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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 45, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting adverse health events and implementing preventative measures are a necessary challenge. It is important for healthcare planners and policymakers to allocate the limited resource to high-risk persons. Prediction is also important for older individuals, their family members, and clinicians to prepare mentally and financially. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model for within 11-year dependent status requiring long-term nursing care or death in older adults for each sex. METHODS: We carried out age-specified cohort study of community dwellers in Nisshin City, Japan. The older adults aged 64 years who underwent medical check-up between 1996 and 2000 were included in the study. The primary outcome was the incidence of the psychophysically dependent status or death or by the end of the year of age 75 years. Univariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between candidate predictors and the outcome. Using the variables with p-values less than 0.1, multivariable logistic regression analyses were then performed with backward stepwise elimination to determine the final predictors for the model. RESULTS: Of the 1525 female participants at baseline, 105 had an incidence of the study outcome. The final prediction model consisted of 15 variables, and the c-statistics for predicting the outcome was 0.763 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.714-0.813). Of the 1548 male participants at baseline, 211 had incidence of the study outcome. The final prediction model consisted of 16 variables, and the c-statistics for predicting the outcome was 0.735 (95% CI 0.699-0.771). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a prediction model for older adults to forecast 11-year incidence of dependent status requiring nursing care or death in each sex. The predictability was fair, but we could not evaluate the external validity of this model. It could be of some help for healthcare planners, policy makers, clinicians, older individuals, and their family members to weigh the priority of support.

2.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 45632211007157, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed and compared two liquid chromatography methods, one with UV/Visible spectrophotometric detection (HPLC) and the other with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS), for quantifying very-long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in human plasma. Association of VLCFA with various cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. METHOD: Fasting blood samples were collected from 541 human volunteers (242 men and 299 women; mean age ±SD, 58.9 ± 12.4 years), including 429 and 112 individuals with and without hypertriglyceridemia, respectively. Esterified VLCFA were saponified and derivatized with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine. Separation of VLCFA species was achieved with C4 Mightysil column (HPLC) and Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl column (LC-MS) followed by spectrophotometric and selected-reaction monitoring mode of mass spectrometric detection, respectively. RESULTS: The HPLC assay of VLCFA was precise with intra-assay imprecision of 2.5% to 6.9% and inter-assay imprecision of 3.2% to 9.5%. Moreover, there was an excellent correlation (r > 0.96) between HPLC and LC-MS methods. The 95 percentile reference intervals (RI; upper limit) of VLCFA were determined to be 41.3 µmol/L in healthy volunteers. Plasma VLCFA were significantly correlated with triglycerides (Spearman's ρ = 0.306, P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (Spearman's ρ = 0.251, P < 0.001). All species of VLCFA were significantly elevated in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals compared with control. CONCLUSION: We established LC-based assays of VLCFA with either spectrophotometry or mass spectrometry as a detection system. Hypertriglyceridaemia is significantly associated with elevated concentration of each species of VLCFA.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 169-182, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727748

RESUMO

Evaluating the effects of dietary intake on mortality in older populations has become increasingly important in modern aging societies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between food group intakes and all-cause mortality among a young older population. We conducted a prospective study on 1,324 men and 1,338 women aged 64-65 years at baseline who were living in a suburban city from 1996 to 2005. The participants were followed for all-cause mortality from 1996 through 2015 to assess the effects of 17 food group intakes (g) per 1,000 kcal after multivariable adjustments in proportional hazard models. During follow-up (mean: 13.2 years), 339 deaths were registered. In women, total mortality was significantly and inversely associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products and vegetables. The hazard ratios across intake quartiles after multivariable adjustment were 1, 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.17), 0.66 (0.40-1.10), and 0.40 (0.22-0.75) (P for trend = 0.003) for milk and dairy products, and 1, 0.77 (0.46-1.28), 0.83 (0.50-1.38), and 0.42 (0.23-0.78) (P for trend = 0.008) for vegetables. In men, a positive association was found between total mortality and sugar and sweetener consumption (P for trend = 0.038). Higher consumption of milk and dairy products and vegetables was suggested to reduce all-cause mortality in young older women.

4.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5298, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674633

RESUMO

Primary prevention of premature death is a public health concern worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been described as potential diagnostic biomarkers for diseases as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This case-cohort study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between circulating miRNAs and the risk of premature death. A total of 39,242 subjects provided baseline serum samples in 1988-1990. Of these, 345 subjects who died of intrinsic disease (< 65 years old) and for which measurable samples were available were included in this study. We randomly selected a sub-cohort of 879 subjects. Circulatring miR-21, miR-29a, and miR-126 were determined using qRT-PCR. Conditional logistic regression models were used to analyse the data with respect to stratified miRNA levels. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that subjects with high circulating miR-21 and miR-29a individual levels had a significantly higher risk of total death, cancer death, and CVD death than those with medium miR-21 and miR-29a individual levels. Conversely, subjects with low circulating miR-126 levels had a significantly higher risk of total death than those with medium levels. This suggests that circulating miRNAs are associated with the risk of premature death from cancer and CVD, identifying them as potential biomarkers for early detection of high-risk individuals.

6.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(4): 1502-1509, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590565

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to identify the risk factors for vaginal cuff infection after laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynecological diseases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 1559 Japanese women who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) for benign indications between 2014 and 2018 at Teine Keijinkai Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. All patients received preoperative antibiotics based on appropriate timing, choice, and weight-based dosing. We assessed the risk factors of vaginal cuff infection after TLH, including demographic and clinical variables, and patient- and surgery-related factors, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among all the patients who underwent TLH, 71 cases of vaginal cuff infections (4.6%) were recorded. Univariate analyses showed that current smoking, pathological result of adenomyosis, use of Seprafilm as an antiadhesive material, white blood cell counts on postoperative day (POD) 2, C-reactive protein (CRP) level on POD2 and postoperative vaginal cuff hematoma were significantly associated with an increased risk of vaginal cuff infection. In multivariate analysis, current smoking, use of seprafilm, CRP level on POD2 and vaginal cuff hematoma were significantly associated with an increased risk of vaginal cuff infection. CONCLUSION: Current smoking, use of seprafilm, CRP level on POD2 and vaginal cuff hematoma were identified as significant risk factors of vaginal cuff infection in the 30 days after surgery in Japanese women who underwent TLH for benign indications.

7.
Stroke ; 52(3): 957-965, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of green tea and coffee consumption on mortality among cardiovascular diseases survivors is unknown. We examined the association between green tea and coffee consumption and mortality among persons with and without stroke or myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, 46 213 participants (478 stroke survivors, 1214 MI survivors, and 44 521 persons without a history of stroke or MI), aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1988-1990), completed a lifestyle, diet, and medical history questionnaire and were followed up regarding mortality until 2009. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the multivariable hazard ratios with 95% CIs of all-cause mortality after adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: During the 18.5-year median follow-up period, 9253 cases were documented. Green tea consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among stroke or MI survivors; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) for stroke survivors were 0.73 (0.42-1.27) for 1 to 6 cups/wk, 0.65 (0.36-1.15) for 1 to 2 cups/d, 0.56 (0.34-0.92) for 3 to 4 cups/d, 0.52 (0.31-0.86) for 5 to 6 cups/d, and 0.38 (0.20-0.71) for ≥7 cups/d, compared with nondrinkers. A similar inverse association was observed for MI survivors, but not evident for those without a history of stroke or MI. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in persons without a history of stroke or MI; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.86 (0.82-0.91) for 1 to 6 cups/wk, 0.86 (0.80-0.92) for 1 cup/d, and 0.82 (0.77-0.89) for ≥2 cups/d, compared with nondrinkers. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) for MI survivors were 0.69 (0.53-0.91), 0.78 (0.55-1.10), and 0.61 (0.41-0.90). No such association was observed for stroke survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Green tea consumption can be beneficial in improving the prognosis for stroke or MI survivors, whereas coffee consumption can also be so for persons without a history of stroke or MI as well as MI survivors.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045100, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a refractory neurodegenerative disease, but novel treatments are anticipated. An accurate natural history of MSA is important for clinical trials, but is insufficient. This regional registry was launched to complement clinical information on MSA. SETTING: Patient recruitment started in November 2014 and is ongoing at the time of submission. The number of participating facilities was 66. Postal surveys were sent to medical facilities and patients with MSA in Hokkaido, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: After obtaining written consent from 196 participants, 184 overview surveys and 115 detailed surveys were conducted. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: An overview survey evaluated conformity to diagnostic criteria and a detailed survey implemented an annual assessment based on the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). RESULTS: At the time of registration, 58.2% of patients were diagnosed with cerebellar symptoms predominant type MSA (MSA-C) and 29.9% were diagnosed with parkinsonism predominant type MSA (MSA-P). UMSARS Part Ⅳ score of 4 or 5 accounted for 53.8% of participants. The higher the UMSARS Part Ⅳ score, the higher the proportion of MSA-P. At baseline, levodopa was used by 69 patients (37.5%) and the average levodopa dose was 406.7 mg/day. The frequency of levodopa use increased over time. Eleven cases changed from MSA-C to MSA-P during the study, but the opposite was not observed. Information about survival and causes of death was collected on 54 cases. Half of deaths were respiratory-related. Sudden death was recorded even in the group with UMSARS Part Ⅳ score of 1. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first large-scale prospective MSA cohort study in Asia. MSA-C was dominant, but the use of antiparkinsonian drugs increased over the study period. Changes from MSA-C to MSA-P occurred, but not vice versa.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1531, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452329

RESUMO

To clarify how low BMI and weight loss were associated with risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality, in a large prospective cohort of the general population across Japan, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, conducted between 1988 and 2009. A total of 45,837 male residents were observed for a median period of 19.1 years. Self-administered questionnaires, collecting information on BMI, weight loss since the age of 20, lifestyles, history of diseases, as well as records of COPD mortality, were analysed at 2019. During follow-up, 268 participants died from COPD. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of COPD mortality associated with a 1-SD increment of body mass index (BMI) was 0.48 (0.41-0.57), while for weight change from age of 20 (+ 2.0 kg) it was 0.63 (0.59-0.68). These associations were persistently observed after stratifications with smoking status, excluding those having airway symptoms in the baseline survey, and excluding early COPD deaths within 5, 10 and 15 years. Our study suggests that BMI and weight change since the age of 20 could be markers for COPD prognosis, indicated by risk of COPD mortality.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2736-2747, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435386

RESUMO

Whether the source of dietary protein intake is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass (AMM) and muscle mass (MM) remains unclear. We conducted this cross-sectional study of 277 residents (115 men, 162 women) aged ≥65 years in Japan to examine the association of the amount of dietary protein intake with AMM and MM. We measured dietary protein intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. AMM and MM were assessed based on bioelectrical impedance. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to estimate ß coefficients that were adjusted for potential confounders. Among Japanese women aged ≥75 years, but not among women aged 65-74 years, dietary animal protein intake was significantly associated with AMM (ß (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.25 (0.10, 0.40)) and MM (ß (95% CI): 0.40 (0.16, 0.64)). However, dietary vegetable protein intake was not associated with AMM (ß (95% CI): -0.17 (-0.74, 0.41)) and MM (ß (95% CI): -0.30 (-1.23, 0.63)). Furthermore, in men aged ≥65 years, dietary protein intake was not associated with AMM or MM. In conclusion, dietary animal protein intake, but not vegetable protein intake, were positively associated with AMM and MM among this population of Japanese women aged ≥75 years.

12.
Maturitas ; 143: 127-131, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of manganese, only one recent Chinese study has investigated the association between dietary manganese intake and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited 19,862 Japanese men and women in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. The participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the baseline survey (1988 = 1990) and a diabetes history at both baseline and 5-year surveys. We calculated the odds ratios (95 % CIs) of the 5-year cumulative incidence of self-reported physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes according to quartiles of dietary manganese intake. RESULTS: Within the 5-year period, we confirmed 530 new cases of type 2 diabetes (263 in men and 267 in women) with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 2.7 % (3.6 % in men and 2.1 % in women). Higher manganese intake was inversely associated with the women's but not the men's cumulative risk of type 2 diabetes over the 5-year period. In a full model adjusted for the participants' characteristics, diabetes risk factors and a wide range of dietary variables, the multivariable odds ratios (95 %CIs) of type 2 diabetes across the increasing quartiles of manganese intake (Q1 to Q4) were 1.00, 0.97 (0.65, 1.43), 1.04 (0.67, 1.61) and 1.10 (0.64, 1.92), p-trend = 0.66 among men and 1.00, 0.74 (0.51, 1.06), 0.62 (0.41, 0.94) and 0.53 (0.31, 0.88), p-trend = 0.01 among women. The association was observed mainly for those with low iron intake in women, particularly premenopausal women. CONCLUSION: Strong inverse associations between dietary manganese intake and risk of type 2 diabetes were observed in women but not men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138348

RESUMO

Purpose: Sedentary behavior attributes to the increased risk of some cancers and all-cause mortality. The evidence is limited for the association between television (TV) viewing time, a major sedentary behavior, and risk of colorectal cancer death. We aimed to examine this association in Japanese population. Methods and Methods: A prospective cohort study encompassed of 90,834 men and women aged 40-79 years with no prior history of colorectal cancer who completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and provided their TV viewing information. The participants were followed-up from 1988-1990 to the end of 2009. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard regression for risk of colorectal cancer mortality according to TV viewing time. Results: : During the median 19.1-year follow-up period, we documented 749 (385 men and 364 women) colorectal cancer deaths. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality from colorectal cancer were 1.11 (0.88-1.41) for 1.5 to < 3 hr/day, 1.14 (0.91-1.42) for 3 to < 4.5 hr/day and 1.33 (1.02-1.73) for ≥ 4.5 hr/day in comparison to < 1.5 hr/day TV watching; p-trend=0.038, and that for 1-hour increment in TV viewing time was 1.06 (1.01-1.11). Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) of colon cancer for 1-hour increment in TV viewing time was 1.07 (1.02-1.13). Age, body mass index, and level of leisure-physical activity did not show significant effect modifications on the observed associations. Conclusion: TV viewing time is associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer mortality among Japanese population, more specifically colon rather than rectal cancer.

14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038243, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible relationship between tea consumption and risk of gastric cancer (GC) among Japanese men and women included in a large Japanese population-based study titled the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A population-based cohort included subjects who were recruited from 24 areas of JACC Study, in which data regarding the incidence of cancer were available. PARTICIPANTS: 63 848 participants (26 025 men and 37 823 women), aged 40-79, were included in the analyses and underwent follow-up (median 13.3 years) prospectively in research on cancer incidence. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome variable was the risk of GC according to the frequency intakes of total tea, green tea, black tea and oolong tea. The adjusted HRs for the risk of GC associated with tea consumption were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: 1494 cases of GC were detected (960 men and 534 women) during the follow-up period. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for the risk of GC in the highest versus lowest quintiles of total tea intake were 1.05 (0.83-1.33); p trend=0.50 in men, and 0.82 (0.60-1.12); p trend=0.45 in women. There was no association found between the consumption of green tea, black tea or oolong tea with the risk for GC in either gender. CONCLUSIONS: In this large community-based prospective cohort study, tea consumption was not associated with the risk of GC in either gender.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916842

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to further examine the relationship between milk intake and stroke mortality among the Japanese population. We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study (total number of participants = 110,585, age range: 40-79) to estimate the posterior acceleration factors (AF) as well as the hazard ratios (HR) comparing individuals with different milk intake frequencies against those who never consumed milk at the study baseline. These estimations were computed through a series of Bayesian survival models that employed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation process. In total, 100,000 posterior samples were generated separately through four independent chains after model convergency was confirmed. Posterior probabilites that daily milk consumers had lower hazard or delayed mortality from strokes compared to non-consumers was 99.0% and 78.0% for men and women, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated posterior means of AF and HR for daily milk consumers were 0.88 (95% Credible Interval, CrI: 0.81, 0.96) and 0.80 (95% CrI: 0.69, 0.93) for men and 0.97 (95% CrI: 0.88, 1.10) and 0.95 (95% CrI: 0.80, 1.17) for women. In conclusion, data from the JACC study provided strong evidence that daily milk intake among Japanese men was associated with delayed and lower risk of mortality from stroke especially cerebral infarction.

16.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between falls, including falls on frozen roads, and physical activity among older people living in cold, snowy regions in Japan. METHODS: Participants were subjects of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2016 who had agreed to the Hokkaido additional visit survey in winter 2017/18 and lived in cold, snowy regions in Japan. The analysis included 461 participants (mean age 74.7 years; standard deviation 2.8 years; 46.5% male). Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity (min/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity [MVPA] and light intensity physical activity, and walking steps/day) measured by accelerometer, cognitive function, depression, visual impairment, and history of stroke were surveyed. Poisson regression analyses were performed to clarify the association between prevalence of falls and physical activity. RESULTS: Of those who reported a fall with location, 86 (69.9%) fell on frozen roads, 24 (19.5%) fell on unfrozen roads and 13 (10.6%) fell indoors. There were significant positive associations between MVPA (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] Tertile [T] 3 vs T1, 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.87) and all falls. When limited to falls on frozen roads, higher MVPA levels and walking steps were associated with falls on frozen roads (MVPA, aPR T3 vs T1, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.19-3.94; walking steps, aPR T3 vs T1, 2.49; 95%CI 1.33-4.68). CONCLUSION: The risk of falls, especially on frozen roads, increased among active older people living in cold, snowy regions, and environmental factors should be considered when determining prevention strategies.

17.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of weight change, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on endometrial cancer risk among the Asian population is uncertain. We investigated the association of those factors with endometrial cancer risk among Japanese women with a low body mass index level. METHODS: We performed a large-scale nationwide cohort study consisting of 33,801 female participants aged 40-79 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident endometrial cancer. RESULTS: The mean body mass index of participants was 22.8 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 14.8 years, 79 participants developed endometrial cancer. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, body mass index over 23.0 kg/m2 was linearly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. The HR (95%CI) per 5 kg/m2 increase was 1.80(1.28-2.54). Weight increment ≥+5 kg since age 20 was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared to a weight change of -5 to <+5 kg (the multivariable HR (95% CI) was 1.96(1.12-3.40)). Compared with females who were mainly sitting at the worksite, those who were mainly standing and moving were at lower risk; the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 0.79(0.39-1.59) and 0.46(0.22-0.97), respectively, p for trend= 0.042. Hours of physical exercise, daily walking, and TV viewing were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, while worksite physical activity was inversely associated with the risk.

18.
Intern Med ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788541

RESUMO

Objective The burden of death from pneumonia is expected to increase with the aging of the population, as has been observed in Japan. Depressive tendency, a common psychosocial sign, may be a risk factor for pneumonia due to its possible association with some immune dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the association between depressive tendency and the risk of death from pneumonia. Methods A population-based cohort that consisted of 75,174 Japanese men and women was followed for a median of 19.1 years. Four psychological and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms) were used to evaluate depressive tendency. Results A total of 1,329 deaths from pneumonia were observed. Depressive symptoms were positively and dose-dependently associated with the risk of death from pneumonia (P<0.001 for trend), and subjects with ≥2 depressive symptoms showed a significantly elevated risk compared to those without any symptoms (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.99). This association was not significantly affected by sex or age at baseline. The elevated risk was still significant even when subjects were limited to those without any medical histories. The excess risk was observed not only for death occurring within the first 10 years of follow-up (multivariable HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.51-2.78) but also for that occurring in the longer follow-up period (multivariable HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85). Conclusion Depressive tendency may be a risk factor for death from pneumonia. Further studies using a more reliable tool for the evaluation of depressive state are necessary to confirm this relationship.

19.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiological evidence has suggested a positive relationship between night shift work and the risk of cancer. Herein, we investigated the prospective association between different forms of work schedule and the risk of numerous cancers and all-cause cancer among Japanese men and women. METHODS: This cohort study included 45,390 working men and women aged 40-79 years and registered in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident cancer among those who reported engagement in night work and rotating shift work for their longest occupations compared with day work. RESULTS: Within a median follow-up duration of 14.2 years, 2283 (9.4%) men and 1309 (4.5%) women developed cancer. Among men, rotating shift work was significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer (HR= 2.47, 95% CI, 1.42-4.31) and decreased risk of liver cancer (HR= 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98). Also, rotating shift work tended to be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer (HR= 1.42, 95% CI, 0.95-2.12). Night work and rotating shift work were not related to the risk of all-cause cancer in either sex. CONCLUSION: Rotating shift work might contribute to the increased risk of esophageal cancer and prostate cancer and the decreased risk of liver cancer among Japanese men.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779629

RESUMO

BackgroundPrevious research has established that women accumulate less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than men. To date, however, little is known about the gender differences in device-based activity patterns of sedentary behavior (SB) and light-intensity physical activity (LPA). We aimed to compare time spent in SB and different intensities of physical activity taking into account of co-dependence of time use domains.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Suttu town, Hokkaido, Japan. Data were analyzed from 634 Japanese adults (278 men, aged 19-92 years) who provided valid accelerometer (HJA-750C) data. Gender differences in activity behavior patterns were tested by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on isometric log-ratio transformations of time use, adjusting for age. We also developed bootstrap percentile confidence intervals (CI) to support the interpretation of which behavior differed between genders.ResultsOverall, participants had percent time spent in SB, LPA, MVPA during wearing time (mean 14.8 hours) corresponding to 53.9%, 41.7%, and 4.4%, respectively. Activity behavior patterns differed significantly between genders after controlling for time spent in all activities. Women spent relatively 13.3% (CI: 9.9, 15.9) less time in SB and 19.8% (CI: 14.9, 24.6) more time in LPA compared to men. The difference of time spent in MVPA was not statistically significant.ConclusionsIn contrast with previous studies, our findings suggest that Japanese women are more physically active than men when all intensities of activities are considered. Given the health benefits of LPA, evaluating only MVPA may disproportionately underestimate the level of physical activity of women.

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