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1.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132341

RESUMO

AIM: Seaweed is a popular traditional foodstuff in Asian countries. To our knowledge, few studies have examined the association of seaweed intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of frequency of seaweed intake with total and specific cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: We examined the association of seaweed intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease among 40,234 men and 55,981 women who participated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Sex-specific hazard ratios for mortality from cardiovascular disease (stroke, stroke subtypes, and coronary heart disease) according to the frequency of seaweed intake were calculated stratified by study area and adjusted for potential cardiovascular risk factors and dietary factors. RESULTS: During the 1,580,996 person-year follow-up, 6,525 cardiovascular deaths occurred, of which 2,820 were due to stroke, and 1,378, to coronary heart disease. Among men, the multivariable analysis showed that participants who ate seaweed almost every day compared with those who never ate seaweed had hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; P for trend) of 0.79 (0.62-1.01; 0.72) for total cardiovascular disease, 0.70 (0.49-0.99; 0.47) for total stroke, 0.69 (0.41-1.16; 0.11) for cerebral infarction. Among women, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.72 (0.55-0.95; 0.001) for total cardiovascular disease, 0.70 (0.46-1.06; 0.01) for total stroke, and 0.49 (0.27-0.90; 0.22) for cerebral infarction. No associations were observed between seaweed intake and risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage and coronary heart disease among either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: We found an inverse association between seaweed intake and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women, especially that from cerebral infarction.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996369

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a potent mitogen, but IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 inhibits IGF1. To elucidate the relationship between both IGF1 and IGFBP and the risk of tumorigenesis, the association between IGF1 and IGFBP3 serum levels and of malignant tumor incidence was investigated in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. A baseline survey was started in 1988-1990, 110,585 subjects were enrolled, and 35% of participants donated blood samples. Those who had been diagnosed with malignant tumors by 1997 were considered cases. The analysis involved 1,349 cases and 4,012 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for cancer incidence associated with IGF-related molecules. After controlling for alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and smoking, participants with high total-IGFBP3 and free-IGFBP3, which is estimated by the molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1), had a risk of future neoplasms (P trend = 0.014 and 0.009, respectively), but those with IGF1 did not. People in the second to fifth quintiles had a lower risk than those in the first quintile (ORs 0.676-0.736 and 0.657-0.870, respectively). Limiting subjects to those followed for 3 years weakened the negative associations of total- and free-IGFBP3, whereas a positive relationship of free-IGF1, which was estimated by the molar ratio of IGF1/IGFBP3, was seen (P trend = 0.004, 0.002, and 0.013, respectively). After controlling for alcohol intake, smoking, BMI, and diabetes mellitus, the results were confirmed. These findings suggest that serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 are related to future risk of malignant neoplasms.

4.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999890

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We explored the association between fatty liver and pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction in a general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 489 (53.8% women) community-dwelling Japanese adults. The extent of fatty liver was estimated using the fatty liver index (FLI). After all participants were divided into three groups - low (FLI <30), moderate (30 ≤FLI <60) or high (FLI ≥ 60) degree of fatty liver - serum proinsulin levels transformed into natural logarithms were compared among the three groups. To determine whether obesity modified the association of interest, the participants were stratified into two groups according to the median body mass index. Next, to determine whether hyperinsulinemia modified the association of interest, a similar stratified analysis was carried out using the median serum insulin level. RESULTS: Logarithm (proinsulin) was significantly higher in the high FLI group than in the moderate and low groups, and it was significantly higher in the moderate group than in the low group after adjustment for age and sex (P < 0.05). Logarithm (proinsulin) was significantly higher in the high FLI group than in the low FLI group, regardless of body mass index, after adjustment for age and sex. A similar pattern was observed regardless of serum insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of fatty liver was positively associated with proinsulin level, regardless of the presence of obesity or hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that fatty liver reflects pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction.

5.
J Diabetes Investig ; 11(1): 75-79, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222973

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We investigated associations between glucose tolerance and ß-cell function using a series of estimation methods in a population-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the Dynamics of Lifestyle and Neighborhood Community on Health Study were analyzed. A total of 489 participants (263 women) were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes (PDM) and diabetes group. We estimated ß-cell function by the homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function, proinsulin level (PI), C-peptide index, proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI/CPR) and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio. Because data on all five parameters of ß-cell function showed skewed distributions, the values of these parameters were normalized by natural logarithmic (ln) transformation. Next, the association between glucose tolerance and ß-cell function among participants without diabetes was examined. In this analysis, glucose tolerance was assessed based on glycated hemoglobin levels. RESULTS: In the crude analysis, ln(PI) and ln(PI/CPR) were significantly higher in the diabetes group than those in the PDM and NGT groups, and these parameters were significantly higher in the PDM group than in the NGT group. Only ln(PI) in the PDM group was significantly higher compared with that in the NGT group after adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (ln[PI]: PDM group 2.38 pmol/L, 95% confidence interval 2.29-2.47 pmol/L; NGT group 2.17 pmol/L, 95% confidence interval 2.12-2.22 pmol/L; P < 0.05). In addition, ln(PI) levels were significantly and positively correlated with glycated hemoglobin quartile in participants without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that PI was the most sensitive to reflect glucose intolerance.

6.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Café/química , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Chá/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A little evidence was found about the association between diabetes and respiratory diseases mortality among Japanese populations. We aimed to explore the association between diabetes and the risk of respiratory diseases mortality through a nationwide prospective study in Japan. METHODS: 95,056 participants (39,925 men and 55,131 women) were followed up for median 17.1 years. The information about diabetes status, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyles was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality from respiratory diseases associated with baseline diabetes status. RESULTS: We identified 2,838 deaths from total respiratory diseases (1,759 respiratory infection, 432 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 647 other respiratory diseases). The association between diabetes and total respiratory diseases mortality was statistically significant among women (HR=1.81, 95% CI, 1.39-2.37) but of borderline statistical significance in men (P for interaction<0.01). Besides, there were significant associations between diabetes and mortality from respiratory infection among both men and women (HR=1.39, 95% CI, 1.10-1.76; HR=2.30, 95% CI, 1.71-3.11; P for interaction<0.001). However, we failed to detect any statistically significant association between diabetes and COPD mortality. Moreover, the subgroup analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and total respiratory diseases mortality was stronger in never smokers when compared with ever smokers (P for interaction=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Significant association was observed between diabetes and the risk of total respiratory diseases mortality in particular from respiratory infection. Prevention and control of respiratory diseases, especially respiratory infection should be paid more attention among people with diabetes in clinical and public health practice.

8.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive history has been addressed as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the relationship between reproductive history and CVD mortality in Japanese women. METHODS: We followed 53,836 women without previous CVD or cancer history from 1988-1990 to 2009 in a prospective cohort study. Hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality were estimated according to the number of deliveries and maternal age at first delivery. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 2,982 CVD-related deaths were identified. There was U-shaped association between the number of deliveries and risk of CVD mortality with reference to three deliveries, although the excess risk of CVD mortality associated with ≥5 deliveries was of borderline statistical significance. The corresponding multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 1.33 (1.12-1.58) and 1.11 (0.99-1.24). In addition, a higher CVD mortality was associated with maternal age ≥28 years at first delivery than maternal age of 24-27 years at first delivery. The multivariable HRs were 1.22 (1.10-1.36) for 28-31, and 1.26 (1.04-1.52) for ≥32 years at first delivery. Moreover, among women with ≥3 deliveries, maternal age ≥28 years at first delivery was associated with 1.2- to 1.5-fold increased CVD mortality. CONCLUSION: The number of deliveries showed a U-shaped association with risk of CVD mortality. Higher maternal age at first delivery was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, and excessive risk in women aged ≥28 years at first delivery was noted in those with ≥3 deliveries.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
11.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6414-6425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475462

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are two major risk factors for esophageal cancer. Not all, but several of case-control studies have indicated interaction between the two factors; however, no prospective study has validated this phenomenon to date. Therefore, the interaction between smoking and alcohol drinking is still open-ended question. To answer this, we conducted a pooled analysis using large-scale population-based cohort studies in Japan. Male subjects from eight cohort studies were included. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were both categorized categorically (never/ever), and in the three consumption levels of pack years and ethanol consumption/day. Effects of smoking and drinking in each study were estimated by Cox regression models. The study-specific results were combined through meta-analysis to obtain summary effects of hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of interactions at both additive and multiplicative scales. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) from smoking and drinking were obtained using distributions of exposures and fully adjusted HRs. In 162 826 male subjects, 954 esophageal cancer incidences were identified. HRs of ever smoking, ever drinking, and their combination were 2.92 (1.59-5.36), 2.73 (1.78-4.18), and 8.86 (4.82-16.30), respectively. Interaction between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking was significantly positive on the additive scale, but not significant on the multiplicative scale. The joint effect of smoking and drinking in three levels of evaluation showed a similar significant super-additive interaction. PAFs from smoking, drinking, and their combination were 55.4%, 61.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a significant positive additive interaction for esophageal cancer risk.

12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1861-1867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to elucidate lifestyle-related risk factors for multiple myeloma in Asia. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality through a pooled analysis of more than 800,000 participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: The analysis included 805,309 participants contributing 10,221,623 person-years of accumulated follow-up across Asia Cohort Consortium cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between BMI, smoking, and alcohol at baseline and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with shared frailty. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant dose-dependent association between BMI categories and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality (<18.5 kg/m2: HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52-1.24; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: reference; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2: HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.47; ≥30 kg/m2: HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.64, P trend = 0.014). By sex, this association was more apparent in women than in men (P for heterogeneity between sexes = 0.150). We observed no significant associations between smoking or alcohol consumption and risk of multiple myeloma mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that excess body mass is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma mortality among Asian populations. In contrast, our results do not support an association between smoking or alcohol consumption and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations. IMPACT: This study provides important evidence on the association of BMI, smoking, and alcohol with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1223-1230, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Experimental studies suggested that green tea may have an anticancer effect on hematologic neoplasms. However, few prospective studies have been conducted. METHODS: A total of 65,042 individuals aged 40-79 years participated in this study and completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyle and medical history at baseline (1988-1990). Of these, 52,462 individuals living in 24 communities with information on incident hematologic neoplasms available in the cancer registry, who did not have a history of cancer and provided valid information on frequency of green tea consumption, were followed through 2009. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the incidence of hematologic neoplasms according to green tea consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of hematologic neoplasms during a median follow-up of 13.3 years was 323. Compared with the never-drinkers of green tea, the multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for total hematologic neoplasms in green tea drinkers of ≤ 2 cups/day, 3-4 cups/day, and ≥ 5 cups/day were 0.65 (0.42-1.00), 0.73 (0.47-1.13), and 0.63 (0.42-0.96), respectively. The association was more prominent for acute myeloid leukemias and follicular lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The present cohort study suggests a protective effect of green tea against hematologic neoplasms, especially acute myeloid leukemias.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(9): 945-949, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332921

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the association between daily sleep duration and incident disability among younger elderly individuals in Japan. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study, the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project, including 1895 (962 men and 933 women) Japanese physically and socially independent individuals aged ≥65 years. Information on daily sleep duration, demographic, lifestyle characteristics and medical status were collected by questionnaire and health checkup every year from 1996 through 2005. Dates of incident disability were confirmed using the certification for the long-term care insurance in Japan. We treated censored cases due to death as competing events. A competing risk model was used to calculate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for incident disability. RESULTS: During a median of 12.7 years of follow up, 256 participants (114 men and 142 women) reported incident disability. Compared with a sleep duration of 7-7.9 h/day, sleeping <6 h/day showed an increased risk of incident disability (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.38 for total; hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.03 for women). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that shorter sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of incident disability among older Japanese people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 945-949.


Assuntos
Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sono , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
17.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(12): 2104-2111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen and is inhibited by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). High serum IGF1 and low IGFBP3 are associated with increased risk of several carcinomas. Here, we assessed the relationship of these peptides with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. METHODS: The analysis involved 916 cases who had been diagnosed as gastrointestinal malignancies (C15-25) and 2306 controls. To estimate odds ratios for incidence of malignancies associated with these levels, a conditional logistic model was used. RESULTS: Both higher total and free IGFBP3 were associated with a decreased risk of tumor (P for trend < 0.001 and = 0.003, respectively). People in the second to fifth quintiles had lower risk compared to the first quintile (odds ratios ranged 0.532-0.650 and 0.582-0.725, respectively). After adjustment for IGF1, body mass index, drinking, and smoking, total IGFBP3 was inversely correlated with cancer risk (P for trend = 0.031). After adjustment, free IGFBP3 was inversely associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.007). Although total IGF1 was inversely correlated with tumor risk, it was not after controlling for IGFBP3 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.589, respectively). Free IGF1 was not associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.361). Limiting subjects to those followed for over 3 years reinforced the inverted relationships of total and free IGFBP3 with risk for tumors (P for trend = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both total and free IGFBP3 may be inversely associated with the incidence of gastrointestinal malignancies.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.

20.
J Nutr ; 149(8): 1451-1459, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a comprehensive, literature-derived index for assessing the effect of dietary constituents on inflammatory biomarkers. Several studies have shown an association between DII score and mortality, but there are limited prospective studies in Asian populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DII score and risk of all-cause, total cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality in the Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 58,782 Japanese participants aged 40-79 y who were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study during 1988-1990 were included in the analysis. DII scores were calculated based on a food-frequency questionnaire. HRs and 95% CIs for mortality according to DII quintiles were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 19.3 y, a total of 11,693 participants died. The multivariable HR for all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest DII quintiles was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.21). For CVD mortality, the highest multivariable HRs were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.49), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.59), and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.76) for total CVD, stroke, and CHD, respectively. No significant associations were observed between DII and risk of total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a higher DII was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among Japanese adults.

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