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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002953, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased metabolic risk, though data on long-term follow-up of cardiometabolic traits are limited. We postulated that Chinese women with PCOS would have higher risk of incident diabetes and cardiometabolic abnormalities than those without PCOS during long-term follow-up. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One hundred ninety-nine Chinese women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria and with a mean age of 41.2 years (SD = 6.4) completed a follow-up evaluation after an average of 10.6 ± 1.3 years. Two hundred twenty-five women without PCOS (mean age: 54.1 ± 6.7 years) who underwent baseline and follow-up evaluation over the same period were used for comparison. Progression of glycaemic status of women both with and without PCOS was assessed by using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) screening with the adoption of 2009 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. The frequency of impaired glucose regulation, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia of women with PCOS at follow-up has increased from 31.7% (95% CI 25.2%-38.1%) to 47.2% (95% CI 40.3%-54.2%), 16.1% (95% CI 11.0%-21.2%) to 34.7% (95% CI 28.1%-41.3%), and 52.3% (95% CI 45.3%-59.2%) to 64.3% (95% CI 57.7%-71.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in follow-up women with PCOS is 26.1% (95% CI 20.0%-32.2%), almost double that in the cohort of women without PCOS (p < 0.001). Age-standardised incidence of diabetes among women with PCOS was 22.12 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 10.86-33.37) compared with the local female population incidence rate of 8.76 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 8.72-8.80) and 10.09 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 4.92-15.26, p < 0.001) for women without PCOS in our study. Incidence rate for women with PCOS aged 30-39 years was 20.56 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 12.57-31.87), which is approximately 10-fold higher than that of the age-matched general female population in Hong Kong (1.88 per 1,000 person-years, [95% CI 1.85-1.92]). The incidence rate of type 2 DM (T2DM) of both normal-weight and overweight women with PCOS was around double that of corresponding control groups (normal weight: 8.96 [95% CI 3.92-17.72] versus 4.86 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 2.13-9.62], p > 0.05; overweight/obese: 28.64 [95% CI 19.55-40.60] versus 14.1 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 8.20-22.76], p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified that baseline waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71 [95% CI 1.08-2.69], p < 0.05) and elevated triglyceride (OR = 6.63 [95% CI 1.23-35.69], p < 0.05) are associated with the progression to T2DM in PCOS. Limitations of this study include moderate sample size with limited number of incident diabetes during follow-up period and potential selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: High risk of diabetes and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chinese women with PCOS are highlighted in this long-term follow-up study. Diabetes onset was, on average, 10 years earlier among women with PCOS than in women without PCOS.

2.
Kidney Int ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415941

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), yet the natural history of diabetic kidney disease is not well understood. We aimed to identify patterns of estimated GFR (eGFR) trajectory and to determine the clinical and genetic factors and their associations of these different patterns with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Among 6330 patients with baseline eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the Hong Kong Diabetes Register, a total of 456 patients (7.2%) developed Stage 5 chronic kidney disease or ESRD over a median follow-up of 13 years (incidence rate 5.6 per 1000 person-years). Joint latent class modeling was used to identify different patterns of eGFR trajectory. Four distinct and non-linear trajectories of eGFR were identified: slow decline (84.3% of patients), curvilinear decline (6.5%), progressive decline (6.1%) and accelerated decline (3.1%). Microalbuminuria and retinopathy were associated with accelerated eGFR decline, which was itself associated with all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.6-8.4 for comparison with slow eGFR decline). Of 68 candidate genetic loci evaluated, the inclusion of five loci (rs11803049, rs911119, rs1933182, rs11123170, and rs889472) improved the prediction of eGFR trajectories (net reclassification improvement 0.232; 95% CI: 0.057--0.406). Our study highlights substantial heterogeneity in the patterns of eGFR decline among patients with diabetic kidney disease, and identifies associated clinical and genetic factors that may help to identify those who are more likely to experience an accelerated decline in kidney function.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 216(1): 97-104, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510725

RESUMO

Background: We examined associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFITM3, TLR3, and CD55 genes and influenza clinical outcomes in Chinese. Methods: A multicenter study was conducted on 275 adult cases of avian (H7N9) and pandemic (H1N1pdm09) influenza. Host DNA was extracted from diagnostic respiratory samples; IFITM3 rs12252, TLR3 rs5743313, CD55 rs2564978, and TLR4 rs4986790/4986791 were targeted for genotyping (Sanger sequencing). The primary outcome analyzed was death. Results: IFITM3 and TLR3 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; their allele frequencies (IFITM3/C-allele 0.56, TLR3/C-allele 0.88) were comparable to 1000 Genomes Han Chinese data. We found over-representation of homozygous IFITM3 CC (54.5% vs 33.2%; P = .02) and TLR3 CC (93.3% vs 76.9%; P = .04) genotypes among fatal cases. Recessive genetic models showed their significant independent associations with higher death risks (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-6.02, and aHR 4.85, 95% CI 1.11-21.06, respectively). Cumulative effects were found (aHR 3.53, 95% CI 1.64-7.59 per risk genotype; aHR 9.99, 95% CI 1.27-78.59 with both). Results were consistent for each influenza subtype and other severity indicators. The CD55 TT genotype was linked to severity. TLR4 was nonpolymorphic. Conclusions: Host genetic factors may influence clinical outcomes of avian and pandemic influenza infections. Such findings have important implications on disease burden and patient care in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD55/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
Nature ; 538(7624): 248-252, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27680694

RESUMO

Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attributed to the impact of an adverse early life environment. Here, we performed a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of BW in 153,781 individuals, identifying 60 loci where fetal genotype was associated with BW (P < 5 × 10-8). Overall, approximately 15% of variance in BW was captured by assays of fetal genetic variation. Using genetic association alone, we found strong inverse genetic correlations between BW and systolic blood pressure (Rg = -0.22, P = 5.5 × 10-13), T2D (Rg = -0.27, P = 1.1 × 10-6) and coronary artery disease (Rg = -0.30, P = 6.5 × 10-9). In addition, using large -cohort datasets, we demonstrated that genetic factors were the major contributor to the negative covariance between BW and future cardiometabolic risk. Pathway analyses indicated that the protein products of genes within BW-associated regions were enriched for diverse processes including insulin signalling, glucose homeostasis, glycogen biosynthesis and chromatin remodelling. There was also enrichment of associations with BW in known imprinted regions (P = 1.9 × 10-4). We demonstrate that life-course associations between early growth phenotypes and adult cardiometabolic disease are in part the result of shared genetic effects and identify some of the pathways through which these causal genetic effects are mediated.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Genótipo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e84770, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465431

RESUMO

In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD) is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4 × 10(-5)). Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02). In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802) with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, P(meta)  = 0.012). In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953), rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019) for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214) and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e62378, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23776430

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing, stabilization and degradation can cause excessive oligomerization with beta cell toxicity. Previous studies examining genetic associations of pathways implicated in IAPP metabolism have yielded conflicting results due to small sample size, insufficient interrogation of gene structure and gene-gene interactions. In this multi-staged study, we screened 89 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes implicated in IAPP metabolism and tested for independent and joint associations with T2D and beta cell dysfunctions. Positive signals in the stage-1 were confirmed by de novo and in silico analysis in a multi-centre unrelated case-control cohort. We examined the association of significant SNPs with quantitative traits in a subset of controls and performed bioinformatics and relevant functional analyses. Amongst the tag SNPs, rs1583645 in carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and rs6583813 in insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) were associated with 1.09 to 1.28 fold increased risk of T2D (P Meta = 9.4×10(-3) and 0.02 respectively) in a meta-analysis of East Asians. Using genetic risk scores (GRS) with each risk variant scoring 1, subjects with GRS≥3 (8.2% of the cohort) had 56% higher risk of T2D than those with GRS = 0 (P = 0.01). In a subcohort of control subjects, plasma IAPP increased and beta cell function index declined with GRS (P = 0.008 and 0.03 respectively). Bioinformatics and functional analyses of CPE rs1583645 predicted regulatory elements for chromatin modification and transcription factors, suggesting differential DNA-protein interactions and gene expression. Taken together, these results support the importance of dysregulation of IAPP metabolism in T2D in East Asians.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase H/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Insulisina/genética , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 5(7): e11428, 2010 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20628598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B), islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (G6PC2), glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) as candidate genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D) acting through elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). We examined the associations of the reported common variants of these genes with T2D and glucose homeostasis in three independent Chinese cohorts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), MTNR1B rs10830963, G6PC2 rs16856187 and rs478333, GCK rs1799884 and GCKR rs780094, were genotyped in 1644 controls (583 adults and 1061 adolescents) and 1342 T2D patients. The G-allele of MTNR1B rs10830963 and the C-alleles of both G6PC2 rs16856187 and rs478333 were associated with higher FPG (0.0034

Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Glucoquinase/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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