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3.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) related to intravenous drug use (IVDU) can follow an acute fulminant course. However, there is limited information on its longer-term clinical outcomes. AIM AND METHODS: We assessed a cohort of consecutive patients who presented with IVDU complicated by severe tricuspid valve regurgitation to determine their presentation, treatment, and long-term outcomes. In this study, severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was defined by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging criteria at initial presentation to the hospital. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with a mean age of 35 ± 18 years (72% males) presented with IVDU associated with severe TR. At the initial presentation, 15 patients were in septic shock and required inotropes. 26 patients had septic pulmonary emboli; 10 patients had associated metastatic systemic sites of infection of which 5 patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Three patients were in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and 1 patient had multi-organ failure (MOF), but not requiring dialysis or mechanical ventilation. Most patients had large tricuspid valve vegetations of >20mm. Eleven patients underwent surgery with 18% perioperative mortality. The Median follow-up was 6.4 years (0.5-11.4). Recurrent IE occurred in one-third of patients, the overall incidence of heart failure and Atrial fibrillation (AF) on follow-up was low in all 3 groups. Five-year survival was 94%. CONCLUSION: Acute severe TR following associated endocarditis IVDU results in a fulminant initial presentation, but a longer-term prognosis is good with surgical and medical treatment.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554228

RESUMO

We studied the performance of an algorithm combining multiplex-PCR with phenotypic detection of ESBLs and carbapenemases directly from positive blood culture bottles in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia and found good concordance with routine cultures. Such an algorithm may be a tool to improve time-to-optimal therapy in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple SARS-CoV-2 superspreading events suggest that aerosols play an important role in driving the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand how airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurs, we sought to determine viral loads within coarse (>5µm) and fine (≤5µm) respiratory aerosols produced when breathing, talking, and singing. METHODS: Using a G-II exhaled breath collector, we measured viral RNA in coarse and fine respiratory aerosols emitted by COVID-19 patients during 30 minutes of breathing, 15 minutes of talking, and 15 minutes of singing. RESULTS: Thirteen participants (59%) emitted detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory aerosols, including 3 asymptomatic and 1 presymptomatic patient. Viral loads ranged from 63-5,821 N gene copies per expiratory activity per participant, with high person-to-person variation. Patients earlier in illness were more likely to emit detectable RNA. Two participants, sampled on day 3 of illness, accounted for 52% of the total viral load. Overall, 94% of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies were emitted by talking and singing. Interestingly, 7 participants emitted more virus from talking than singing. Overall, fine aerosols constituted 85% of the viral load detected in our study. Virus cultures were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Fine aerosols produced by talking and singing contain more SARS-CoV-2 copies than coarse aerosols and may play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Exposure to fine aerosols, especially indoors, should be mitigated. Isolating viable SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory aerosol samples remains challenging, and whether this can be more easily accomplished for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is an urgent enquiry necessitating larger-scale studies.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397705

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1400-1406, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362659

RESUMO

This guideline contains updated recommendations on the management and prevention of CAUTIs by the Urological Association of Asia and the Asian Association of Urinary Tract Infection and Sexually Transmitted Infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções Urinárias , Ásia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres , Humanos , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 391-394, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216133

RESUMO

There have been recent descriptions of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting as 'varicella-like exanthem'. We report three cases of patients with Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) and COVID-19 co-infections, presenting in three varied ways. These cases highlight the need for heightened alertness to how such co-infections can present, to pick up overlapping 'dual pathologies' during this current pandemic given that infection control measures including airborne precautions are crucial for both COVID-19 and VZV.

10.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 1018-1035, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191294

RESUMO

There are over 50 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines undergoing Phase II and III clinical trials. Several vaccines have been approved by regulatory authorities and rolled out for use in different countries. Due to concerns of potential teratogenicity or adverse effect on maternal physiology, pregnancy has been a specific exclusion criterion for most vaccine trials with only two trials not excluding pregnant women. Thus, other than limited animal studies, gradually emerging development and reproductive toxicity data, and observational data from vaccine registries, there is a paucity of reliable information to guide recommendations for the safe vaccination of pregnant women. Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, especially in women with comorbidities, resulting in increased rates of preterm birth and maternal morbidity. We discuss the major SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, their mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety profile and possible benefits to the maternal-fetal dyad to create a rational approach towards maternal vaccination while anticipating and mitigating vaccine-related complications. Pregnant women with high exposure risks or co-morbidities predisposing to severe COVID-19 infection should be prioritised for vaccination. Those with risk factors for adverse effects should be counselled accordingly. It is essential to support patient autonomy by shared decision-making involving a risk-benefit discussion with the pregnant woman.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Vacinação/ética
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 81, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computerisation of various processes in hospitals and reliance on electronic devices raises the concern of contamination of these devices from the patient environment. We undertook this study to determine if an attached hand hygiene device that unlocks the screen of a computer on wheels (COW) on usage can be effective in decreasing the microbiological burden on computer keyboards. METHODS: An electronic hand sanitizer was integrated onto the COW. A prospective cohort study with a crossover design involving 2 control and 2 intervention wards was used. The study end point was the number of colony forming units found on the keyboards. Bacteria were classified into 4 main groups; pathogenic, skin flora, from the environment or those thought to be commensals in healthy individuals. We then used a mixed effects model for the statistical analysis to determine if there were any differences before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-nine keyboards were swabbed at baseline, day 7 and 14, with 234 keyboards cultured, colony forming units (CFUs) counted and organisms isolated. By mixed model analysis, the difference of mean bacteria count between intervention and control for week 1 was 32.74 (- 32.74, CI - 94.29 to 28.75, p = 0.29), for week 2 by 155.86 (- 155.86, CI - 227.45 to - 83.53, p < 0.0001), and after the 2-week period by 157.04 (- 157.04, CI - 231.53 to - 82.67, p < 0.0001). In the sub-analysis, there were significant differences of pathogenic bacteria counts for the Intervention as compared to the Control in contrast with commensal counts. CONCLUSION: A hand hygiene device attached to a COW may be effective in decreasing the microbiological burden on computer keyboards.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e050105, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Using short-course antibiotics to treat VAP caused by Gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria has been reported to be associated with excess pneumonia recurrences. The "REducinG Antibiotic tReatment Duration for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia" (REGARD-VAP) trial aims to provide evidence for using a set of reproducible clinical criteria to shorten antibiotic duration for individualised treatment duration of VAP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised controlled hierarchical non-inferiority-superiority trial being conducted in ICUs across Nepal, Thailand and Singapore. The primary outcome is a composite endpoint of death and pneumonia recurrence at day 60. Secondary outcomes include ventilator-associated events, multidrug-resistant organism infection or colonisation, total duration of antibiotic exposure, mechanical ventilation and hospitalisation. Adult patients who satisfy the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network VAP diagnostic criteria are enrolled. Participants are assessed daily until fever subsides for >48 hours and have stable blood pressure, then randomised to a short duration treatment strategy or a standard-of-care duration arm. Antibiotics may be stopped as early as day 3 if respiratory cultures are negative, and day 5 if respiratory cultures are positive in the short-course arm. Participants receiving standard-of-care will receive antibiotics for at least 8 days. Study participants are followed for 60 days after enrolment. An estimated 460 patients will be required to achieve 80% power to determine non-inferiority with a margin of 12%. All outcomes are compared by absolute risk differences. The conclusion of non-inferiority, and subsequently superiority, will be based on unadjusted and adjusted analyses in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received approvals from the Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee and the respective study sites. Results will be disseminated to patients, their caregivers, physicians, the funders, the critical care societies and other researchers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03382548.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Duração da Terapia , Humanos , Nepal , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Singapura , Tailândia
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885771

RESUMO

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombectomia/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Convalescença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/etnologia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Singapura/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 314-322, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether existing licensed pharmacotherapies could reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An open-label parallel randomized controlled trial was performed among healthy migrant workers quarantined in a large multi-storey dormitory in Singapore. Forty clusters (each defined as individual floors of the dormitory) were randomly assigned to receive a 42-day prophylaxis regimen of either oral hydroxychloroquine (400 mg once, followed by 200 mg/day), oral ivermectin (12 mg once), povidone-iodine throat spray (3 times/day, 270 µg/day), oral zinc (80 mg/day)/vitamin C (500 mg/day) combination, or oral vitamin C, 500 mg/day. The primary outcome was laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as shown by either: (1) a positive serologic test for SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day 42, or (2) a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at any time between baseline and day 42. RESULTS: A total of 3037 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 33.0 years; all men) who were seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline were included in the primary analysis. Follow-up was nearly complete (99.6%). Compared with vitamin C, significant absolute risk reductions (%, 98.75% confidence interval) were observed for oral hydroxychloroquine (21%, 2-42%) and povidone-iodine throat spray (24%, 7-39%). No statistically significant differences were observed with oral zinc/vitamin C combination (23%, -5 to +41%) and ivermectin (5%, -10 to +22%). Interruptions due to side effects were highest among participants who received zinc/vitamin C combination (6.9%), followed by vitamin C (4.7%), povidone-iodine (2.0%), and hydroxychloroquine (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemoprophylaxis with either oral hydroxychloroquine or povidone-iodine throat spray was superior to oral vitamin C in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection in young and healthy men.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Faringe , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(1): 187-190, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804372

RESUMO

Cefazolin is a widely used first-generation cephalosporin. While generally well tolerated, several case reports have described severe coagulopathy induced by intravenous (IV) cefazolin. This was seen particularly in patients with impaired renal function, where antibiotic choice is limited and may require specific dose adjustments. Altered renal handling of antibiotics and their metabolites may potentiate toxicity and side effects. We report a case of a 72-year-old Chinese man who had been treated for methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, coagulase-positive) infective endocarditis with cefazolin and, consequently, developed significantly elevated international normalised ratio (INR) while on therapy. This resolved within 48 h after cessation of cefazolin and administration of oral vitamin K. Malnourished patients with pre-existing or acute kidney injury may be at an increased risk of cefazolin-related coagulopathy.

17.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646265

RESUMO

The efficacy of virus-specific T cells in clearing pathogens involves a fine balance between antiviral and inflammatory features. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals who clear SARS-CoV-2 without symptoms could reveal nonpathological yet protective characteristics. We longitudinally studied SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic (n = 85) and symptomatic (n = 75) COVID-19 patients after seroconversion. We quantified T cells reactive to structural proteins (M, NP, and Spike) using ELISpot and cytokine secretion in whole blood. Frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were similar between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, but the former showed an increased IFN-γ and IL-2 production. This was associated with a proportional secretion of IL-10 and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß) only in asymptomatic infection, while a disproportionate secretion of inflammatory cytokines was triggered by SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activation in symptomatic individuals. Thus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are not characterized by weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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