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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 23-31, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a pooled analysis of TRIBE and TRIBE2 studies to assess the efficacy and safety of the intensification of upfront chemotherapy backbone - from doublets to the triplet FOLFOXIRI - in combination with bevacizumab (bev) in patients with early-onset metastatic colorectal cancer (EO-mCRC; aged <50 years) and to explore whether EO-mCRCs have a peculiar tumour genomic profiling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgroup analyses according to age (<50 versus ≥50 years) and treatment (FOLFOXIRI/bev versus doublets/bev) were carried out for rates of any grade and grade ≥3 (≥G3) overall and singular adverse events, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). Tumour genomic profiling was obtained using a DNA-based next-generation sequencing platform. RESULTS: Of 1187 patients included, 194 (16%) patients were aged <50 years. Females were more frequently diagnosed with EO-mCRC (P = 0.04). Patients aged <50 years showed a lower risk of ≥G3 neutropenia (P = 0.07), diarrhoea (P = 0.04), asthenia (P = 0.008) and a higher risk of any grade nausea (P < 0.01) and vomiting (P < 0.01). Patients receiving FOLFOXIRI/bev more frequently experienced ≥G3 chemotherapy-related adverse events respect to doublets/bev, regardless of age (Pinteraction = 0.60). FOLFOXIRI/bev was associated to a lower incidence of neutropenia (P = 0.04) and asthenia (P = 0.01) in patients <50 years old, than those aged ≥50 years. PFS, OS and ORR did not differ according to age (PFS P = 0.81, OS P = 0.44, ORR P = 0.50) and no interaction between age and the benefit from the intensification of upfront chemotherapy was observed (PFS Pinteraction = 0.72, OS Pinteraction = 0.54, ORR Pinteraction = 0.65). Genomic profiling was assessed in 296 patients, showing an enrichment of FBXW7 and POLE mutations in EO-mCRC. CONCLUSIONS: Upfront FOLFOXIRI/bev shows a favourable efficacy/safety balance in EO-mCRC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers NCT00719797, NCT0233-9116.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neutropenia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Astenia/induzido quimicamente , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Compostos Organoplatínicos
2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103627, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202817

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Although no definitive data exist in literature, adjuvant chemotherapy is usually recommended in patients with radically resected stage III rectal cancer treated with neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. We performed a systematic review of literature with direct and indirect comparisons to assess the role of adjuvant mono- or poli-chemotherapy in radically resected rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Neither chemotherapy (mono-or poli-chemotherapy) nor polichemotherapy with oxaliplatin-containing regimens seems to improve Overall Survival and Disease-Free Survival in patients with radically resected rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemo-adiotherapy. Neither the entire population of patients radically resected after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nor high risk patients seem to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Our data seem to suggest the need of review the actual international guidelines that suggest the need of adjuvant chemotherapy at least in high risk rectal cancer treated with surgery and neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
3.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 103: 102326, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective series suggest that bevacizumab-induced hypertension (HTN) is a prognostic and potentially predictive biomarker of efficacy of the antiangiogenic drug in the upfront treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. The immortal-time bias and the effect of pre-existing HTN might affect these findings. We conducted a pooled, post hoc analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in mCRC, and performed a systematic review of the available literature focusing on how the immortal-time bias was taken into account and how pre-existing HTN potentially requiring the use of antihypertensive drugs was managed. METHODS: The pooled-analysis included patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE and TRIBE-2 studies that compared upfront FOLFOXIRI + bevacizumab to FOLFIRI or FOLFOX + bevacizumab, respectively. Association between HTN and survival outcomes was assessed by incorporating a time-dependent Cox regression model to consider the time-dependency of the probability of HTN onset during the treatment. The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The systematic review retrieved 14 eligible and highly heterogeneous studies. A positive prognostic impact of bevacizumab-induced HTN was reported in the 58% of the analyses reporting Progression Free Survival (PFS) and in the 54% of the analyses reporting Overall Survival (OS) data. Immortal-time bias was incorporated in 4 studies (28%). In TRIBE and TRIBE-2 study populations (N = 1175), patients experiencing ≥ G2 HTN during first-line bevacizumab administration showed longer PFS (median: 14.7 versus 10.3 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median: 31.7 versus 24.2 months, p < 0.001). The association with OS retained statistical significance after correction for time-dependency (p = 0.003) and was confirmed in the multivariable model including HTN as a time-dependent variable (p = 0.02). Moreover, in patients with pre-existing HTN, no difference in terms of PFS and OS was observed compared with the subgroup of patients who never experienced ≥G2 HTN (HR 1.01, p = 0.86 and HR 1.02, p = 0.78 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab-induced HTN during the first-line treatment of mCRC is an independent prognostic factor, also adopting a time-dependency correction. Toxicity should be interpreted as a time-dependent variable when exploring its association with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No standard therapies beyond first line are established for advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma (aSCAC). Earlier preliminary data suggest activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition and programmed cell death ligand (PD-(L))1 blockade in patients with previously treated disease. Aim of this study was to explore activity and safety of avelumab with/without cetuximab in patients with aSCAC. METHODS: In this open-label, non-comparative, 'pick the winner', multicenter randomized phase II trial (NCT03944252), patients with aSCAC progressing after one or more lines of treatment were randomized 1:1 to the anti-PD-L1 agent avelumab alone (arm A) or combined with cetuximab (arm B). Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary endpoint. With one-sided α error set at 0.05 and power of 80%, at least 4 responses out of 27 patients per arm had to be observed to declare the study positive. Secondary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Thirty patients per arm were enrolled. Three patients in arm A and five in arm B achieved partial response: primary endpoint was reached in combination arm. ORR was 10% (95% CI 2.1 to 26.5) and 17% (95% CI 5.6 to 34.7) in arms A and B; disease control rate was 50% (95% CI 31.3 to 68.7) in arm A and 57 (95% CI 37.4-74.5) in arm B. At a median follow-up of 26.7 months (IQR 26.5-26.9), median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI 1.8 to 4.0) in arm A and 3.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.6) in arm B. Median OS was 13.9 months (95% CI 7.7 to 19.4) in arm A and 7.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 11.2) in arm B. Acceptable safety profile was observed in both arms. CONCLUSIONS: CARACAS study met its primary endpoint in arm B, documenting promising activity of dual EGFR and PD-L1 blockade in aSCAC.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD) show high sensitivity to platinum salts and PARP-inhibitors in several malignancies. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the role of HRD alterations is mostly unknown. METHODS: Next generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing and whole exome sequencing were conducted using CRC samples submitted to a commercial Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certified laboratory. Tumors with pathogenic/presumed pathogenic mutations in 33 genes involved in the HR pathway were considered HRD, the others HR proficient (HRP). Furthermore, tumor samples from patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE2 study comparing upfront FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab versus FOLFOX/bevacizumab were analyzed with next generation sequencing. The analyses were separately conducted in microsatellite stable/proficient mismatch repair (MSS/pMMR) and microsatellite instable-high/deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) groups. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 9321 CRC tumors, 1270 (13.6%) and 8051 (86.4%) were HRD and HRP, respectively. HRD tumors were more frequent among MSI-H/dMMR than MSS/pMMR tumors (73.4% vs 9.5%, p and q < 0.001). In MSS/pMMR group, HRD tumors were more frequently tumor mutational burden high (8.1% vs 2.2% P and q < 0.001) and PD-L1 positive (5.0% vs 2.4%, P and q = 0.001), enriched in all immune cell and fibroblast populations, and genomic loss of heterozygosity-high (16.2% vs 9.5%, P = .03). In the TRIBE2 study, patients with MSS/pMMR and HRD tumors (10.7%) showed longer overall survival compared to MSS/pMMR and HRP ones (40.2 vs 23.8 months; hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.98, P = .04). Consistent results were reported in the multivariable model (hazard ratio = 0.67; 95% confidence ratio = 0.45-1.02, P = .07). No interaction effect was evident between HR groups and treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: HRD tumors are a distinctive subgroup of MSS/pMMR CRCs with specific molecular and prognostic characteristics. The potential efficacy of agents targeting the HR system and immune check-point inhibitors in this subgroup is worth of clinical investigation.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 73-84, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a comprehensive genomic profiling of tumour samples from metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in the TRIBE2 study to assess the concordance among different techniques to evaluate mismatch repair (MMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI) status, to characterize tumours according to the tumour mutational burden (TMB) and explore the clinical relevance of different TMB cutpoints, and to investigate the prevalence of alterations actionable with targeted approaches or immune checkpoint inhibitors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tumour samples of 296 (44%) of 679 enrolled patients underwent 592-gene DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS). MMR status was assessed by immunohistochemistry (MMR-IHC), and MSI status was assessed by NGS (MSI-NGS). TMB was defined as low, intermediate, or high if <7, 7-16, or ≥17 mutations/megabase (mut/Mb) were found. The performance of TMB to predict MSI status was tested by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Actionable alterations included BRAF V600E, KRAS G12C, POLE mutations, HER2 amplification and mutations, and MSI-H. RESULTS: Of 216 paired cases, concordance between MMR-IHC and MSI-NGS was 98.6%. Among 11 TMB-high tumours, eight (73%) were MSI-H and three (27%) were microsatellite stable and harboured POLE or MSH6 mutations. High TMB had a trend for a better outcome than low/intermediate TMB (hazard ratio for overall survival 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.28-1.33; P = 0.106). No interaction effect between TMB and treatment arm was observed. Seventeen mut/Mb was identified as the optimal threshold of TMB for predicting MSI status. Actionable alterations were found in 62 (21%) of 296 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic profiling provides an overview of the genomic landscape of mCRC in a single analysis, including actionable targets and markers of immune sensitivity.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200267

RESUMO

In resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC), the powerful positive prognostic effect and the potential predictive value for a lack of benefit from the combination of adjuvant/peri-operative chemotherapy for the MSI-high status was demonstrated. Given the high sensitivity of MSI-high tumors for immunotherapy, exploratory trials showed that combination immunotherapy induces a high rate of complete pathological response (pCR), potentially achieving cancer cure without surgery. INFINITY is an ongoing phase II, multicentre, single-arm, multi-cohort trial investigating the activity and safety of tremelimumab and durvalumab as neoadjuvant (Cohort 1) or potentially definitive (Cohort 2) treatment for MSI-high/dMMR/EBV-negative, resectable GC/GEJC. About 310 patients will be pre-screened, to enroll a total of 31 patients, 18 and 13 in Cohort 1 and 2, at 25 Italian Centres. The primary endpoint of Cohort 1 is rate of pCR (ypT0N0) and negative ctDNA after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, of Cohort 2 is 2-year complete response rate, defined as absence of macroscopic or microscopic residual disease (locally/regionally/distantly) at radiological examinations, tissue and liquid biopsy, during non-operative management without salvage gastrectomy. The ongoing INFINITY proof-of-concept study may provide evidence on immunotherapy and the potential omission of surgery in localized/locally advanced GC/GEJC patients selected for dMMR/MSI-high status eligible for radical resection.

8.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

9.
Future Oncol ; 17(18): 2315-2324, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663264

RESUMO

The international PRECONNECT Phase IIIb study demonstrated safety and efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil in the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Post-hoc analyses in a national context are important because of the differences in disease management across countries. Post-hoc safety and efficacy analyses in the PRECONNECT Italian patient subset were conducted. Patients' quality of life was assessed from baseline to end of treatment. In Italy, 161 patients were enrolled. The median age was 64 years, with a performance status of 0-1. The most common hematological drug-related adverse events ≥grade 3 were neutropenia (41.0%) and anemia (13.7%). The median progression-free survival was reached at 3.0 months, with a disease control rate of 28.6%. The Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 score improved in 25.4% of the patients. Safety, efficacy and quality of life results confirmed trifluridine/tipiracil as a feasible and favorable treatment option for metastatic colorectal cancer patients.


Lay abstract PRECONNECT is an international study demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of the drug combination trifluridine/tipiracil in adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in everyday clinical practice. For this publication, the authors conducted an analysis performed on the 161 Italian patients enrolled in this study. These kinds of analyses are important because of the differences that may arise across different countries. The most common contraindications were not dangerous to health. Furthermore, 3 months from beginning the medication, half of the patients did not show a worsening of the disease and quality of life during treatment was maintained. Clinical trial registration: NCT03306394 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Timina/uso terapêutico , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Future Oncol ; 17(14): 1749-1759, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464133

RESUMO

Aim: To help to remove misperception of an appropriate position of trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Materials & methods: The RAND Corporation/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used by a panel of Italian experts to develop recommendations concerning daily practice with FTD/TPI. Forty-three clinical scenarios were discussed in two rounds and the resulting statements were rated as appropriate, uncertain or inappropriate, according to the median score. Results: Several topics were dealt with, covering the profile of eligible patients, therapeutic options beyond the second line, the practice of treatment with FTD/TPI, evaluation and efficacy and toxicity, as well as costs and compliance. Conclusion: FTD/TPI is an important therapeutic resource in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that combines manageability and safety.


Lay abstract To remove misperception of trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. An established Method for evaluating appropriateness of new drugs was used. Forty-three clinical scenarios were discussed in two rounds and the resulting statements were rated as appropriate, uncertain or inappropriate, according to the median score. Several topics were dealt with, covering the profile of eligible patients, therapeutic options beyond the second line, efficacy and toxicity, as well as compliance. FTD/TPI is an important therapeutic resource in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that combines manageability and safety.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Oncologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Timina/administração & dosagem , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Consenso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Timina/efeitos adversos , Trifluridina/efeitos adversos
11.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 9379-9389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib has been approved in Italy since October 2019 as a first-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to date data on effectiveness and safety of lenvatinib are not available in our region. To fill this gap, we performed a multicentric analysis of the real-world treatment outcomes with the propensity score matching in a cohort of Italian patients with unresectable HCC who were treated with either sorafenib or lenvatinib. AIMS AND METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of sorafenib and lenvatinib as primary treatment of advanced HCC in clinical practice we performed a multicentric analysis of the treatment outcomes of 288 such patients recruited in 11 centers in Italy. A propensity score was used to mitigate confounding due to referral biases in the assessment of mortality and progression-free survival. RESULTS: Over a follow-up period of 11 months the Cox regression model showed 48% reduction of death risk for patients treated with lenvatinib (95% CI: 0.34-0.81; p = 0.0034), compared with those treated with sorafenib. The median PFS was 9.0 and 4.9 months for lenvatinib and sorafenib arm, respectively. Patients treated with lenvatinib showed a higher percentage of response rate (29.4% vs 2.8%; p < 0.00001) compared with patients treated with sorafenib. Sorafenib was shown to be correlated with more HFSR, diarrhea and fatigue, while lenvatinib with more hypertension and fatigue. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted for the first time the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in an Italian cohort of patients.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 81-89, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligometastatic disease (OMD) identifies tumours with limited metastatic spread. OMD definition is not univocal and no data from clinical trials are available about the prognostic effect of OMD in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the impact of locoregional treatments (LRTs) and the effect of chemotherapy intensification in these patients. The role of tumour burden (TB) in driving therapeutic choices is also debated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of phase III TRIBE and TRIBE2 studies comparing FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab (bev) to doublets (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI)/bev. Patients were grouped in OMD versus non-OMD based on the European Society for Medical Oncology definition. Among patients with OMD, those with OMD/low TB were compared with all the others. RESULTS: Of 1187 patients enrolled, 1096 were classified as OMD (N = 312 [28%]) or non-OMD (N = 784 [72%]). Among patients with OMD, 126 (40%) were OMD/low TB. OMD was associated with longer progression-free survival (14.0 versus 10.1 months; p < 0.01) and overall survival (38.2 versus 22.0 months; p < 0.01). These results were confirmed in multivariable models. The benefit provided by FOLFOXIRI/bev compared with doublets/bev did not differ in accordance with OMD and TB (p for interaction >0.05). Patients with OMD underwent LRTs more frequently (p < 0.01) and those with OMD/low TB had higher chance to undergo LRTs after the first progression (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: OMD is a positive prognostic factor in mCRC. The benefit from the upfront treatment intensification is independent of the metastatic spread extent and TB. LRTs should be highly considered in these patients, mainly during the first-line therapy but also at later stages of treatment history in selected cases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920929589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849914

RESUMO

Background: Despite effective treatments, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) prognosis is still poor, mostly in RAS-mutated tumors, thus suggesting the need for novel combinatorial therapies. Epigenetic alterations play an important role in initiation and progression of cancers, including CRC. Histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown activity in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of solid tumors. Owing to its HDACi activity and its safe use for epileptic disorders, valproic acid (VPA) is a good candidate for anticancer therapy that we have largely explored preclinically translating our findings in currently ongoing clinical studies. We have shown in CRC models that HDACi, including VPA, induces synergistic antitumor effects in combination with fluoropyrimidines. Furthermore, unpublished results from our group demonstrated that VPA induces differentiation and sensitization of CRC stem cells to oxaliplatin. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data suggest that HDACi may prevent/reverse anti-angiogenic resistance. Methods/Design: A randomized, open-label, two-arm, multicenter phase-II study will be performed to explore whether the addition of VPA to first line bevacizumab/oxaliplatin/fluoropyrimidine regimens (mFOLFOX-6/mOXXEL) might improve progression-free survival (PFS) in RAS-mutated mCRC patients. A sample size of 200 patients was calculated under the hypothesis that the addition of VPA to chemotherapy/bevacizumab can improve PFS from 9 to 12 months, with one-sided alpha of 0.20 and a power of 0.80. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, objective response rate, metastases resection rate, toxicity, and quality of life. Moreover, the study will explore several prognostic and predictive biomarkers on blood samples, primary tumors, and on resected metastases. Discussion: The "Revolution" study aims to improve the treatment efficacy of RAS-mutated mCRC through an attractive strategy evaluating the combination of VPA with standard cancer treatment. Correlative studies could identify novel biomarkers and could add new insight in the mechanism of interaction between VPA, fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab. Trial Registration: EudraCT: 2018-001414-15; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04310176.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 683, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) reported remarkable achievements in several solid tumours. However, in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) promising results are limited to patients with deficient mismatch repair/microsatellite instability-high (dMMR/MSI-high) tumours due to their immune-enriched microenvironment. Combining cytotoxic agents and bevacizumab in mCRC with proficient mismatch repair/microsatellite stability (pMMR/MSS) could make ICIs efficacious by increasing the exposure of neoantigens, especially with highly active chemotherapy regimens, inducing immunogenic cell death, increasing the tumoral infiltration of CD8+ T-cells and reducing tumour-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells. VEGF-blockade also plays an immunomodulatory role by inhibiting the expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes. Consistently with this rationale, a phase Ib study combined the anti-PDL-1 atezolizumab with FOLFOX/bevacizumab as first-line treatment of mCRC, irrespective of microsatellite status, and reported interesting activity and efficacy results, without safety concerns. Phase III trials led to identify FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab as an upfront therapeutic option in selected mCRC patients. Drawing from these considerations, the combination of atezolizumab with an intensified upfront treatment (FOLFOXIRI) and bevacizumab could be worthy of investigation. METHODS: AtezoTRIBE is a prospective, open label, phase II, comparative trial in which initially unresectable and previously untreated mCRC patients, irrespective of microsatellite status, are randomized in a 1:2 ratio to receive up to 8 cycles of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab alone or in combination with atezolizumab, followed by maintenance with bevacizumab plus 5-fluoruracil/leucovorin with or without atezolizumab according to treatment arm until disease progression. The primary endpoint is PFS. Assuming a median PFS of 12 months for standard arm, 201 patients should be randomized in a 1:2 ratio to detect a hazard ratio of 0.66 in favour of the experimental arm. A safety run-in phase including the first 6 patients enrolled in the FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab/atezolizumab arm was planned, and no unexpected adverse events or severe toxicities were highlighted by the Safety Monitoring Committee. DISCUSSION: The AtezoTRIBE study aims at assessing whether the addition of atezolizumab to an intensified chemotherapy plus bevacizumab might be an efficacious upfront strategy for the treatment of mCRC, irrespective of the microsatellite status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AtezoTRIBE is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03721653 ), October 26th, 2018 and at EUDRACT (2017-000977-35), Februray 28th, 2017.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Itália , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(17): 4485-4493, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: After 10 years of clinical practice and research studies, there are still no validated prognostic or predictive factors of response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). On the basis of the results of our two retrospective studies, we designed the multicenter INNOVATE study with the aim to validate the role of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and ANGPT2 polymorphisms in patients with HCC treated with sorafenib [NCT02786342]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective multicenter study was conducted at 10 centers in Italy. All eligible patients received a continuous oral treatment with 400 mg of sorafenib twice daily. Genotyping analysis was performed for NOS3 (rs2070744) and ANGPT2 SNPs (rs55633437). The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS), whereas secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS) and disease-control rate. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were enrolled between March 2016 and June 2018. NOS3 rs2070744 CC/CT genotypes were significantly associated with a higher median PFS (5.9 months vs. 2.4 months; HR = 0.43; P = 0.0007) and OS (15.7 months vs. 8.6 months; HR = 0.38; P < 0.0001) compared with TT genotype. There was no statistically significant association between ANGPT2 rs55633437 TT/GT genotypes and PFS (2.4 months vs. 5.7 months; HR = 1.93; P = 0.0833) and OS (15.1 months vs. 13.0 months; HR = 2.68; P = 0.55) when compared with the other genotype. Following adjustment for clinical covariates, multivariate analysis confirmed NOS3 as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR = 0.50; P = 0.0128) and OS (HR = 0.29; P = 0.0041). CONCLUSIONS: The INNOVATE study met the primary endpoint, confirming that patients with advanced HCC with NOS3 rs2070744 CC/CT genotypes had a better prognosis with respect to TT genotype patients.


Assuntos
Angiopoietina-2/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326305

RESUMO

Background. FOLFOXIRI plus Bevacizumab is one of the most frequently used first-line treatments for patients with BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer (CRC), while second-line treatment requires extensive further research. In this pooled analysis, we evaluate the impact of anti-angiogenics in patients with pre-treated BRAF-mutant CRC. Methods. We monitored patients in randomized, controlled studies who had advanced CRC and were undergoing second-line chemotherapy in addition to utilizing Bevacizumab, Ramucirumab or Aflibercept treatments. These data were pooled together with the data and results of BRAF-mutant patients enrolled in two phase III trials (TRIBE and TRIBE-2 study), who had been treated with second-line treatment both with or without Bevacizumab. Overall survival (OS), in relation to BRAF mutational status, was the primary focus. Results. Pooled analysis included 129 patients. Anti-angiogenics were found to have a significant advantage over the placebo in terms of OS (HR 0.50, 95%CI 0.29-0.85) (p = 0.01). Conclusions. Our pooled analysis confirms the efficacy of anti-angiogenics in pre-treated BRAF-mutant CRC, establishing the combination of chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab or Ramucirumab or Aflibercept as a valid treatment option.

17.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(2): 82-90.e9, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of head-to-head comparison studies, the present network meta-analysis evaluated and compared the efficacy of 4 therapeutic alternatives for refractory colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search focused on results from phase III randomized controlled trials. Separate (subgroup) network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain drug comparisons stratified by various patient characteristics. The principal outcome of interest was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: No difference in OS was found between regorafenib and TAS-102. For a rectal primary location, TAS-102 conferred benefit versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.671), but regorafenib did not (HR, 0.950). For patients aged > 65 years, TAS-102 showed benefit versus placebo (HR, 0.579) but regorafenib did not (HR, 0.816). For patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 in the indirect comparison, regorafenib showed benefit versus placebo (HR, 0.687), as did TAS-102 (HR, 0.756) but with a lower advantage. For patients with RAS wild type not previously treated with anti-EGFR antibodies, panitumumab was the optimal choice for OS. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in OS were found between regorafenib and TAS-102. Possible greater efficacy was found for TAS-102 compared with regorafenib for patients with a rectal primary location, ECOG PS > 0, and age > 65 years. In contrast, regorafenib showed possible greater effectiveness for patients with ECOG PS 0 and age < 65 years. In the RAS WT population, the anti-EGFR drug showed superiority with respect to TAS-102 and regorafenib. These results should be viewed as only exploratory, and further prospective studies are warranted to validate these data.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Timina/uso terapêutico , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Timina/farmacologia , Trifluridina/farmacologia
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(4): 497-507, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triplet FOLFOXIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) plus bevacizumab showed improved outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, compared with FOLFIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) plus bevacizumab. However, the actual benefit of the upfront exposure to the three cytotoxic drugs compared with a preplanned sequential strategy of doublets was not clear, and neither was the feasibility or efficacy of therapies after disease progression. We aimed to compare a preplanned strategy of upfront FOLFOXIRI followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression versus a sequence of mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and FOLFIRI doublets, in combination with bevacizumab. METHODS: TRIBE2 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised study of patients aged 18-75 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2, with unresectable, previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, recruited from 58 Italian oncology units. Patients were stratified according to centre, ECOG performance status, primary tumour location, and previous adjuvant chemotherapy. A randomisation system incorporating a minimisation algorithm was used to randomly assign patients (1:1) via a masked web-based allocation procedure to two different treatment strategies. In the control group, patients received first-line mFOLFOX6 (85 mg/m2 of intravenous oxaliplatin concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin over 120 min; 400 mg/m2 intravenous bolus of fluorouracil; 2400 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg intravenously over 30 min) followed by FOLFIRI (180 mg/m2 of intravenous irinotecan over 120 min concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin; 400 mg/m2 intravenous bolus of fluorouracil; 2400 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab after disease progression. In the experimental group, patients received FOLFOXIRI (165 mg/m2 of intravenous irinotecan over 60 min; 85 mg/m2 intravenous oxaliplatin concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin over 120 min; 3200 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression. Combination treatments were repeated every 14 days for up to eight cycles followed by fluorouracil and leucovorin (at the same dose administered at the last induction cycle) plus bevacizumab maintenance until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, or consent withdrawal. Patients and investigators were not masked. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival 2, defined as the time from randomisation to disease progression on any treatment given after first disease progression, or death, analysed by intention to treat. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. Study recruitment is complete and follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02339116. FINDINGS: Between Feb 26, 2015, and May 15, 2017, 679 patients were randomly assigned and received treatment (340 in the control group and 339 in the experimental group). At data cut-off (July 30, 2019) median follow-up was 35·9 months (IQR 30·1-41·4). Median progression-free survival 2 was 19·2 months (95% CI 17·3-21·4) in the experimental group and 16·4 months (15·1-17·5) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·63-0·88; p=0·0005). During the first-line treatment, the most frequent of all-cause grade 3-4 events were diarrhoea (57 [17%] vs 18 [5%]), neutropenia (168 [50%] vs 71 [21%]), and arterial hypertension (25 [7%] vs 35 [10%]) in the experimental group compared with the control group. Serious adverse events occurred in 84 (25%) patients in the experimental group and in 56 (17%) patients in the control group. Eight treatment-related deaths were reported in the experimental group (two intestinal occlusions, two intestinal perforations, two sepsis, one myocardial infarction, and one bleeding) and four in the control group (two occlusions, one perforation, and one pulmonary embolism). After first disease progression, no substantial differences in the incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported between the control and experimental groups, with the exception of neurotoxicity, which was only reported in the experimental group (six [5%] of 132 patients). Serious adverse events after disease progression occurred in 20 (15%) patients in the experimental group and 25 (12%) in the control group. Three treatment-related deaths after first disease progression were reported in the experimental group (two intestinal occlusions and one sepsis) and four in the control group (one intestinal occlusion, one intestinal perforation, one cerebrovascular event, and one sepsis). INTERPRETATION: Upfront FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression seems to be a preferable therapeutic strategy to sequential administration of chemotherapy doublets, in combination with bevacizumab, for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer selected according to the study criteria. FUNDING: The GONO Cooperative Group, the ARCO Foundation, and F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Gastrointest Tumors ; 6(3-4): 92-107, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768353

RESUMO

Background: Sorafenib has been established as the standard of care for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 2007 on the basis of two landmark trials (SHARP and Asia-Pacific). Ten years have passed since then and, despite much research in the field, still no validated real-life prognostic markers are available for HCC patients treated with this drug. Therefore, going through 10 years of research into sorafenib of several Italian Cancer Centers, we conducted a field-practice study aimed at identifying baseline clinical factors that could be significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Method: Univariate/multivariate analyses were conducted to retrospectively identify the impact of baseline characteristics on the OS of 398 advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Results: Based on univariate analysis, α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin, AST, bilirubin, Child-Pugh, ECOG, systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, and portal vein thrombosis were significantly associated with shorter OS. Following adjustment for clinical covariates positive in univariate analysis, the multivariate analysis including AFP, age, etiology, albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), bilirubin, Child-Pugh, LDH, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, ECOG, ALBI grade, portal vein thrombosis, SII, and BCLC stage identified increase in LDH, age >70 years, no viral etiologies, ECOG >0, albumin <35, ALBI grade 2, and AST >40 as prognostic factors for poorer OS based on the 5% significance level. Conclusion: Our study highlights that baseline hepatic function, patient-centered variables, and etiology have prognostic value. These findings might have implications in terms of therapeutic decision-making and patient counseling.

20.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 2981-2988, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118665

RESUMO

Purpose: Sorafenib is the only approved drug in first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, the Phase III REFLECT trial proved lenvatinib not inferior to sorafenib, potentially establishing a new standard of care in this setting. The study showed that both have similar overall survivals, yet with longer time to progression for lenvatinib. Currently, the selection of one or other is not based on clinical or biological parameters for this reason we performed a network meta-analysis and we also analyzed the REFLECT trial and its implications in the current and future clinical practice. Materials and methods: We performed the meta-analysis according to the Prisma statement recommendations. HR was the measure of association for time to progression and overall survival. The pooled analysis of HR was performed using a random effect model, fixing a 5% error as index of statistical significance. Results: For HBV-positive patients, there was a clear trend in favor of lenvatinib over sorafenib (HR 0.82 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.60-1.15). For HCV-positive no differences between lenvatinib and sorafenib were observed (HR 0.91 95% CrI 0.41-2.01). The data showed that lenvatinib could be the best drug for HBV-positive patients in 59% of cases compared to only 1% of patients treated with sorafenib. Conclusion: The identification of clinical or biological markers that could predict response or resistance to treatments is needed to guide treatment decision. This network meta-analysis demonstrates that the etiology is a good candidate and this result should be validated in a specific trial.

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