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J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2439-2445, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368332


Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) cases is based on the count of real-time reverse transcription-plymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive people. Viral load by real-time RT-PCR has been suggested as a biomarker of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the association of viral load and severity of the disease is not yet resolved. Nasopharyngeal samples from 458 patients were tested by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Relative quantitation was made by the comparative threshold cycle (ΔΔCt ) formula between ORF1ab viral and RNase P housekeeping genes. Absolute viral load was calculate using a reference positive control. Most prevalent clinical signs were cough (75.8%), myalgia (66.7%), and fever (48.5%). Hypertension (18.2%), neurological diseases (15.1%), and asthma and hypothyroidism (12.1%) were most frequent comorbidities. Fever, either as an exclusive symptom or combined with others, was associated with high viral loads ( 2 - ∆ ∆ C t range, 35.65-155.16; 4.25-4.89 log10 RNA copies/test]). During the first week after onset of symptoms in mild patients up to 60 years-old was detected the peak of viral load. Children under 10 years old have a high viral load (313.84; 2.50) in the first 2 days postinfection with a sharp decline thereafter. Cases between 10 and 49 years old mostly showed low and moderate viral load during the first 2 days postinfection (range, 0.03 to 17.24; -1.50 to 1.24). Patients over 60 years old have high viral load up to the second week after the onset of symptoms (range, 25.32-155.42; 1.40-2.19), indicating the longer presence of the virus in them. These findings suggest the viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs would help to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 infection in mild coronavirus disease 2019 cases.

Front Public Health ; 8: 562615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072699


The pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide public health concern. First confined in China and then disseminated widely across Europe and America, SARS-CoV-2 has impacted and moved the scientific community around the world to working in a fast and coordinated way to collect all possible information about this virus and generate new strategies and protocols to try to stop the infection. During March 2020, more than 16,000 full viral genomes have been shared in public databases that allow the construction of genetic landscapes for tracking and monitoring the viral advances over time and study the genomic variations present in geographic regions. In this work, we present the occurrence of genetic variants and lineages of SARS-CoV-2 in Chile during March to April 2020. Complete genome analysis of 141 viral samples from different regions of Chile revealed a predominance of variant D614G like in Europe and the USA and the major presence of lineage B.1. These findings could help take control measures due to the similarity of the viral variants present in Chile, compared with other countries, and monitor the dynamic change of virus variants in the country.

J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1562-1566, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222995


The current pandemic caused by the new coronavirus is a worldwide public health concern. To aboard this emergency, and like never before, scientific groups around the world have been working in a fast and coordinated way to get the maximum of information about this virus when it has been almost 3 months since the first cases were detected in Wuhan province in China. The complete genome sequences of around 450 isolates are available, and studies about similarities and differences among them and with the close related viruses that caused similar epidemics in this century. In this work, we studied the complete genome of the first four cases of the new coronavirus disease in Chile, from patients who traveled to Europe and Southeast Asia. Our findings reveal at least two different viral variants entries to Chilean territory, coming from Europe and Asia. We also sub-classified the isolates into variants according to punctual mutations in the genome. Our work contributes to global information about transmission dynamics and the importance to take control measures to stop the spread of the infection.

Appl Environ Microbiol ; 81(4): 1210-24, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25480750


Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. There is an urgent need to understand the virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms of ISAV and to develop new vaccine approaches. Using a recombinant molecular biology approach, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetic system for ISAV, which includes the use of a novel fish promoter, the Atlantic salmon internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1). Salmon cells cotransfected with pSS-URG-based vectors expressing the eight viral RNA segments and four cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vectors that express the four proteins of the ISAV ribonucleoprotein complex allowed the generation of infectious recombinant ISAV (rISAV). We generated three recombinant viruses, wild-type rISAV(901_09) and rISAVr(S6-NotI-HPR) containing a NotI restriction site and rISAV(S6/EGFP-HPR) harboring the open reading frame of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), both within the highly polymorphic region (HPR) of segment 6. All rescued viruses showed replication activity and cytopathic effect in Atlantic salmon kidney-infected cells. The fluorescent recombinant viruses also showed a characteristic cytopathic effect in salmon cells, and the viruses replicated to a titer of 6.5105 PFU/ml,similar to that of the wild-type virus. This novel reverse genetics system offers a powerful tool to study the molecular biology of ISAV and to develop a new generation of ISAV vaccines to prevent and mitigate ISAV infection, which has had a profound effect on the salmon industry.

Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Isavirus/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Genética Reversa/métodos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Isavirus/química , Isavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Salmo salar/virologia , Replicação Viral