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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243429

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Genomics has dramatically improved our understanding of the molecular origins of certain human diseases. Nonetheless, our health is also influenced by the cumulative impact of exposures experienced across the life course (termed "exposome"). The study of the high-dimensional exposome offers a new paradigm for investigating environmental contributions to disease etiology. However, there is a lack of bioinformatics tools for managing, visualizing and analyzing the exposome. The analysis data should include both association with health outcomes and integration with omic layers. We provide a generic framework called rexposome project, developed in the R/Bioconductor architecture that includes object-oriented classes and methods to leverage high-dimensional exposome data in disease association studies including its integration with a variety of high-throughput data types. The usefulness of the package is illustrated by analyzing a real dataset including exposome data, three health outcomes realted to respiratory diseases and its integration with the transcriptome and methylome. AVAILABILITY: rexposome project is available at https://isglobal-brge.github.io/rexposome/.

3.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868480

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on HPV infection, HPV-related cancers and prevention modalities to improve Oral Health Care Providers (OHPs) knowledge and awareness about these topics, considering the rise of HPV-related malignancies in the USA. Educational sessions on HPV were offered to OHPs between 2016 and 2018 in the New England area. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire both before and after each session. Responses from the pre-questionnaire were compared to those from the post-questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of the lectures in increasing HPV-related knowledge of the OHPs. Among 277 participants, 263 completed both the pre- and post-questionnaire. A significant improvement was observed for the following categories: epidemiology of HPV infections, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination and prevention. After the educational intervention, OHPs also indicated an increased comfort level in regard to educating their patients about the importance of HPV vaccination. Educational lectures can be effective in increasing OHPs knowledge and awareness about HPV, HPV-related cancers, and vaccination. More educational sessions on HPV are needed to reach a larger number of OHPs. OHPs may be the first to identify signs and symptoms of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, they may encourage their patients to take advantage of the HPV vaccine.

4.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.

6.
Eur Urol Focus ; 4(1): 113-120, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10µm (PM10), <2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10), PM2.5absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) for BC incidence. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 and 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 140(7): 1528-1537, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006861

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10-5 m-1 PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos
8.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0127273, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. OBJECTIVE: The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge. METHODS: We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL) or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05. RESULTS: We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s) for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The variations in the estimated empirical D(s) for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the literature, we cannot discard environmental hazards or infections agents in the etiology of these cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Res ; 140: 542-53, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject's residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. RESULTS: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03-1.67) - particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49-3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24-2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07-3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22-2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22-2.15) - , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02-1.80). CONCLUSIONS: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia/etiologia , Características de Residência , Saúde da População Urbana , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Eur Neurol ; 72(1-2): 20-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24819667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Basque Country, in Spain, shows one of the highest sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) incidence rates in Europe. The purpose is to analyse a possible focus of unidentified external or environmental factors which could trigger the high incidence rates of sCJD in the Basque Country. METHODS: We estimated the relative risk and the posterior relative risk distribution of sCJD cases for each town of the Basque Country and for the period 1995-2008. RESULTS: 58 sCJD cases (44 definite and 14 probable) were selected for the geographic cluster analysis. In a first approach, referring to the relative risk, several municipalities in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country showed more sCJD cases than expected. However, the posterior relative risk distribution showed no excess risk areas. CONCLUSIONS: RESULTS from this survey indicate that a possible common source of development of the disease does not seem to be the reason of the high sCJD incidence.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Incidência , Probabilidade , Risco
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