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Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977


The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

JAMA Neurol ; 72(9): 1021-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26167811


IMPORTANCE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are collections of blood breakdown products that are a common incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging of elderly individuals. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with cognitive deficits, but the mechanism is unclear. Studies show that individuals with CMBs related to symptomatic cerebral amyloid angiopathy have abnormal vascular reactivity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but, to our knowledge, abnormalities in cerebral blood flow have not been reported for healthy individuals with incidental CMBs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of incidental CMBs with resting-state CBF, cerebral metabolism, cerebrovascular disease, ß-amyloid (Aß), and cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of 55 cognitively normal individuals with a mean (SD) age of 86.8 (2.7) years was conducted from May 1, 2010, to May 1, 2013, in an academic medical center in Pittsburgh; data analysis was performed between June 10, 2013, and April 9, 2015. INTERVENTIONS: 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was performed with susceptibility-weighted imaging or gradient-recalled echo to assess CMBs, arterial spin labeling for CBF, and T1- and T2-weighted imaging for atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and infarcts. Positron emission tomography was conducted with fluorodeoxyglucose to measure cerebral metabolism and Pittsburgh compound B for fibrillar Aß. Neuropsychological evaluation, including the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, was performed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Magnetic resonance images were rated for the presence and location of CMBs. Lobar CMBs were subclassified as cortical or subcortical. Measurements of CBF, metabolism, and Aß were compared with the presence and number of CMBs with voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses. RESULTS: The presence of cortical CMBs was associated with significantly reduced CBF in multiple regions on voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses (percentage difference in global CBF, -25.3%; P = .0003), with the largest reductions in the parietal cortex (-37.6%; P < .0001) and precuneus (-31.8%; P = .0006). Participants with any CMBs showed a nonsignificant trend toward reduced CBF. Participants with cortical CMBs had a significant association with greater prevalence of infarcts (24% vs 6%; P = .047) and demonstrated a trend to greater prevalence of deficits demonstrated on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (45% vs 19%; P = .12). There was no difference in cortical amyloid (measured by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography) between participants with and without CMBs (P = .60). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In cognitively normal elderly individuals, incidental CMBs in cortical locations are associated with widespread reductions in resting-state CBF. Chronic hypoperfusion may put these people at risk for neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. Our results suggest that resting-state CBF is a marker of CMB-related small-vessel disease.

Envelhecimento/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/epidemiologia , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
Psychiatry Res ; 214(3): 313-21, 2013 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24144505


Indices of functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) are promising neural markers of treatment response in late-life depression. We examined the differences in DMN functional connectivity between treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant depressed older adults. Forty-seven depressed older adults underwent MRI scanning pre- and post-pharmacotherapy. Forty-six never depressed older adults underwent MR scanning as comparison subjects. Treatment response was defined as achieving a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of 10 or less post-treatment. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity using the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region-of-interest. The resulting correlation maps were employed to investigate between-group differences. Additionally we examined the association between white matter hyperintensity burden and functional connectivity results. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment scans of depressed participants revealed greater post-treatment functional connectivity in the frontal precentral gyrus. Relative to treatment-responsive participants, treatment-resistant participants had increased functional connectivity in the left striatum. When adjusting for white matter hyperintensity burden, the observed differences lost significance for the PCC-prefrontal functional connectivity, but not for the PCC-striatum functional connectivity. The post-treatment "frontalization" of the DMN connectivity suggests a normalizing effect of antidepressant treatment. Moreover, our study confirms the central role of white matter lesions in disrupting brain functional connectivity.

Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Descanso , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neostriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neostriado/patologia , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento