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1.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 160, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emphysema, characterized by lung destruction, is a key component of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic factors associated with cross-sectional measures of quantitative emphysema, but the genetic determinants of longitudinal change in quantitative measures of emphysema remain largely unknown. Our study aims to identify genetic variants associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. METHODS: We included current and ex-smokers from two longitudinal cohorts: COPDGene, a study of Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and African Americans (AA), and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). We calculated annual change in two quantitative measures of emphysema based on chest CT imaging: percent low attenuation area (≤ - 950HU) (%LAA-950) and adjusted lung density (ALD). We conducted GWAS, separately in 3030 NHW and 1158 AA from COPDGene and 1397 Whites from ECLIPSE. We further explored effects of 360 previously reported variants and a lung function based polygenic risk score on annual change in quantitative emphysema. RESULTS: In the genome-wide association analysis, no variants achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5e-08). However, in the candidate region analysis, rs2076295 in the DSP gene, previously associated with COPD, lung function and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, was associated with change in %LAA-950 (ß (SE) = 0.09 (0.02), P = 3.79e-05) and in ALD (ß (SE) = - 0.06 (0.02), P = 2.88e-03). A lung function based polygenic risk score was associated with annual change in %LAA-950 (P = 4.03e-02) and with baseline measures of quantitative emphysema (P < 1e-03) and showed a trend toward association with annual change in ALD (P = 7.31e-02). CONCLUSIONS: DSP variants may be associated with longitudinal change in quantitative emphysema. Additional investigation of the DSP gene are likely to provide further insights into the disease progression in emphysema and COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00608764 , NCT00292552 .

2.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 100, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality risk among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, low body mass index (BMI) as opposed to cachexia is often used, particularly when calculating the BODE (BMI, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. For this reason, we examined mortality using a consensus definition and a weight-loss definition of cachexia among COPD cases and compared two new COPD severity indices with BODE. METHODS: In the current report, the consensus definition for cachexia incorporated weight-loss > 5% in 12-months or low BMI in addition to 3/5 of decreased muscle strength, fatigue, anorexia, low FFMI and inflammation. The weight-loss definition incorporated weight-loss > 5% or weight-loss > 2% (if low BMI) in 12-months. The low BMI component in BODE was replaced with the consensus definition to create the CODE (Consensus cachexia, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index and the weight-loss definition to create the WODE (Weight loss, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. Mortality was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox Regression. Performance of models was compared using C-statistics. RESULTS: Among 1483 COPD cases, the prevalences of cachexia by the consensus and weight-loss definitions were 4.7 and 10.4%, respectively. Cachectic patients had a greater than three-fold increased mortality by either the consensus or the weight-loss definition of cachexia independent of BMI and lung function. The CODE index predicted mortality slightly more accurately than the BODE and WODE indices. CONCLUSIONS: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality among COPD patients. Monitoring cachexia using weight-loss criteria is relatively simple and predictive of mortality among COPD cases who may be missed if only low BMI is used.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 63, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at high risk of exacerbation and mortality is key to aid individual management of COPD. The only FDA approved blood-based drug development biomarker for patients at high risk of mortality, is plasma fibrinogen. In this study, we benchmarked two biomarkers of basement membrane remodeling, a characteristic of COPD, against plasma fibrinogen alone and as a combination. The biomarkers of basement membrane remodeling are two neoepitopes from of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen (COL4A3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: COL4A3 degradation was assessed by the biomarkers C4Ma3 and tumstatin (TUM) in year 1 plasma samples in 984 COPD subjects, 95 non-smoking controls and 95 smoking controls from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) cohort. They were measured by competitive ELISA using monoclonal antibodies recognizing two specific MMP-generated cleavage site within COL4A3. The level of fibrinogen was previously assessed in year 1 plasma. RESULTS: In COPD subjects, plasma C4Ma3 levels were significantly correlated with plasma fibrinogen levels (0.389 (P < 0.0001)). Cox proportional-hazards regression adjusted for relevant confounders showed that high levels of plasma C4Ma3, but not TUM, were related to a higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio 5.12 (95% CI 2.28-11.50), P < 0.0001). High levels of plasma fibrinogen were not associated with all-cause mortality in this subpopulation, contradictory to published results. Whereas plasma C4Ma3 multiplied by fibrinogen showed to be related to a higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio 5.74 (95% CI 2.65-12.41), P < 0.0001). Plasma C4Ma3 levels were related to the number of hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations in the year before study start (P = 0.0375). Fibrinogen levels were related to hospitalized exacerbations prior to study start (P = 0.0058) and were also related to future exacerbations (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We compared herein fibrinogen, C4Ma3 and TUM as biomarkers for COPD prognosis. Fibrinogen was related to future exacerbation, whereas C4Ma3 and the combination of C4Ma3 with fibrinogen were superior to fibrinogen alone in predicting mortality. This pilot study suggests that the assessment of plasma C4Ma3 could be important for identifying COPD patients with a poor prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00292552 , GSK Study No. SCO104960.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/sangue , Colágeno Tipo IV/sangue , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4064, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858579

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a slow heterogeneous progression. Therefore, improved biomarkers that can accurately identify patients with the highest likelihood of progression and therefore the ability to benefit from a given treatment, are needed. Elastin is an essential structural protein of the lungs. In this study, we investigated whether elastin degradation products generated by the enzymes proteinase 3, cathepsin G, neutrophil elastase, MMP7 or MMP9/12 were prognostic biomarkers for COPD-related outcomes. The elastin degradome was assessed in a subpopulation (n = 1307) of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) cohort with 3 years of clinical follow-up. Elastin degraded by proteinase 3 could distinguish between COPD participants and non-smoking controls (p = 0.0006). A total of 30 participants (3%) died over the 3 years of observation. After adjusting for confounders, plasma levels of elastin degraded by proteinase 3 and cathepsin G were independently associated with mortality outcome with a hazard ratio per 1 SD of 1.49 (95%CI 1.24-1.80, p < 0.0001) and 1.31 (95%CI 1.10-1.57, p = 0.0029), respectively. Assessing the elastin degradome demonstrated that specific elastin degradation fragments have potential utility as biomarkers identifying subtypes of COPD patients at risk of poor prognosis and supports further exploration in confirmatory studies.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
6.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 5, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified lung, sputum or blood transcriptomic biomarkers associated with the severity of airflow limitation in COPD. Yet, it is not clear whether the lung pathobiology is mirrored by these surrogate tissues. The aim of this study was to explore this question. METHODS: We used Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to identify shared pathological mechanisms across four COPD gene-expression datasets: two sets of lung tissues (L1 n = 70; L2 n = 124), and one each of induced sputum (S; n = 121) and peripheral blood (B; n = 121). RESULTS: WGCNA analysis identified twenty-one gene co-expression modules in L1. A robust module preservation between the two L datasets was observed (86%), with less preservation in S (33%) and even less in B (23%). Three modules preserved across lung tissues and sputum (not blood) were associated with the severity of airflow limitation. Ontology enrichment analysis showed that these modules included genes related to mitochondrial function, ion-homeostasis, T cells and RNA processing. These findings were largely reproduced using the consensus WGCNA network approach. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that major differences in lung tissue transcriptomics in patients with COPD are poorly mirrored in sputum and are unrelated to those determined in blood, suggesting that the systemic component in COPD is independently regulated. Finally, the fact that one of the preserved modules associated with FEV1 was enriched in mitochondria-related genes supports a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathobiology of COPD.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Escarro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Escarro/química
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335480

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple associations with emphysema apico-basal distribution (EABD), but the biological functions of these variants are unknown. METHODS: To characterize the functions of EABD-associated variants, we integrated GWAS results with 1) expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) from the GTEx project and subjects in the COPDGene Study and 2) cell type epigenomic marks from the Roadmap Epigenomics project. Based on these analyses, we selected a variant near ACVR1B for functional validation. RESULTS: SNPs from 168 loci with P-values<5x10-5 in the largest GWAS meta-analysis of EABD were analyzed. Eighty-four loci overlapped eQTL, with 12 of these loci showing > 80% likelihood of harboring a single, shared GWAS and eQTL causal variant. Seventeen cell types were enriched for overlap between EABD loci and Roadmap epigenomic marks (Permutation P-value<0.05), with the strongest enrichment observed in CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells. We selected a putative causal variant, rs7962469, associated with ACVR1B expression in lung tissue for additional functional investigation, and reporter assays confirmed allele-specific regulatory activity for this variant in human bronchial epithelial and Jurkat immune cell lines. ACVR1B expression levels exhibit a nominally significant association with emphysema distribution. CONCLUSIONS: EABD-associated loci are preferentially enriched in regulatory elements of multiple cell types, most notably T-cell subsets. Multiple EABD loci colocalize to regulatory elements that are active across multiple tissues and cell types, and functional analyses confirm the presence of an EABD-associated functional variant that regulates ACRV1B expression, indicating that TGF-ß signaling plays a role in the EABD phenotype.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3801-3812, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060175

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is substantially influenced by genetic factors. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency demonstrates that rare coding variants of large effect can influence COPD susceptibility. To identify additional rare coding variants in patients with severe COPD, we conducted whole exome sequencing analysis in 2543 subjects from two family-based studies (Boston Early-Onset COPD Study and International COPD Genetics Network) and one case-control study (COPDGene). Applying a gene-based segregation test in the family-based data, we identified significant segregation of rare loss of function variants in TBC1D10A and RFPL1 (P-value < 2x10-6), but were unable to find similar variants in the case-control study. In single-variant, gene-based and pathway association analyses, we were unable to find significant findings that replicated or were significant in meta-analysis. However, we found that the top results in the two datasets were in proximity to each other in the protein-protein interaction network (P-value = 0.014), suggesting enrichment of these results for similar biological processes. A network of these association results and their neighbors was significantly enriched in the transforming growth factor beta-receptor binding and cilia-related pathways. Finally, in a more detailed examination of candidate genes, we identified individuals with putative high-risk variants, including patients harboring homozygous mutations in genes associated with cutis laxa and Niemann-Pick Disease Type C. Our results likely reflect heterogeneity of genetic risk for COPD along with limitations of statistical power and functional annotation, and highlight the potential of network analysis to gain insight into genetic association studies.

10.
Respir Med ; 141: 14-19, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) proposed a new classification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We contrasted the distribution of COPD patients according to GOLD 2017 and 2011 classifications, the temporal stability of the 2017 groups during 3 years follow-up and their association with all-cause mortality in the ECLIPSE cohort. RESULTS: We found that GOLD 2017: (1) switched a substantial proportion of GOLD 2011C and D patients to A and B groups at recruitment; (2) about half of A, B and D patients remained in the same group at the end of follow-up, whereas 74% of C patients (the smallest group of all) changed, either because exacerbation rate decreased or dyspnea increased; and, (3) all-cause mortality by group was not significantly different between GOLD 2011 and 2017. Of note, mortality in B (16%) and D patients (18%) was similar, both with similar severity of airflow limitation, the best individual mortality risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of excluding FEV1 from GOLD 2017, and highlight both the clinical relevance of symptom assessment in the management of COPD and the prognostic capacity of FEV1.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(6): 2037-2047.e10, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exacerbations and responsivity to steroids, suggesting potential shared mechanisms with eosinophilic asthma. However, there is no consistent blood eosinophil count that has been used to define the increased exacerbation risk. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate blood eosinophil counts associated with exacerbation risk in patients with COPD. METHODS: Blood eosinophil counts and exacerbation risk were analyzed in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD by using 2 independent studies of former and current smokers with longitudinal data. The Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) study was analyzed for discovery (n = 1,553), and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study was analyzed for validation (n = 1,895). A subset of the ECLIPSE study subjects were used to assess the stability of blood eosinophil counts over time. RESULTS: COPD exacerbation risk increased with higher eosinophil counts. An eosinophil count threshold of 300 cells/µL or greater showed adjusted incidence rate ratios for exacerbations of 1.32 in the COPDGene study (95% CI, 1.10-1.63). The cutoff of 300 cells/µL or greater was validated for prospective risk of exacerbation in the ECLIPSE study, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 1.22 (95% CI, 1.06-1.41) using 3-year follow-up data. Stratified analysis confirmed that the increased exacerbation risk associated with an eosinophil count of 300 cells/µL or greater was driven by subjects with a history of frequent exacerbations in both the COPDGene and ECLIPSE studies. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and blood eosinophil counts of 300 cells/µL or greater had an increased risk exacerbations in the COPDGene study, which was prospectively validated in the ECLIPSE study.

12.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 100, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex inflammatory condition in which an important extra-pulmonary manifestation is cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that COPD patients would have increased aortic inflammation and stiffness, as candidate mechanisms mediating increased cardiovascular risk, compared to two negative control groups: healthy never-smokers and smokers without COPD. We also studied patients with COPD due to alpha- 1 antitrypsin deficiency (α1ATD) as a comparator lung disease group. METHODS: Participants underwent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography imaging to quantify aortic inflammation as the tissue-to-blood-ratio (TBR) of FDG uptake. Aortic stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV). RESULTS: Eighty-five usual COPD (COPD due to smoking), 12 α1ATD-COPD patients and 12 each smokers and never-smokers were studied. There was no difference in pack years smoked between COPD patients and smokers (45 ± 25 vs 37 ± 19, p = 0.36), but α1ATD patients smoked significantly less (19 ± 11, p < 0.001 for both). By design, spirometry measures were lower in COPD and α1ATD-COPD patients compared to smokers and never-smokers. Aortic inflammation and stiffness were increased in COPD (TBR: 1.90 ± 0.38, aPWV: 9.9 ± 2.6 m/s) and α1ATD patients (TBR: 1.94 ± 0.43, aPWV: 9.5 ± 1.8 m/s) compared with smokers (TBR: 1.74 ± 0.30, aPWV: 7.8 ± 1.8 m/s, p < 0.05 all) and never-smokers (TBR: 1.71 ± 0.34, aPWV: 7.9 ± 1.7 m/s, p ≤ 0.05 all). CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional prospective study, novel findings were that both usual COPD and α1ATD-COPD patients have increased aortic inflammation and stiffness compared to smoking and never-smoking controls, regardless of smoking history. These findings suggest that the presence of COPD lung disease per se may be associated with adverse aortic wall changes, and aortic inflammation and stiffening are potential mechanisms mediating increased vascular risk observed in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/fisiologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
13.
Thorax ; 73(12): 1182-1185, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618495

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle manifestations constitute important comorbidities in COPD, with systemic inflammation proposed as a common mechanistic link. Fibrinogen has prognostic role in COPD. We aimed to determine whether aortic stiffness and quadriceps weakness are linked in COPD, and whether they are associated with the systemic inflammatory mediator-fibrinogen. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), quadriceps maximal volitional contraction (QMVC) force and fibrinogen were measured in 729 patients with stable, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV COPD. The cardiovascular and muscular manifestations exist independently (P=0.22, χ2). Fibrinogen was not associated with aPWV or QMVC (P=0.628 and P=0.621, respectively), making inflammation, as measured by plasma fibrinogen, an unlikely common aetiological factor.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194197, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Systemic inflammation associated with COPD, is often hypothesised as a causal factor. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases play a key role in the inflammatory pathogenesis of COPD and atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effects of losmapimod, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, on vascular inflammation and endothelial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with systemic inflammation (defined by plasma fibrinogen >2·8g/l). METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II trial that recruited COPD patients with plasma fibrinogen >2.8g/l. Participants were randomly assigned by an online program to losmapimod 7·5mg or placebo tablets twice daily for 16 weeks. Pre- and post-dose 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography co-registered with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging of the aorta and carotid arteries was performed to quantify arterial inflammation, defined by the tissue-to-blood ratio (TBR) from scan images. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). RESULTS: We screened 160 patients, of whom, 36 and 37 were randomised to losmapimod or placebo. The treatment effect of losmapimod compared to placebo was not significant, at -0·05 for TBR (95% CI: -0·17, 0·07), p = 0·42, and +0·40% for FMD (95% CI: -1·66, 2·47), p = 0·70. The frequency of adverse events reported was similar in both treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this plasma fibrinogen-enriched study, losmapimod had no effect on arterial inflammation and endothelial function at 16 weeks of treatment, although it was well tolerated with no significant safety concerns. These findings do not support the concept that losmapimod is an effective treatment for the adverse cardiovascular manifestations of COPD.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade
15.
Eur Respir J ; 51(2)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437944

RESUMO

We tested whether emphysema progression accompanies enhanced tissue loss in other body compartments in 1817 patients from the ECLIPSE chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohort.Clinical and selected systemic biomarker measurements were compared in subjects grouped by quantitative tomography scan emphysema quartiles using the percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%). Lowest and highest quartile patients had amino-acid metabolomic profiles. We related LAA% to 3 years decline in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and exacerbations, hospitalisations and mortality rates.Participants with more baseline emphysema had lower FEV1, BMI and FFMI, worse functional capacity, and less cardiovascular disease but more osteoporosis. Systemic C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were similar among groups, but club cell protein 16 was higher and interleukin-8, surfactant protein D and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product were lower with more emphysema. Metabolomics differed between extreme emphysema quartiles. Patients with more emphysema had accelerated FEV1, BMI and FFMI decline and more exacerbations, hospitalisations and mortality.COPD patients with more emphysema undergo excessive loss of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissue, which is probably related to abnormal tissue maintenance. Because of worse clinical outcomes, we propose this subgroup be named the multi-organ loss of tissue (MOLT) COPD phenotype.

16.
Thorax ; 73(5): 422-430, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in the composition of the lung microbiome associated with adverse clinical outcomes, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated with disease severity and exacerbations in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To characterise longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome in the AERIS study (Acute Exacerbation and Respiratory InfectionS in COPD) and their relationship with associated COPD outcomes. METHODS: We surveyed 584 sputum samples from 101 patients with COPD to analyse the lung microbiome at both stable and exacerbation time points over 1 year using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. We incorporated additional lung microbiology, blood markers and in-depth clinical assessments to classify COPD phenotypes. RESULTS: The stability of the lung microbiome over time was more likely to be decreased in exacerbations and within individuals with higher exacerbation frequencies. Analysis of exacerbation phenotypes using a Markov chain model revealed that bacterial and eosinophilic exacerbations were more likely to be repeated in subsequent exacerbations within a subject, whereas viral exacerbations were not more likely to be repeated. We also confirmed the association of bacterial genera, including Haemophilus and Moraxella, with disease severity, exacerbation events and bronchiectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Subtypes of COPD have distinct bacterial compositions and stabilities over time. Some exacerbation subtypes have non-random probabilities of repeating those subtypes in the future. This study provides insights pertaining to the identification of bacterial targets in the lung and biomarkers to classify COPD subtypes and to determine appropriate treatments for the patient. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Results, NCT01360398.

18.
Hypertension ; 71(3): 499-506, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358458

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity and cause of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A better understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients is needed to improve clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that such patients have increased arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and subclinical atherosclerosis compared with controls and that these findings would be independent of smoking status and other confounding factors. A total of 458 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1657 controls (43% were current or ex-smokers) with no airflow limitation were matched for age, sex, and body mass index. All individuals underwent assessments of carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and carotid intima-media thickness. The mean age of the cohort was 67±8 years and 58% were men. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased aortic pulse wave velocity (9.95±2.54 versus 9.27±2.41 m/s; P<0.001), augmentation index (28±10% versus 25±10%; P<0.001), and carotid intima-media thickness (0.83±0.19 versus 0.74±0.14 mm; P<0.001) compared with controls. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with increased levels of each vascular biomarker independently of physiological confounders, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In this large case-controlled study, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with increased arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and subclinical atherosclerosis, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that the cardiovascular burden observed in this condition may be mediated through these mechanisms and supports the concept that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

19.
Chron Respir Dis ; 15(4): 347-355, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334783

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystem disease that resembles the accumulation of multiple impairments seen in aging. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) captures multisystem deficits, from which a frailty index (FI) can be derived. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would be frailer than a comparator group free from respiratory disease. In this cross-sectional analysis, the CGA questionnaire was completed and used to derive an FI in 520 patients diagnosed with COPD and 150 comparators. All subjects were assessed for lung function, body composition, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), and handgrip strength. Patients completed validated questionnaires on health-related quality of life and respiratory symptoms. Patients and comparators were similar in age, gender, and body mass index, but patients had a greater mean ± SD FI 0.16 ± 0.08 than comparators 0.05 ± 0.03. In patients, a stepwise linear regression 6MWD ( ß = -0.43), number of comorbidities ( ß = -0.38), handgrip ( ß = -0.11), and number of exacerbations ( ß = 0.11) were predictors of frailty (all p < 0.01). This large study suggests patients with COPD are frailer than comparators. The FI derived from the CGA captures the deterioration of multiple systems in COPD and provides an overview of impairments, which may identify individuals at increased risk of morbidity and mortality in COPD.

20.
Thorax ; 73(4): 331-338, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that lung microbiome dysbiosis, the disease associated disruption of the lung microbial community, might play a key role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. However, characterising temporal variability of the microbiome from large longitudinal COPD cohorts is needed to better understand this phenomenon. METHODS: We performed a 16S ribosomal RNA survey of microbiome on 716 sputum samples collected longitudinally at baseline and exacerbations from 281 subjects with COPD at three UK clinical centres as part of the COPDMAP consortium. RESULTS: The microbiome composition was similar among centres and between stable and exacerbations except for a small significant decrease of Veillonella at exacerbations. The abundance of Moraxella was negatively associated with bacterial alpha diversity. Microbiomes were distinct between exacerbations associated with bacteria versus eosinophilic airway inflammation. Dysbiosis at exacerbations, measured as significant within subject deviation of microbial composition relative to baseline, was present in 41% of exacerbations. Dysbiosis was associated with increased exacerbation severity indicated by a greater fall in forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and a greater increase in CAT score, particularly in exacerbations with concurrent eosinophilic inflammation. There was a significant difference of temporal variability of microbial alpha and beta diversity among centres. The variation of beta diversity significantly decreased in those subjects with frequent historical exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Microbial dysbiosis is a feature of some exacerbations and its presence, especially in concert with eosinophilic inflammation, is associated with more severe exacerbations indicated by a greater fall in lung function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Results, NCT01620645.

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