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J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(7): 465-469, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614262


Objectives: Despite attentional deficits being a prominent feature of bipolar disorder, there are limited data on the effects of common treatments for bipolar disorder on attention. Thus, we sought to compare the effects of lithium versus quetiapine on attention in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Adolescents ages 10-17 with bipolar disorder, type I, who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode, were recruited from outpatient settings and the inpatient psychiatric units at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center during their first manic episode. Healthy comparison subjects were recruited from outreach programs in the community. Patients were randomized to lithium or quetiapine, administered in a double-dummy, double-blinded manner for 6 weeks. Attentional deficits were assessed in all groups using the Identical Pairs Continuous Performance Task at baseline and at week 6. Results: Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 79) had impaired attention relative to the healthy group (n = 57) at both baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. The lithium-treated group (n = 30) had poorer attentional performance than the healthy group at week 6. There was a difference in change in performance between lithium- and quetiapine-treated (n = 49) groups. Conclusion: Youth with bipolar disorder may have impaired attention relative to their healthy peers. Conclusions are limited by the high dropout rate in the lithium-treated group.

Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(8): 1369-1379, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353861


Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group versus HC, and between those of each psychiatric disorder and HC. As a group, relatives exhibited gray matter abnormalities in left supramarginal gyrus, right striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral insula, right cerebellum, and right superior frontal gyrus, compared with HC. Decreased right cerebellar gray matter was the only abnormality common to relatives of all three conditions. Subgroup analyses showed disorder-specific gray matter abnormalities in left thalamus and bilateral insula associated with risk for SCZ, in left supramarginal gyrus and right frontal regions with risk for BD, and in right striatum with risk for MDD. While decreased gray matter in right cerebellum might be a common brain structural abnormality associated with shared risk for SCZ, BD, and MDD, regional gray matter abnormalities in neocortex, thalamus, and striatum appear to be disorder-specific.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008167


Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders, but strategies to predict mood episodes are unavailable. In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline 1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr) levels were calculated. SVM with a linear kernel was adopted to classify converters and non-converters based on their baseline metabolites. SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters across all regions for Cho (accuracy = 76.0%), but not for other metabolites. Considering all metabolites within each region, SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters for left VLPFC (accuracy = 76.5%), but not for right VLPFC or ACC. The combined mI, PCr + Cr, and Cho from left VLPFC achieved the highest accuracy differentiating converters from non-converters (79.0%). Our findings from this exploratory study suggested that 1H-MRS levels of mI, Cho, and PCr + Cr from left VLPFC might be useful to predict the development of first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring using machine learning. Future studies that prospectively examine and validate these metabolites as predictors of mood episodes in high-risk individuals are necessary.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 286: 53-59, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903953


We examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) treatment on ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) and striatal brain activation in binge eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that participants with BED have an abnormal brain response to palatable food cues, and that VPFC and striatal regions would respond to such cues after LDX treatment. Twenty women with moderate to severe BED consented to a 12-week, open-label trial of LDX with fMRI before and after treatment. Twenty obese women without BED served as healthy controls and received one fMRI. LDX was started at 30 mg/d with a target of 70 mg/d at week 12. At baseline, women with BED showed greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), striatum, and globus pallidus to food pictures and brain activation to food pictures predicted clinical outcome at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of LDX treatment, BED women showed significant reductions in globus pallidus activation. Reductions in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and thalamus activation specifically correlated with binge eating and obsessive-compulsive symptom reductions, respectively. Results suggest that BED is characterized by an abnormally large VPFC-subcortical brain response to palatable foods that LDX treatment helps modify. Moreover, VPFC-subcortical activation at baseline is a potential biomarker of LDX response.

Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(11): 2256-2263, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946107


The need for treatment response predictive biomarkers is being increasingly recognized in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Structural gray matter abnormalities as a predictor of treatment outcome in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been systematically investigated, especially early in the illness course. With a prospective longitudinal study design, the present study enrolled 52 bipolar adolescents with no history of treatment with mood stabilizers or a therapeutic dose of antipsychotic drugs and 31 healthy controls. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with quetiapine or lithium after pretreatment data collection. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using pretreatment cortical thickness data that identified two discrete patient subgroups. Compared to healthy subjects, patients in subgroup 1 (n = 16) showed widespread greater cortical thickness mainly across heteromodal cortex but also involving some regions of unimodal cortex, while those in subgroup 2 (n = 36) showed regional cortical thinning mainly in superior temporal and superior parietal regions. Patients within subgroup 1 showed a significantly higher response rate to quetiapine than those in subgroup 2 (100% vs 53%). No statistically significant difference was found in lithium response rate between the patient subgroups (63% vs 53%). Pretreatment clinical ratings and neuropsychological data did not differ across subgroups. Our findings suggest the existence of distinct and clinically relevant subgroups of pediatric bipolar patients, as defined by pattern of cortical thickness. These groups appear to differentially respond to antipsychotic treatment-notably with greater cortical thickness relative to controls predicting better treatment response.

Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Carbonato de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Carbonato de Lítio/farmacologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento