcomes further in patients with suboptimal response to PomDex.

12.
Int J Hematol ; 110(4): 466-473, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388932

RESUMO

Carfilzomib is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of carfilzomib in subgroups of Asian patients in the randomized phase 3 ENDEAVOR and A.R.R.O.W. trials. In ENDEAVOR, patients received carfilzomib twice-weekly (56 mg/m2) plus dexamethasone (Kd; n = 56) or bortezomib plus dexamethasone (Vd; n = 57). In A.R.R.O.W., patients received carfilzomib once-weekly (70 mg/m2, n = 30) or twice-weekly (27 mg/m2, n = 15) plus dexamethasone. Median progression-free survival (PFS) among Asian patients in ENDEAVOR was longer with Kd than with Vd (14.9 versus 8.8 months; HR 0.599); the overall response rate (ORR) was 80.4% versus 70.2%. Median overall survival (Kd versus Vd) was 47.6 versus 38.8 months (HR 0.856). Median PFS among Asian patients in A.R.R.O.W. was longer for once-weekly versus twice-weekly Kd (16.0 versus 8.4 months; HR 0.628); ORR was 76.7% versus 53.3%. Rates of grade ≥ 3 adverse events were 89.1% (Kd) and 89.5% (Vd) in ENDEAVOR, and 76.6% (once-weekly Kd) versus 73.3% (twice-weekly Kd) in A.R.R.O.W. Overall, carfilzomib had a favorable benefit-risk profile across both dosing regimens [once-weekly (Kd 70 mg/m2) and twice-weekly (Kd 56 mg/m2)] in Asian patients with RRMM, which was consistent with the results of both parent studies.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01568866, NCT02412878.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteassoma/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteassoma/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(9): e448-e458, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit-risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS: KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4-9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2-88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8-90·5; hazard ratio [HR] 1·22; 95% CI 0·67-2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure). INTERPRETATION: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1703-1711, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049648

RESUMO

In spite of recent development in the treatment armamentarium for multiple myeloma, overall survival (OS) still depends on risk status and sensitivity to treatment of each patient. We have evaluated the clinical relevance of the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) by comparing it with the original ISS in 718 Japanese patients. The distribution of patients according to response was similar between the ISS and R-ISS stages. Treatment response was greatly influenced by initial treatment modalities and deeper response was observed more frequently in transplanted patients. The R-ISS discriminated the difference in OS between the stages more distinctly than the ISS (p = 9.0 × 10-15 and p = 4.0 × 10-10, respectively). Differences in OS were clarified by both R-ISS and ISS in non-transplanted patients (p = 2.4 × 10-12 and p = 1.4 × 10-8, respectively), but the ISS failed to distinguish the difference between the stages in transplanted patients (p = 0.13). In contrast, the R-ISS could at least discriminate the excellent prognosis of stage I patients whereas the distinction between stage II and III was not that clear (p = 0.033). The R-ISS stage II encompassed a large number of patients, and the prognosis was heterogeneous depending on the fulfillment of prognostic factors such as LDH and adverse cytogenetics. These results suggest that treatment factors and prognostic factors greatly affect the therapeutic response and outcome, and the R-ISS is superior to ISS in prognostication of both transplant-eligible and -ineligible patients in our current clinical practice.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 6728128, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402490

RESUMO

Background: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, indolent B-cell lymphoma. Clinically, chromosome 6q deletion (6q del) including loss of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 gene (BLIMP-1) is reported to be associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how the underlying biological mechanism contributes to the aggressiveness of WM with 6q del. Methods: Here, we conducted oligonucleotide microarray analysis to clarify the differences in gene expression between WM with and without 6q del. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed to identify the main pathways underlying differences in gene expression. Eight bone marrow formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of WM were processed for interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and three were shown to have 6q del. Results: GO analysis revealed significant terms including "lymphocyte activation" (corrected p value=6.68E-11), which included 31 probes. Moreover, IL21R and JAK3 expression upregulation and activation of the B-cell receptor signaling (BCR) pathway including CD79a, SYK, BLNK, PLCγ2, and CARD11 were detected in WM with 6q del compared with WM without 6q del. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the BCR signaling pathway and IL21R expression are activated in WM with 6q del. Moreover, FOXP1 and CBLB appear to act as positive regulators of the BCR signaling pathway. These findings might be attributed to the aggressiveness of the WM with 6q del expression signature.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/metabolismo
16.
N Engl J Med ; 379(19): 1811-1822, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunostimulatory monoclonal antibody elotuzumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The immunomodulatory agent pomalidomide plus dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in patients with multiple myeloma that is refractory to lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor. METHODS: Patients with multiple myeloma that was refractory or relapsed and refractory to lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor were randomly assigned to receive elotuzumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone (elotuzumab group) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients were randomly assigned to the elotuzumab group (60 patients) or the control group (57 patients). After a minimum follow-up period of 9.1 months, the median progression-free survival was 10.3 months in the elotuzumab group and 4.7 months in the control group. The hazard ratio for disease progression or death in the elotuzumab group as compared with the control group was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.86; P=0.008). The overall response rate was 53% in the elotuzumab group as compared with 26% in the control group (odds ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.49 to 7.11). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (13% in the elotuzumab group vs. 27% in the control group), anemia (10% vs. 20%), and hyperglycemia (8% vs. 7%). A total of 65% of the patients in each group had infections. Infusion reactions occurred in 3 patients (5%) in the elotuzumab group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with multiple myeloma in whom treatment with lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor had failed, the risk of progression or death was significantly lower among those who received elotuzumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone than among those who received pomalidomide plus dexamethasone alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AbbVie Biotherapeutics; ELOQUENT-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02654132 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos
17.
Hematol Oncol ; 36(5): 792-800, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176173

RESUMO

The international staging system (ISS) is the most commonly used risk-stratification system for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and is determined by serum albumin and ß2-microglobulin levels. In the two determinants, ß2-microglobulin levels are frequently observed to be elevated in patients with myeloma, particularly in those with renal impairment. In comparison with patients with intact immunoglobulin myeloma, patients with LC myeloma do not necessarily show decreased levels of serum albumin. The clinical impact of ISS in patients with LCMM, in particular the distinction between ISS I and II, may be complicated due to non-decreased levels of serum albumin in both stages. Accordingly, we have attempted to assess clinical relevance of the ISS in patients with LC myeloma. The clinical data of 1899 patients with MM diagnosed between January 2001 and December 2012 were collected from 38 affiliated hospitals of the Japanese Society of Myeloma. Significant difference was not found between stage I (n = 72) and stage II (n = 92) in LC myeloma patients (n = 307). The mean serum albumin concentration of patients with LC myeloma was within the reference range but higher than that of patients with IgG + IgA myeloma (n = 1501), which complicates the distinction between ISS stage I and II myeloma. Patients with LC myeloma had low frequencies of t(4; 14) and high frequency of elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and despite a relevant amount of missing data in our registry (R-ISS stage I; n = 11, stage II; n = 32, and stage III: n = 18), the information included in the R-ISS scoring system seems to be more accurate than ISS to obtain a reliable risk stratification approach in non-ISS stage III LC myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
18.
Haematologica ; 103(12): 2088-2096, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237262

RESUMO

In the POLLUX study, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone significantly reduced risk of progression/death versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone alone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. We provide one additional year of follow up and include the effect on minimal residual disease and in clinically relevant subgroups. After 25.4 months of follow up, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone alone (median not reached vs 17.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.53; P<0.0001). The overall response rate was 92.9% versus 76.4%, and 51.2% versus 21.0% achieved a complete response or better, respectively (both P<0.0001). At the 10-5 sensitivity threshold, 26.2% versus 6.4% were minimal residual disease-negative, respectively (P<0.0001). Post hoc analyses of clinically relevant patient subgroups demonstrated that progression-free survival was significantly prolonged for daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone regardless of number of prior lines of therapy. Patients previously treated with lenalidomide or thalidomide and those refractory to bortezomib received similar benefits (all P<0.01). Treatment benefit with daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone was maintained in high-risk patients (median progression-free survival 22.6 vs 10.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.13; P=0.0921) and patients with treatment-free intervals of >12 and ≤12 months and >6 and ≤6 months. No new safety signals were observed. In relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients, daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone continued to improve progression-free survival and deepen responses versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02076009.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
19.
Blood Res ; 53(2): 117-122, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963517

RESUMO

Background: Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare subtype of indolent B-cell lymphoma, and prospective randomized studies on WM are scarce. The R-CHOP therapy [rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide, hydroxy-doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone] is a popular and recommended regimen for primary therapy, prescribed by several treatment guidelines for WM. However, treatment with R-CHOP is accompanied by severe myelosuppression and high rates of peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of half-dose CHOP combined with R as a primary therapy for WM. Methods: Patients with untreated symptomatic WM, treated at the Disaster Medical Center between April 2011 and September 2016, were retrospectively analyzed after administration of 6 cycles of half-dose R-CHOP for every 3 weeks. The response, median time to response, best response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicities were evaluated. Results: Of the 20 WM patients analyzed, 16 (80%) received half-dose R-CHOP without vincristine, and 13 (65%) responded to the treatment. With a median follow-up duration of 26.3 months, the 2-year progression-free survival and 2-year overall survival rates were 70 and 93.3%, respectively. The median time to response and best response were 6 and 9.9 weeks, respectively. Grade 3/4 leukocytopenia, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and Grade 1 peripheral neuropathy developed in 32, 37, 0, and 21% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: The half-dose R-CHOP is an effective and well-tolerated primary therapy for WM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of a reduced-dose R-CHOP regimen for the primary treatment of WM.

20.
Blood Cancer J ; 8(4): 41, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712896

RESUMO

In the phase 3 POLLUX study, daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (DRd) significantly reduced the risk of progression/death and induced deeper responses vs. lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (Rd) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We report a subgroup analysis of East Asian (Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese) patients from POLLUX based on a longer follow-up of 24.7 months. Median progression-free survival was not reached (NR) for DRd vs. 13.8 months for Rd (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.76), and overall response rates were higher for DRd vs. Rd (90.2 vs. 72.1%). DRd extended the median duration of response vs. Rd (NR vs. 20.2 months), and minimal residual disease-negative rates at the 10-5 sensitivity threshold were 21.2 vs. 9.1% for DRd vs. Rd. No new safety signals were observed. Similar efficacy and safety were observed in the smaller subgroup of Japanese patients treated with DRd vs. Rd. These results demonstrate favorable efficacy and safety of DRd vs. Rd in East Asian patients and also in the Japanese-only patient subgroup that are consistent with findings in the overall patient population of POLLUX.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Recidiva , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
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