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1.
Zoology (Jena) ; 150: 125985, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902689

RESUMO

We describe for the first time the displacement mechanism of migratory testis in Nyctinomops laticaudatus, which is little known in bats, in addition to histological analysis of its gonads. Data on testis anatomy and activity were obtained from 20 males. Males had migratory testes as they are displaced in the inguinal canals between intra and external abdominal positions. The displacement mechanism consisted of a testis ligament composed mainly of smooth muscle tissue attached to the cranial pole of the testis. Since the epididymis is closely tied to the testis, both organs are displaced together, regardless of the individual reproductive condition. Males and females showed seasonal monoestry, with a short mating period at the beginning of the dry season. The occurrence of breeding males was inversely proportional to rain and air temperature. At the mid-dry season, when air temperatures are also lower, males showed testis regressing, remaining in a reproductive hiatus for several months (rest/recrudescence) until the beginning of in the next dry season. Pregnant females were captured at the end of the dry season, and the birth of the young occurred during the rainy season, a time of greater food availability. Thus, females coordinated their reproductive phases to a more favorable period of the year for their survival and that of the offspring. Males associated their spermatogenic activity to a time of no environmental nor physiological restriction related to low air temperature.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Testículo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Espermatogênese
2.
Theriogenology ; 174: 73-84, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425303

RESUMO

Yellowish myotis is a Neotropical vespertilionid bat that presents a seasonal reproduction. The sperm is produced in the Mature stage, stored in the Regressed stage and released in the Rest stage (mating period). Aiming to understand, for the first time, the relationship between testis and epididymis physiology in yellowish myotis reproduction, the spermatogenesis length, sperm production, and seminal parameters were herein evaluated. Fifty-one adult male bats were captured in Santuário do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The gonads were collected in the Maturing and Mature stages for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses, whereas the epididymis was evaluated in all reproductive stages for seminal studies. Our results demonstrated that the yellowish myotis spermatogenic process is fast, lasting 31.70 ± 0.15 days. Despite the low Sertoli cell efficiency (6.60 ± 1.23), the high numbers of Sertoli cells per testis enable an elevated sperm production in the Mature stage. The sperm concentration, vitality, and motility presented the highest values in the Regressed stage; however, in this period, an increased incidence of sperm morphological defects was detected. In the following period (Rest stage), a drastic reduction of defective sperm was observed, suggesting quality control of sperm before the mating period. Furthermore, the epididymis ability to maintain a long-term sperm-storage was observed in 26.7% of the bats in the Maturing stage. In summary, yellowish myotis presented a fast and high sperm production during the Mature stage. These sperms are stored and selected before mating period.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Epididimo , Masculino , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides , Testículo
3.
Cell Tissue Res ; 382(3): 639-656, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686003

RESUMO

Myotis levis (yellowish myotis) is a small Neotropical insectivorous vespertilionid bat that provides valuable ecosystem services, such as control of disease vectors and agricultural pests. Aiming to describe the fluctuations of the reproductive organs throughout the year, the gonads and epididymis from 124 adult bats were histologically evaluated. These animals were captured in Santuário do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After the initial screening, six bats per reproductive stage (in a representative month) had specific organs harvested for further investigation. The gonads, epididymis, accessory sex gland and brown adipose tissue were collected for biometric analyses. Furthermore, yellowish myotis testis was evaluated through histomorphometric and molecular assays, whereas blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. The data were compared among the reproductive stages and correlated with rainfall distribution. As a result, we demonstrated that yellowish myotis presented a seasonal reproduction showing testis regression and rest, resembling the pattern exhibited by temperate-zone vespertilionid bats. During the Mature stage, after the peak of rainfall distribution, yellowish myotis testicles were fully developed for gamete production and maximum testosterone synthesis. These findings indicate a significant influence of this environmental factor on yellowish myotis reproduction. Following that, the accessory sex gland, brown adipose tissue and epididymis weights increased in the Regressed stage. The epididymis sperm storage occurred for at least 8 months and was observed in the Regressed, Rest and beginning of the Maturing stage. This reproductive fluctuation is interesting because the reactivation of the gonads coincided with the least amount of sperm in the epididymis.


Assuntos
Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Quirópteros , Masculino
4.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 19(3): e20180676, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038856

RESUMO

Abstract: We provide the first report of the frequency of leucism for a species of Neotropical bat. Leucism is an anomaly of the skin pigmentation of an animal that manifests itself as the total or partial loss of the natural color of the species, and can affect part of or the entire body. During a study involving capture and marking individuals of a population of A. geoffroyi residing in a cave in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, seven individuals with some degree of depigmentation were recorded out of 616 individuals marked, for a frequency of 1.1%. Since leucism is due to recessive gene expression, these findings may indicate that the population is isolated and possesses a high level of endogamy. Factors that may be responsible for this condition in the studied population remain unknown.


Resumo: Relatamos aqui o primeiro registro de frequência de leucismo em uma espécie de morcego Neotropical. Leucismo é uma anomalia na pigmentação da pele dos animais que consiste na perda total ou parcial da cor natural da espécie, podendo acometer partes ou todo o corpo do animal. Em um estudo de captura e marcação de indivíduos de uma população de A. geoffroyi abrigada em uma caverna localizada no estado de Minas Gerais, foram registrados sete indivíduos com algum grau de despigmentação dentre 616 indivíduos marcados, representando 1.1% da população. Leucismo é um tipo de anomalia de coloração de expressão gênica recessiva, portanto, esse resultado pode indicar isolamento da população e nível elevado de endogamia. Fatores que podem levar à esta condição nessa população são desconhecidos.

5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 147(1-3): 97-102, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22201044

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to assess whether free-ranging wild canids are exposed to heavy metals in one of the most developed and populated regions of Brazil. Hair of 26 wild canids (maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus, crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous, and hoary foxes Lycalopex vetulus) from the Cerrado biome in Southeast Brazil were analyzed by spectrophotometry to detect cadmium, chromium, and lead, and also the essential copper, iron, manganese, and zinc traces. All samples showed traces of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Non-essential lead was detected in 57% (2.35 ± 0.99 mg/kg), and chromium in 88% (2.98 ± 1.56 mg/kg) of samples. Cadmium traces (detection limit 0.8 mg/kg) were not found. Crab-eating foxes had more copper, iron, and manganese in hair than maned wolves. Correlations among element levels differed between maned wolves and crab-eating foxes. Concentrations of chromium and lead were outstandingly higher than in wild canids from other areas. Addressing the causes of such levels and the impacts of the heavy metal pollution in Neotropical ecosystems is urgent for animal health and conservation purposes. We argue that heavy metal pollution should be considered as dangerous threats to wildlife health in Brazil and recommend hair sampling as a biomonitoring tool for heavy metals in Neotropical terrestrial mammals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Cádmio/análise , Canidae , Cromo/análise , Cobre/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Manganês/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Zinco/análise
6.
Biodivers Conserv ; 19(12): 3513-3524, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214695

RESUMO

Wild canids are under many pressures, including habitat loss, fragmentation and disease. The current lack of information on the status of wildlife health may hamper conservation efforts in Brazil. In this paper, we examined the prevalence of canine pathogens in 21 free-ranging wild canids, comprising 12 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 7 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 2 Lycalopex vetulus (hoary fox), and 70 non-vaccinated domestic dogs from the Serra do Cipó National Park area, Southeast Brazil. For wild canids, seroprevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus, canine coronavirus and Toxoplasma gondii was 100 (21/21), 33 (7/21), 5 (1/19) and 68 (13/19) percent, respectively. Antibodies against canine distemper virus, Neospora caninum or Babesia spp. were not found. We tested domestic dogs for antibodies to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and Babesia spp., and seroprevalences were 59 (41/70), 66 (46/70), and 42 (40/70) percent, respectively, with significantly higher prevalence in domestic dogs for CDV (P < 0.001) and Babesia spp. (P = 0.002), and in wild canids for CPV (P < 0.001). We report for the first time evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus in wild hoary foxes, and Platynossomun sp. infection in wild maned wolves. Maned wolves are more exposed to helminths than crab-eating foxes, with a higher prevalence of Trichuridae and Ancylostomidae in the area. The most common ectoparasites were Amblyomma cajennense, A. tigrinum, and Pulex irritans. Such data is useful information on infectious diseases of Brazilian wild canids, revealing pathogens as a threat to wild canids in the area. Control measures are discussed.

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