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1.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(8): 1351-1360, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine missing data in FFQ and to assess the effects on estimating dietary intake by comparing between multiple imputation and zero imputation. DESIGN: We used data from the Okazaki Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. A self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ was implemented at baseline (FFQ1) and 5-year follow-up (FFQ2). Missing values in FFQ2 were replaced by corresponding FFQ1 values, multiple imputation and zero imputation. SETTING: A methodological sub-study of the Okazaki J-MICC study.ParticipantsOf a total of 7585 men and women aged 35-79 years at baseline, we analysed data for 5120 participants who answered all items in FFQ1 and at least 50% of items in FFQ2. RESULTS: Among 5120 participants, the proportion of missing data was 3·7%. The increasing number of missing food items in FFQ2 varied with personal characteristics. Missing food items not eaten often in FFQ2 were likely to represent zero intake in FFQ1. Most food items showed that the observed proportion of zero intake was likely to be similar to the probability that the missing value is zero intake. Compared with FFQ1 values, multiple imputation had smaller differences of total energy and nutrient estimates, except for alcohol, than zero imputation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that missing values due to zero intake, namely missing not at random, in FFQ can be predicted reasonably well from observed data. Multiple imputation performed better than zero imputation for most nutrients and may be applied to FFQ data when missing is low.

3.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 5(2): 152-63, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683872

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by the degeneration of spinal motor neurons. This disease is mainly caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Currently, no effective treatment is available, and only symptomatic treatment can be provided. Our purpose in the present study was to establish a human SMA-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (SMA-iPSC) disease model and assay a therapeutic drug in preparation for the development of a novel treatment of SMA. We generated iPSCs from the skin fibroblasts of a patient with SMA and confirmed that they were pluripotent and undifferentiated. The neural differentiation of SMA-iPSCs shortened the dendrite and axon length and increased the apoptosis of the spinal motor neurons. In addition, we found activated astrocytes in differentiated SMA-iPSCs. Using this model, we confirmed that treatment with the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, 5-oxo-l-prolyl-l-histidyl-l-prolinamide, which had marginal effects in clinical trials, increases the SMN protein level. This increase was mediated through the transcriptional activation of the SMN2 gene and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß activity. Finally, the TRH analog treatment resulted in dendrite and axon development of spinal motor neurons in differentiated SMA-iPSCs. These results suggest that this human in vitro disease model stimulates SMA pathology and reveal the potential efficacy of TRH analog treatment for SMA. Therefore, we can screen novel therapeutic drugs such as TRH for SMA easily and effectively using the human SMA-iPSC model. Significance: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has recently been reported to produce the greatest increase in survival motor neuron protein levels by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß; however, motor neurons lack PDGF receptors. A human in vitro spinal muscular atrophy-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model was established, which showed that the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analog promoted transcriptional activation of the SMN2 gene and inhibition of GSK-3ß activity, resulting in the increase and stabilization of the SMN protein and axon elongation of spinal motor neurons. These results reveal the potential efficacy of TRH analog treatment for SMA.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/agonistas , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/uso terapêutico , Ativação Transcricional
4.
Tob Control ; 23(3): 253-6, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23355625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Having a lighter skin tone is highly valued among many Asian women. If skin colour is affected by smoking, women may be motivated to avoid tobacco or quit smoking. The present study examined the association of tobacco smoking with skin colour in Japanese women. METHOD: Information on smoking habits was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by 939 Japanese women aged 20-74 in Gifu, Japan, during 2003-2006. Skin colour was examined on the inner side of the upper and lower arm and on the forehead using a Mexameter device (a narrow-band reflective spectrophotometer), which expressed results as a melanin index and erythema index. RESULTS: Current smokers had higher melanin indices than never-smokers and former smokers for all measured sites. The number of cigarettes smoked per day, the years of smoking and pack-years were significantly positively associated with melanin indices for all measured sites after adjustments for age, body mass index, lifetime sun exposure, and room temperature and humidity. Smoking was also significantly associated with erythema indices on the inner upper and lower arms. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that smoking is associated with a darker skin colour. If our findings are confirmed by further studies, they could be used in antismoking campaigns or by smoking cessation services.


Assuntos
Cor , Eritema/etiologia , Melaninas/análise , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Braço , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Valores Sociais
5.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 122(11): 701-6, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24358631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are few studies about the association between tinnitus and sleep disorders in the general population worldwide. This study assessed this association in a Japanese community. METHODS: A total of 14,027 participants 45 to 79 years of age who were in the Takayama Study responded to a self-administered questionnaire about tinnitus and sleep disorders. RESULTS: Of this population, 13.3% of men and 10.6% of women had current tinnitus. The percentages of insomnia, respectively, among individuals with and without tinnitus were 28.1% in men and 36.1% in women and 18.8% in men and 21.5% in women. There were 1.7-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.1) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.2) increases in the odds ratios (ORs) of insomnia for those with tinnitus compared with those without tinnitus in men and women, respectively. Loud or very loud tinnitus was associated with 2.8-fold (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.3) and 3.3-fold (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.6) increases in the OR of insomnia in men and women, respectively. Even low (ie, quiet) or moderate tinnitus was significantly associated with insomnia. Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and a poor perceived quality of sleep were also significantly associated with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia and other sleep disorders were significantly associated with tinnitus in Japanese adults.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Zumbido/etiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 178(8): 1226-32, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24008908

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, isoleucine, and valine, has shown potential benefits for the metabolic profile. However, higher blood BCAA levels have been associated with insulin resistance. To our knowledge, there has been no study on dietary BCAAs and the risk of diabetes. We examined the association between BCAA intake and risk of diabetes in a population-based cohort study in Japan. A total of 13,525 residents of Takayama City, Japan, who enrolled in a cohort study in 1992 responded to a follow-up questionnaire seeking information about diabetes in 2002. Diet at baseline was assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. A high intake of BCAAs in terms of percentage of total protein was significantly associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in women after controlling for covariates; the hazard ratio for the highest tertile versus the lowest was 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.90; P-trend = 0.02). In men, leucine intake was significantly marginally associated with the risk of diabetes; the hazard ratio for the highest tertile versus the lowest was 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.02; P-trend = 0.06). Data suggest that a high intake of BCAAs may be associated with a decrease in the risk of diabetes.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Leucina/farmacologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Escolaridade , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valina/farmacologia
7.
Cancer Sci ; 104(10): 1362-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23859808

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of site-specific cancers; however, few studies have assessed associations of DM with both total and site-specific cancers in Japan. We examined the association of a history of DM with cancer incidence in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. A total of 14 173 men and 16 547 women over 35 years old, who completed a self-administered baseline questionnaire in 1992, were followed up for cancer incidence from September 1992 to March 2008. At baseline, 6.3% men and 2.9% women had a history of diabetes. A total of 1974 men and 1514 women were identified as newly diagnosed with cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. After controlling for potential confounders, men with DM had a modest risk increase of total cancer occurrence compared with those without DM (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93-1.29). Increased risk of cancer of the liver (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.27-3.74), bile duct (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.01-4.66), and larynx (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.16-11.2) in diabetic men were observed. In women, significant increased risk of total cancer (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73) and stomach cancer (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.30-3.54) were observed among diabetic subjects. These data suggest that people with DM may be at increased risk of both total and some site-specific cancers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 23(8): 469-74, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23889856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the associations of sleep disturbance and sleep time with behavioral problems and to assess whether endogenous melatonin was associated with sleep-related factors and behavioral problems. METHODS: Subjects were 234 boys and 203 girls, aged 3-6 years, in a cross-sectional study in Japan in 2006. Information related to children's sleep disturbance, sleep time, and behavioral problems was obtained from parent-administered questionnaires. Children's behavioral problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels in first-void morning urine were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: After multiple adjustments for covariates, children who often snore at night (P = .011), awake at night (P = .019), and looked tired in the daytime (P = .041) had a higher total difficulties score. Earlier time of waking (trend P = .021) and earlier time for bed (trend P = .014) were associated with a lower total difficulties score. Children with higher creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin had lower total difficulties scores (trend P = .011). There were no associations between creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and sleep-related factors. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbance, later times of sleeping and waking up, and lower melatonin levels might be involved in the development of pediatric behavioral disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Melatonina/deficiência , Melatonina/urina , Radioimunoensaio
9.
Int J Cancer ; 133(4): 952-60, 2013 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23389819

RESUMO

The effects of soy or isoflavone intake on breast cancer need to be examined further in epidemiologic studies. We assessed the associations of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were members from the Takayama study, aged 35 years or older in 1992. The follow-up was conducted from the time of the baseline study (September 1, 1992) to the end of March 2008. Cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries. Breast cancer was defined as code C50 according to ICD-10. Soy and isoflavone intakes were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using the Cox proportional hazard models, the association of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer was assessed after adjustments for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, age at menarche, age at first delivery, menopausal status, number of children and history of hormone replacement therapy. Among the 15,607 women analyzed, 172 had developed breast cancer. The relative risks of postmenopausal breast cancer were lower among women with higher intakes of soy (trend p = 0.023) and isoflavone (trend p = 0.046), although the relative risks of premenopausal breast cancer were not associated with intakes of soy and isoflavone. Decreased risks of breast cancer were found even among women with a moderate intake of soy and isoflavone. These results suggested that soy and isoflavone intakes have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Soja/química , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 138(1): 235-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23358902

RESUMO

Non-occupational exposure to cadmium has been suspected to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the association between urinary cadmium level and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study among Japanese women. Cases were 153 women newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed with breast cancer at a general hospital in Gifu, Japan. A total of 431 controls individually matched to cases by age, menopausal status, and the period of urine sampling were selected from those who attended a breast cancer mass screening at this hospital. Urinary cadmium levels were measured using spot urine samples. Spot urine samples were collected from cases after surgery but before any cancer therapy. For controls, spot urine samples were obtained at the date of the screening visit. Information on known or suggested breast cancer risk factors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer according to the tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Women in the highest tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (>2.620 µg/g) had significantly elevated OR of breast cancer relative to those in the lowest tertile (<1.674 µg/g) after controlling for covariates [OR = 6.05, (95 % CI 2.90, 12.62)]. The trend of increase in risk with increasing cadmium level was also statistically significant [OR = 1.67, (95 % CI 1.39, 2.01) for every 1.0 µg/g increase in urinary cadmium level, P-trend <0.01]. These data suggested that exposure to cadmium was associated with a risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Risco , Adulto , Cádmio/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 16(11): 2040-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23021626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing childhood asthma rates may be due to changing dietary lifestyle. We investigated the association of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids with asthma in Japanese pre-school children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: School-based survey on lifestyle/diet and health status in children in Japan. SUBJECTS: Parents of 452 children aged 3-6 years completed a questionnaire on the children's and parents' lifestyle and demographics. Children were classified into asthma cases and non-asthma cases in accordance with the ATS-DLD(American Thoracic Society and Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) questionnaire. Children's diet was assessed using a 3 d dietary record completed by parents. Children's age, sex, BMI, history of food allergy, maternal age, parental history of allergy, maternal education,family size and second-hand smoking were included as covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between children's diet and asthma. RESULTS: Compared with children with the lowest intake tertile for vitamin C and vitamin E, those in the highest were significantly inversely associated with asthma; adjusted OR (95% CI) were 0?35 (0?14, 0?88) and 0?32 (0?12, 0?85),respectively. A statistically significant trend was also observed. Fruit intake showed an inverse but insignificant association with asthma. There were no associations of any type of fatty acids with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that children with high intakes of vitamins C and E may be associated with a reduced prevalence of asthma.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Asma/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
12.
Ann Epidemiol ; 23(2): 60-5, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23266102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the associations of sex, age, body mass, sex steroid hormones, and lifestyle factors with the levels of melatonin in young children. METHODS: This study followed a cross-sectional design and was conducted two preschools in Japan. Subjects were 235 boys and 203 girls, aged 3-6 years. Information related to demographics, body mass, and lifestyle factors was obtained from parent-administered questionnaires. The levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone in first-void morning urine were measured by radioimmunoassay. Urinary estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and 5-androstene-3ß, 17α diol levels were measured by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels and the estimated value of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion were higher in girls than in boys. After adjustments for age, the creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was negatively associated with weight and body mass index among boys and with weight and height among girls. However, the estimated value of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion was not associated with any indices of body mass. No significant relationships of urinary sex steroids, light exposure at night, sleep time, sedentary lifestyles, or passive smoking with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that melatonin levels depend on sex and body size among young healthy children. Our results should be confirmed in future researches.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desidroepiandrosterona/urina , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/urina , Estilo de Vida , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Distribuição por Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Melatonina/urina , Radioimunoensaio , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Nutr ; 142(9): 1713-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22810986

RESUMO

Dietary guidelines generally recommend avoiding a high-fat diet. However, the relationship between fat subtypes and mortality remains unclear especially in a population with a relatively low intake of fat. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between dietary fat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community. In 1992, a total of 28,356 residents of Takayama, Japan, without cancer, stroke, or coronary heart disease, responded to a validated 169-item FFQ. We identified 4616 deaths during a 16-y follow-up. The HR of mortality according to the percentage of energy from the total and subtypes of fat when substituted for an isoenergic quantity of carbohydrate was calculated after controlling for potential confounders. A high intake of total fat and PUFA was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality in men; the HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.99; P-trend = 0.048) for total fat and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.95; P-trend = 0.05) for PUFA. Both fats were associated with a decrease in mortality from cancer and diseases other than cardiovascular disease. In women, a higher SFA intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [HR = 1.22 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; P-trend = 0.03)]. A favorable effect was suggested for total fat and PUFA intakes on mortality in men except for that from cardiovascular disease, whereas increased SFA intake may be associated with adverse health consequences in women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade/etnologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 23(5): 683-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22399233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endogenous sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. Dietary factors such as fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol have been suggested to influence endogenous estrogen and other steroid hormone levels. We examined the relationship among these dietary factors and plasma sex hormone levels in premenopausal Japanese women. METHODS: We measured the plasma concentrations of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, a follicle-stimulating hormone, a luteinizing hormone, and prolactin among 393 premenopausal women who had regular menstrual cycles fewer than 40 days apart. The dietary intakes were estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: After controlling for age, BMI, phase of the menstrual cycle, number of births, age at first birth, history of breastfeeding, and smoking status, the saturated fat intake was significantly positively associated with total estradiol and free estradiol levels. Intakes of the other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not significantly associated with levels of any hormone measured. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a high intake of saturated fat is associated with increased estradiol levels in premenopausal Japanese women. Saturated fat intake may have implications in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Etanol/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Isoflavonas/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo
15.
Menopause ; 19(1): 75-81, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21926924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies on physical activity and diet and the onset of natural menopause are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity and dietary factors potentially related to endogenous estrogen levels such as fats, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with the onset of menopause in a cohort of premenopausal women. METHODS: Study participants were 3,115 premenopausal Japanese women aged 35 to 56 years derived from the participants in the Takayama Study. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire at baseline, and the metabolic equivalent score was calculated. The dietary intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and adjusted for total energy. Menopause status was defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the occurrence of menopause after controlling for age, parity, body mass index, smoking status, years of education, and lifelong irregular menstrual cycle. RESULTS: During the 10-year follow-up, 1,790 women experienced natural menopause. A high physical activity level and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat were moderately but significantly associated with the earlier onset of menopause; the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02-1.34) for physical activity and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.31) for polyunsaturated fat intake. Total fat, other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not associated with the onset of menopause. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that high levels of physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake are associated with earlier onset of menopause.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 23(2): 239-44, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22083252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether seaweed intake is associated with sex steroid levels in young Japanese children. METHODS: The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in October-November 2006. Subjects were substantially healthy preschoolers, 230 boys and 198 girls, aged 3-6 years. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Urinary estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and 5-androstene-3ß,17α diol levels were measured by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary dehydroepiandrosterone level was measured with a radioimmunoassay. Steroid hormones were adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. RESULTS: Spearman's correlation coefficient between seaweed intake and estrone level was -0.144 (p = 0.030) in boys and -0.147 (p = 0.041) in girls after adjustments for age, BMI, and total energy intake. Seaweed intake was neither associated with estradiol, testosterone, 3ß,17α-AED nor with DHEA among boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: The negative association between seaweed intake and estrone level suggests that dietary seaweed intake might affect estrogen metabolism in childhood.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/urina , Alga Marinha , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 23(2): 231-8, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22080278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the association of body size at birth or physical activity with sex steroid levels, independent of body mass among young children. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006. Subjects were 230 boys and 198 girls, aged 3-6 years. Birth weight was based on parents' reports. Questions about physical activity focused on outdoor playtime. Urinary estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and 5-androstene-3ß,17α diol (3ß,17α-AED) levels were measured by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary dehydroepiandrosterone level was measured with a radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: After adjustments for age and BMI, girls with lower birth weight had higher testosterone (trend p = 0.038) and 3ß,17α-AED (trend p = 0.028). Girls with low birth weight and high birth weight had higher estrone (p = 0.014) and estradiol (p = 0.074) than those who had middle birth weight. Boys who were physically active had lower testosterone (p = 0.028) and 3ß,17α-AED (p = 0.003) than those who were not active. Girls who were physically active had lower estrone (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Sex steroid levels in childhood might be affected by body size at birth or by physical activity during childhood. These effects might differ by sex.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/urina , Atividade Motora , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
18.
Nutr J ; 10: 83, 2011 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21827710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. METHODS: The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent) agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. RESULTS: When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008). In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038). Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Alga Marinha , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Verduras
19.
Am J Hypertens ; 24(11): 1215-21, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21814291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An elevated plasma homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, and its level is regulated by three vitamins; vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid. Until now, the association between the intake of these vitamins and blood pressure has been examined only in adult populations. We purposed to examine the association between dietary intake of these three vitamins and blood pressure of young children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Japanese preschools in 2006. Blood pressure was measured among 418 children aged 3-6 years. Diets including vitamins were assessed by a 3-day dietary record. We compared the blood pressure levels among the four groups defined according to quartile of energy-adjusted vitamin intake by using analysis of covariance after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index. RESULTS: The mean systolic blood pressure was 6.6 mm Hg lower and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 5.7 mm Hg lower in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile of vitamin B12 intake (P for trend was <0.001 and 0.006, respectively). The mean systolic blood pressure was 4.1 mm Hg lower in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile of folic acid intake (P for trend = 0.004). Vitamin B6 intake was not significantly associated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that high intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12 are associated with lower levels of blood pressure among preschool children.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem
20.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 41(2): 225-31, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21075833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of smoking and lifestyle factors with pancreatic cancer death in the prospective design. METHODS: Mortality from pancreatic cancer in regard to smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and alcohol, coffee and green tea intake, was studied in a prospective cohort of 30,826 inhabitants in Takayama, Japan. In 1992, each subject completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, smoking, drinking habits, diet, exercise and medical histories. The response rate was 85.3%. RESULTS: From 1992 to 1999, 33 men and 19 women died due to pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Women who were defined as current smokers at baseline had significant and increased risk of pancreatic cancer death after adjustment for age, body mass index and history of diabetes mellitus (Hazard ratio: 4.77, 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-14.4). There were significant positive associations of pancreatic cancer death with the years of smoking and the number of cigarettes consumed daily in women in a dose-dependent manner. Current smokers indicated a non-significant risk increase in men (Hazard ratio: 3.81, 95% confidence intervals: 0.88-16.6). Body mass index, physical activity, and alcohol, coffee and green tea intake were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer death. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that smoking increases the risk of death from pancreatic cancer in Japanese women.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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