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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472013

RESUMO

In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) monitoring can be used to genotype tumors and track clonal evolution. We investigated the clearance of RAS mutated clones under chemotherapy pressure by ctDNA analysis in patients with a RAS mutated mCRC. Patients with a RAS mutated tumor included in the prospective PLACOL study, were monitored for ctDNA. Analyzes were based on optimized targeted next generation sequencing and/or droplet-based digital PCR (ddPCR). For plasma samples without detectable mutations at progression disease, we tested the methylation status of WIF1 and NPY genes using methylation-ddPCR (met-ddPCR) to validate the presence of ctDNA. Among the 36 patients with positive plasma samples for RAS mutations at inclusion, 28 (77.8%) remained RAS positive at disease progression, and 8 (22.2%) became negative. Subsequent met-ddPCR for methylated markers showed that only 2 out of the 8 patients with RAS negative plasma had detectable ctDNA at progression. Therefore, only two samples among 36 were confirmed for clearance of RAS mutation in our series. In conclusion, this study suggests that the clearance of RAS mutations in patients treated by chemotherapy for a RAS mutated mCRC is a rare event. Monitoring tumor mutations in plasma samples should be combined with a strict control of the presence of ctDNA. The therapeutic impacts of RAS clearance need to be further explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900456, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

3.
Acta Cytol ; 63(6): 449-455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091522

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy provides the opportunity of detecting, analyzing and monitoring cancer in various body effluents such as blood or urine instead of a fragment of cancer tissue. It is composed of different biological matrices such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell free nucleic acids, exosomes or tumors "educated platelets." In addition to representing a non- or minimally invasive procedure, it should represent a better view of tumor heterogeneity and allows for real-time monitoring of cancer evolution. Recent technological and molecular advances, greatly facilitated by the use of microfluidics in many cases, have permitted large progresses both in our ability to purify and analyze liquid biopsy components. In particular, the great developments of droplet-based digital PCR and the various optimizations of next generation sequencing technologies are central to the several validations of CTC-free DNA as a strong cancer biomarker. However, complete adoption of liquid biopsy in clinics will require pursuing recent efforts in the standardization of procedures both on the pre-analytical and analytical aspects.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

7.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 76(5): 505-523, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226193

RESUMO

Digital PCR (dPCR) is a 3rd generation technology that complements traditional end-point PCR and real-time PCR. It was developed to overcome certain limitations of conventional amplification techniques, in particular for the detection of small amounts of nucleic acids and/or rare variants. This technology is in a full swing because of its high sensitivity and major applications in various domains such as oncology, transplantation or non-invasive prenatal testing. Consequently, PCRd also has great interest in many areas of medical biology, particularly for clinical applications aiming at detecting and quantifying specific genetic or epigenetic alterations of nucleic acids, even with specimens containing very low concentration of the nucleic acids of interest (e.g. liquid biopsies). However, this technique requires a good training of users and compliance with certain precautions. A lack in such a knowledge can lead to many errors in the conduct of the experiment and the interpretation of the results. In this review, we present the context in which this technology has emerged by describing in particular its principle and the main factors that can influence the quality of the analysis. Then, we propose a number of practical recommendations for the implementation of a test based on dPCR in clinical laboratories with an eye on quality requirements.

8.
Clin Chem ; 64(9): 1296-1307, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing of tumor tissue and circulating cell-free DNA for somatic variants guides patient treatment of many cancers. Such measurements will be fundamental in the future support of precision medicine. However, there are currently no primary reference measurement procedures available for nucleic acid quantification that would support translation of tests for circulating tumor DNA into routine use. METHODS: We assessed the accuracy of digital PCR (dPCR) for copy number quantification of a frequently occurring single-nucleotide variant in colorectal cancer (KRAS c.35G>A, p.Gly12Asp, from hereon termed G12D) by evaluating potential sources of uncertainty that influence dPCR measurement. RESULTS: Concentration values for samples of KRAS G12D and wild-type plasmid templates varied by <1.2-fold when measured using 5 different assays with varying detection chemistry (hydrolysis, scorpion probes, and intercalating dyes) and <1.3-fold with 4 commercial dPCR platforms. Measurement trueness of a selected dPCR assay and platform was validated by comparison with an orthogonal method (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The candidate dPCR reference measurement procedure showed linear quantification over a wide range of copies per reaction and high repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility (CV, 2%-8% and 5%-10%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This work validates dPCR as an SI-traceable reference measurement procedure based on enumeration and demonstrates how it can be applied for assignment of copy number concentration and fractional abundance values to DNA reference materials in an aqueous solution. High-accuracy measurements using dPCR will support the implementation and traceable standardization of molecular diagnostic procedures needed for advancements in precision medicine.

10.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 17(2): e369-e379, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies, although contributing to survival improvement in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), are expensive and may cause adverse effects. Therefore, confirming that patients are responding to these therapies is extremely important. Currently, follow-up is performed using radiographic evaluation, which has its limitations. Liquid biopsies, reflecting real-time tumor characteristics, hold great potential in monitoring tumor disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected at different time points during treatment of 24 mCRC patients. Mutation and NPY methylation picoliter droplet-based digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were performed on circulating DNA to investigate whether these assays can be used for disease monitoring. RESULTS: The results of the mutation and methylation assays were correlated with each other and corresponded with the results of radiographic evaluation. There was a steep decrease in circulating tumor DNA levels immediately after treatment initiation. Furthermore, circulating tumor DNA levels were increased in progressive samples and were undetectable in patients undergoing curative surgery. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that tumor-specific mutation and NPY methylation ddPCR assays performed on circulating DNA can be used for the follow-up of mCRC patients during treatment and could complement current follow-up methods. The analysis of NPY methylation is promising, as it has the additional advantage that no prior knowledge of tumor mutations is needed.

11.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 42(5): 396-402, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627453

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a major health burden with a prognosis that has been improved with the progresses in diagnosis and the advance of chemotherapy and personalized medicine. However, because of intra-tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and selection, tumors often develop resistance to treatments. "Liquid biopsy" is a minimally invasive method, based on analysis of tumor-specific material in peripheral blood samples of patients. Analysis of tumor specific genetic or epigenetic alterations in cell-free circulating nucleic acids may reflect the molecular heterogeneity of the underlying disease process and serial testing could allow to monitor its temporal genomic changing without using re-biopsy. In this review, we focused on the role of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker in the management of patients with colorectal cancer at early and advanced stages. Through recent studies, we described its promising clinical applications for diagnosis, detection of recurrence after surgery and monitoring for tumor response or therapeutic resistance in metastatic setting. Such recent developments offer new perspectives for personalized medicine in colorectal cancer but still needs some standardized detection methods and further studies to validate its use in clinical routine.

12.
Anal Chem ; 90(6): 3766-3774, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498256

RESUMO

We describe a technology to perform sizing and concentration analysis of double stranded DNA with a sensitivity of 10 fg/µL in an operating time of 20 min. The technology is operated automatically on a commercial capillary electrophoresis instrument using electro-hydrodynamic actuation. It relies on a new capillary device that achieves online concentration of DNA at the junction between two capillaries of different diameters, thanks to viscoelastic lift forces. Using a set of DNA ladders in the range of 100-1500 bp, we report a sizing accuracy and precision better than 3% and a concentration quantification precision of ∼20%. When the technology is applied to the analysis of clinical samples of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the measured cfDNA concentrations are in good correlation with those measured by digital PCR. Furthermore, the cfDNA size profiles indicate that the fraction of low molecular weight cfDNA in the range of 75-240 bp is a candidate biomarker to discriminate between healthy subjects and cancer patients. We conclude that our technology is efficient in analyzing highly diluted DNA samples and suggest that it will be helpful in translational and clinical research involving cfDNA.

14.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 18(1): 7-17, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early detection of cancers through the analysis of ctDNA could have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. However, using ctDNA for early cancer diagnosis is challenging partly due to the low amount of tumor DNA released in the circulation and its dilution within DNA originating from non-tumor cells. Development of new technologies such as droplet-based digital PCR (ddPCR) or optimized next generation sequencing (NGS) has greatly improved the sensitivity, specificity and precision for the detection of rare sequences. Areas covered: This paper will focus on the potential application of ddPCR and optimized NGS to detect ctDNA for detection of cancer recurrence and minimal residual disease as well as early diagnosis of cancer patients. Expert commentary: Compared to tumor tissue biopsies, blood-based ctDNA analyses are minimally invasive and accessible for regular follow-up of cancer patients. They are also described as a better picture of patients' pathology allowing to highlight both tumor heterogeneity and multiple tumor sites. After a brief introduction on the application of the follow-up of ctDNA using genetic or epigenetic biomarkers for prognosis and surveillance of cancer patients, potential perspectives of using ctDNA for early diagnosis of cancers will be presented.

15.
Nat Protoc ; 12(9): 1912-1932, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837132

RESUMO

Biochemical systems in which multiple components take part in a given reaction are of increasing interest. Because the interactions between these different components are complex and difficult to predict from basic reaction kinetics, it is important to test for the effect of variations in the concentration for each reagent in a combinatorial manner. For example, in PCR, an increase in the concentration of primers initially increases template amplification, but large amounts of primers result in primer-dimer by-products that inhibit the amplification of the template. Manual titration of biochemical mixtures rapidly becomes costly and laborious, forcing scientists to settle for suboptimal concentrations. Here we present a droplet-based microfluidics platform for mapping of the concentration space of up to three reaction components followed by detection with a fluorescent readout. The concentration of each reaction component is read through its internal standard (barcode), which is fluorescent but chemically orthogonal. We describe in detail the workflow, which comprises the following: (i) production of the microfluidics chips, (ii) preparation of the biochemical mixes, (iii) their mixing and compartmentalization into water-in-oil emulsion droplets via microfluidics, (iv) incubation and imaging of the fluorescent barcode and reporter signals by fluorescence microscopy and (v) image processing and data analysis. We also provide recommendations for choosing the appropriate fluorescent markers, programming the pressure profiles and analyzing the generated data. Overall, this platform allows a researcher with a few weeks of training to acquire ∼10,000 data points (in a 1D, 2D or 3D concentration space) over the course of a day from as little as 100-1,000 µl of reaction mix.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/instrumentação , Bioensaio/métodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Titulometria/instrumentação , Titulometria/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tensoativos/química
16.
Blood ; 130(2): 176-180, 2017 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566492

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and the non-LCH neoplasm Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) are heterogeneous neoplastic disorders marked by infiltration of pathologic macrophage-, dendritic cell-, or monocyte-derived cells in tissues driven by recurrent mutations activating MAPK signaling. Although recent data indicate that at least a proportion of LCH and ECD patients have detectable activating kinase mutations in circulating hematopoietic cells and bone marrow-based hematopoietic progenitors, functional evidence of the cell of origin of histiocytosis from actual patient materials has long been elusive. Here, we provide evidence for mutations in MAPK signaling intermediates in CD34+ cells from patients with ECD and LCH/ECD, including detection of shared origin of LCH and acute myelomonocytic leukemia driven by TET2-mutant CD34+ cell progenitors in one patient. We also demonstrate functional self-renewal capacity for CD34+ cells to drive the development of histiocytosis in xenotransplantation assays in vivo. These data indicate that the cell of origin of at least a proportion of patients with systemic histiocytoses resides in hematopoietic progenitor cells prior to committed monocyte/macrophage or dendritic cell differentiation and provide the first example of a patient-derived xenotransplantation model for a human histiocytic neoplasm.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Antígenos CD34/genética , Antígenos CD34/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/genética , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/imunologia , Transplante Heterólogo
17.
Trends Biotechnol ; 35(8): 713-727, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633993

RESUMO

Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers. In this review, we assess its use and relevance for omics analysis at the single-cell level, with a specific focus on compartment-based microfluidic approaches.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Animais , Humanos
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(18): 5416-5425, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576867

RESUMO

Purpose: Markers of chemotherapy efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are essential for optimization of treatment strategies. We evaluated the applicability of early changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a marker of therapeutic efficacy.Experimental Design: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with mCRC receiving a first- or second-line chemotherapy. CtDNA was assessed in plasma collected before the first (C0), second (C1) and/or third (C2) chemotherapy cycle, using picodroplet-digital PCR assays based either on detection of gene mutation (KRAS, BRAF, TP53) or hypermethylation (WIF1, NPY). CT scans were centrally assessed using RECIST v1.1 criteria. Multivariate analyses were adjusted on age, gender, ECOG performance status (PS), metastatic synchronicity, and treatment line.Results: Eighty-two patients with mCRC treated in first- (82.9%) or second- (17.1%) line chemotherapy were included. Patients with a high (>10 ng/mL) versus low (≤0.1 ng/mL) ctDNA concentration at C0 had a shorter overall survival (OS; 6.8 vs. 33.4 months: adjusted HR, 5.64; 95% CI, 2.5-12.6; P < 0.0001). By analyzing the evolution of the ctDNA concentration between C0 and C2 or C1 (C2or1), we classified the patients in two groups (named "good" or "bad ctDNA responders"). In multivariate analysis, patients belonging to the group called "good ctDNA responder" (n = 58) versus "bad ctDNA responder" (n = 15) had a better objective response rate (P < 0.001), and a longer median progression-free survival (8.5 vs. 2.4 months: HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.40; P < 0.0001) and OS (27.1 vs. 11.2 months: HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.57; P < 0.001).Conclusions: This study suggests that early change in ctDNA concentration is a marker of therapeutic efficacy in patients with mCRC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5416-25. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
Target Oncol ; 12(3): 365-371, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has been reported as a prognostic marker in melanoma. In BRAF V600-mutant melanoma, a plasma under-exposure to vemurafenib could favor emerging resistance but no biological data are available to support this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vemurafenib plasma concentrations and the ctDNA plasma concentration during follow-up of BRAF-mutated melanoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients treated with single-agent vemurafenib for advanced BRAF V600-mutant melanoma were analyzed in an exploratory monocentric study. The vemurafenib plasma concentration was measured by liquid chromatography. ctDNA was extracted from plasma samples and the ctDNA concentration was evaluated using picoliter droplet-based digital PCR with Taqman® detection probes targeting the BRAF p.V600E/K mutation and wild-type BRAF sequences. RESULTS: At baseline, plasma ctDNA was detectable in 72% (n = 8/11) of patients and the ctDNA concentration decreased in 88% of these patients (n = 7/8) from day (D) 0 to D15 after vemurafenib initiation. During follow-up, an increased ctDNA concentration was detected in nine patients: in five patients, the first increase in ctDNA concentrations followed a decrease in vemurafenib concentrations. More interestingly, an inverse correlation between vemurafenib concentration and ctDNA concentrations was demonstrated (p = 0.026). The ctDNA concentration at baseline was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.61, 95% CI 1.04-6.56; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the relevance of vemurafenib plasma monitoring during the follow-up of metastatic melanoma patients. Plasma drug monitoring and ctDNA concentrations could be combined to monitor tumor evolution in melanoma patients treated with anti-BRAF therapies.


Assuntos
DNA/sangue , Indóis/sangue , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sulfonamidas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Vemurafenib
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1366, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465615

RESUMO

Droplet-based microfluidics is extensively and increasingly used for high-throughput single-cell studies. However, the accuracy of the cell counting method directly impacts the robustness of such studies. We describe here a simple and precise method to accurately count a large number of adherent and non-adherent human cells as well as bacteria. Our microfluidic hemocytometer provides statistically relevant data on large populations of cells at a high-throughput, used to characterize cell encapsulation and cell viability during incubation in droplets.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Células HL-60 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação
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