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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510706

RESUMO

The challenges to accommodate multiple tissue formation metrics in conventional bioreactors have resulted in an increased interest to explore novel bioreactor designs. Bioreactors allow researchers to isolate variables in controlled environments to quantify cell response. While current bioreactor designs can effectively provide either mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimuli to the controlled environment, these systems lack the ability to combine all these stimuli simultaneously to better recapitulate the physiological environment. Introducing a dynamic and systematic combination of biomimetic stimuli bioreactor systems could tremendously enhance its clinical relevance in research. Thus, cues from different tissue responses should be studied collectively and included in the design of a biomimetic bioreactor platform. This review begins by providing a summary on the progression of bioreactors from simple to complex designs, focusing on the major advances in bioreactor technology and the approaches employed to better simulate in vivo conditions. The current state of bioreactors in terms of their clinical relevance is also analyzed. Finally, this review provides a comprehensive overview of individual biophysical stimuli and their role in establishing a biomimetic microenvironment for tissue engineering. To date, the most advanced bioreactor designs only incorporate one or two stimuli. Thus, the cell response measured is likely unrelated to the actual clinical performance. Integrating clinically relevant stimuli in bioreactor designs to study cell response can further advance the understanding of physical phenomenon naturally occurring in the body. In the future, the clinically informed biomimetic bioreactor could yield more efficiently translatable results for improved patient care.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207218

RESUMO

Resin-based composite materials have been widely used in restorative dental materials due to their aesthetic, mechanical, and physical properties. However, they still encounter clinical shortcomings mainly due to recurrent decay that develops at the composite-tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth is intended to seal this interface, but the adhesive seal is inherently defective and readily damaged by acids, enzymes, and oral fluids. Bacteria infiltrate the resulting gaps at the composite-tooth interface and bacterial by-products demineralize the tooth and erode the adhesive. These activities lead to wider and deeper gaps that provide an ideal environment for bacteria to proliferate. This complex degradation process mediated by several biological and environmental factors damages the tooth, destroys the adhesive seal, and ultimately, leads to failure of the composite restoration. This paper describes a co-tethered dual peptide-polymer system to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability. The adhesive system incorporates an antimicrobial peptide to inhibit bacterial attack and a hydroxyapatite-binding peptide to promote remineralization of damaged tooth structure. A designer spacer sequence was incorporated into each peptide sequence to not only provide a conjugation site for methacrylate (MA) monomer but also to retain active peptide conformations and enhance the display of the peptides in the material. The resulting MA-antimicrobial peptides and MA-remineralization peptides were copolymerized into dental adhesives formulations. The results on the adhesive system composed of co-tethered peptides demonstrated both strong metabolic inhibition of S. mutans and localized calcium phosphate remineralization. Overall, the result offers a reconfigurable and tunable peptide-polymer hybrid system as next-generation adhesives to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/química , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Remineralização Dentária/métodos
3.
Front Mater ; 82021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113623

RESUMO

The interfaces that biological tissues form with biomaterials are invariably defective and frequently the location where failure initiates. Characterizing the phenomena that lead to failure is confounded by several factors including heterogeneous material/tissue interfaces. To seamlessly analyze across these diverse structures presents a wealth of analytical challenges. This study aims to develop a molecular-level understanding of a peptide-functionalized adhesive/collagen hybrid biomaterial using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics approach. An engineered hydroxyapatite-binding peptide (HABP) was copolymerized in dentin adhesive and dentin was demineralized to provide collagen matrices that were partially infiltrated with the peptide-functionalized adhesive. Partial infiltration led to pockets of exposed collagen-a condition that simulates defects in adhesive/dentin interfaces. The spectroscopic results indicate that co-polymerizable HABP tethered to the adhesive promoted remineralization of the defects. The spatial distribution of collagen, adhesive, and mineral as well as crystallinity of the mineral across this heterogeneous material/tissue interface was determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics approach. The success of this combined approach in the characterization of material/tissue interfaces stems from its ability to extract quality parameters that are related to the essential and relevant portions of the spectral data, after filtering out noise and non-relevant information. This ability is critical when it is not possible to separate components for analysis such as investigations focused on, in situ chemical characterization of interfaces. Extracting essential information from complex bio/material interfaces using data driven approaches will improve our understanding of heterogeneous material/tissue interfaces. This understanding will allow us to identify key parameters within the interfacial micro-environment that should be harnessed to develop durable biomaterials.

4.
Langmuir ; 37(24): 7536-7547, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102059

RESUMO

Controlling enzyme orientation and location on surfaces is a critical step for their successful deployment in diverse applications from biosensors to lab-on-a-chip devices. Functional activity of the enzymes on the surface will largely depend on the spatial arrangement and orientation. Solid binding peptides have been proven to offer versatility for immobilization of biomolecules on inorganic materials including metals, oxides, and minerals. Previously, we demonstrated the utility of a gold binding peptide genetically incorporated into the enzyme putrescine oxidase (PutOx-AuBP), enabling self-enzyme assembly on gold substrates. PutOx is an attractive biocatalyst among flavin oxidases, using molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor without requiring a dissociable coenzyme. Here, we explore the selective self-assembly of this enzyme on a range of surfaces using atomic force microscopy (AFM) along with the assessment of functional activity. This work probes the differences in surface coverage, distribution, size, shape, and activity of PutOx-AuBP in comparison to those of native putrescine oxidase (PutOx) on multiple surfaces to provide insight for material-selective enzymatic assembly. Surfaces investigated include metal (templated-stripped gold (TSG)), oxide (native SiO2 on Si(111)), minerals (mica and graphite), and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with a range of hydrophobicity and charge. Supported by both the coverage and the dimensions of immobilized enzymes, our results indicate that of the surfaces investigated, material-selective binding takes place with orientation control only for PutOx-AuBP onto the TSG substrate. These differences are consistent with the measurements of surface-bound enzymatic activities. Substrate-dependent differences observed indicate significant variations in enzyme-surface interactions ranging from peptide-directed self-assembly to enzyme aggregation. The implications of this study provide insight for the fabrication of enzymatic patterns directed by self-assembling peptide tags onto localized surface regions. Enabling functional enzyme-based nanoscale materials offers a fascinating path for utilization of sustainable biocatalysts integrated into multiscale devices.


Assuntos
Ouro , Dióxido de Silício , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH , Peptídeos , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 239, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current methods in machine learning provide approaches for solving challenging, multiple constraint design problems. While deep learning and related neural networking methods have state-of-the-art performance, their vulnerability in decision making processes leading to irrational outcomes is a major concern for their implementation. With the rising antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have increasingly gained attention as novel therapeutic agents. This challenging design problem requires peptides which meet the multiple constraints of limiting drug-resistance in bacteria, preventing secondary infections from imbalanced microbial flora, and avoiding immune system suppression. AMPs offer a promising, bioinspired design space to targeting antimicrobial activity, but their versatility also requires the curated selection from a combinatorial sequence space. This space is too large for brute-force methods or currently known rational design approaches outside of machine learning. While there has been progress in using the design space to more effectively target AMP activity, a widely applicable approach has been elusive. The lack of transparency in machine learning has limited the advancement of scientific knowledge of how AMPs are related among each other, and the lack of general applicability for fully rational approaches has limited a broader understanding of the design space. METHODS: Here we combined an evolutionary method with rough set theory, a transparent machine learning approach, for designing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Our method achieves the customization of AMPs using supervised learning boundaries. Our system employs in vitro bacterial assays to measure fitness, codon-representation of peptides to gain flexibility of sequence selection in DNA-space with a genetic algorithm and machine learning to further accelerate the process. RESULTS: We use supervised machine learning and a genetic algorithm to find a peptide active against S. epidermidis, a common bacterial strain for implant infections, with an improved aggregation propensity average for an improved ease of synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that AMP design can be customized to maintain activity and simplify production. To our knowledge, this is the first time when codon-based genetic algorithms combined with rough set theory methods is used for computational search on peptide sequences.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
6.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 120: 104563, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940485

RESUMO

The mechanical performance of the dentin-adhesive interface contributes significantly to the failure of dental composite restorations. Rational material design can lead to enhanced mechanical performance, but this requires accurate characterization of the mechanical behavior at the dentin-adhesive interface. The mechanical performance of the interface is typically characterized using bond strength tests, such as the micro-tensile test. These tests are plagued by multiple limitations including large variations in the test results. The challenges associated with conventional tensile tests limit our ability to unravel the complex relationships that affect mechanical behavior at the dentin-adhesive interface. This study used the diametral compression test to overcome the challenges inherent in conventional bond strength tests. The bovine femur cortical bone tissue was considered as a surrogate material (the mineralized tissue) for human dentin. Two different adhesive formulations, which differed by means of their self-strengthening properties, were studied. The tensile behavior of the mineralized tissue, the adhesive polymer, and the bond strength of the mineralized tissue - adhesive interface was determined using the diametral compression test. The diametral compression test improved the repeatability for both the tensile and bond strength tests. The rate dependent mechanical behavior was observed for both single material and interfacial material systems. The tensile strength and bond strength of the mineralized tissue-adhesive interface was greater for the self-strengthening formulation as compared to the control.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Adesivos Teciduais , Animais , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
7.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104135, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160267

RESUMO

Resin-based composite has overtaken dental amalgam as the most popular material for the repair of lost or damaged tooth structure. In spite of the popularity, the average composite lifetime is about half that of amalgam restorations. The leading cause of composite-restoration failure is decay at the margin where the adhesive is applied. The adhesive is intended to seal the composite/tooth interface, but the adhesive seal to dentin is fragile and readily degraded by acids, enzymes and other oral fluids. The inherent weakness of this material system is attributable to several factors including the lack of antimicrobial properties, remineralization capabilities and durable mechanical performance - elements that are central to the integrity of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interfacial seal. Our approach to this problem offers a transition from a hybrid to a biohybrid structure. Discrete peptides are tethered to polymers to provide multi-bio-functional adhesive formulations that simultaneously achieve antimicrobial and remineralization properties. The bio-additive materials design combines several functional properties with the goal of providing an adhesive that will serve as a durable barrier to recurrent decay at the composite/tooth interface. This article provides an overview of our multi-faceted approach which uses peptides tethered to polymers and new polymer chemistries to achieve the next generation adhesive system - an adhesive that provides antimicrobial properties, repair of defective dentin and enhanced mechanical performance.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Colagem Dentária , Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dentina , Cimentos de Resina
8.
Langmuir ; 36(40): 11908-11917, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921059

RESUMO

Flavin oxidases are valuable biocatalysts for the oxidative synthesis of a wide range of compounds, while at the same time reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Compared to other redox enzymes, their ability to use molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor offers a relatively simple system that does not require a dissociable coenzyme. As such, they are attractive targets for adaptation as cost-effective biosensor elements. Their functional immobilization on surfaces offers unique opportunities to expand their utilization for a wide range of applications. Genetically engineered peptides have been demonstrated as enablers of the functional assembly of biomolecules at solid material interfaces. Once identified as having a high affinity for the material of interest, these peptides can provide a single step bioassembly process with orientation control, a critical parameter for functional immobilization of the enzymes. In this study, for the first time, we explored the bioassembly of a putrescine oxidase enzyme using a gold binding peptide tag. The enzyme was genetically engineered to incorporate a gold binding peptide with an expectation of an effective display of the peptide tag to interact with the gold surface. In this work, the functional activity and expression were investigated, along with the selectivity of the binding of the peptide-tagged enzyme. The fusion enzyme was characterized using multiple techniques, including protein electrophoresis, enzyme activity, and microscopy and spectroscopic methods, to verify the functional expression of the tagged protein with near-native activity. Binding studies using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), nanoparticle binding studies, and atomic force microscopy studies were used to address the selectivity of the binding through the peptide tag. Surface binding AFM studies show that the binding was selective for gold. Quartz crystal microbalance studies show a strong increase in the affinity of the peptide-tagged protein over the native enzyme, while activity assays of protein bound to nanoparticles provide evidence that the enzyme retained catalytic activity when immobilized. In addition to showing selectivity, AFM images show significant differences in the height of the molecules when immobilized through the peptide tag compared to immobilization of the native enzyme, indicating differences in orientation of the bound enzyme when attached via the affinity tag. Controlling the orientation of surface-immobilized enzymes would further improve their enzymatic activity and impact diverse applications, including oxidative biocatalysis, biosensors, biochips, and biofuel production.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Ouro , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH , Peptídeos
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932724

RESUMO

The inherent degradation property of most dental resins in the mouth leads to the long-term release of degradation by-products at the adhesive/tooth interface. The by-products increase the virulence of cariogenic bacteria, provoking a degradative positive-feedback loop that leads to physicochemical and mechanical failure. Photoinduced free-radical polymerization and sol‒gel reactions have been coupled to produce a novel autonomous-strengthening adhesive with enhanced hydrolytic stability. This paper investigates the effect of network structure on time-dependent mechanical properties in adhesives with and without autonomous strengthening. Stress relaxation was conducted under 0.2% strain for 8 h followed by 40 h recovery in water. The stress‒time relationship is analyzed by nonlinear least-squares data-fitting. The fitted Prony series predicts the sample's history under monotonic loading. Results showed that the control failed after the first loading‒unloading‒recovery cycle with permanent deformation. While for the experimental sample, the displacement was almost completely recovered and the Young's modulus increased significantly after the first test cycle. The experimental polymer exhibited higher degree of conversion, lower leachate, and time-dependent stiffening characteristics. The autonomous-strengthening reaction persists in the aqueous environment leading to a network with enhanced resistance to deformation. The results illustrate a rational approach for tuning the viscoelasticity of durable dental adhesives.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(38): 8713-8747, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747882

RESUMO

Dental clinicians have relied for centuries on traditional dental materials (polymers, ceramics, metals, and composites) to restore oral health and function to patients. Clinical outcomes for many crucial dental therapies remain poor despite many decades of intense research on these materials. Recent attention has been paid to biomolecules as a chassis for engineered preventive, restorative, and regenerative approaches in dentistry. Indeed, biomolecules represent a uniquely versatile and precise tool to enable the design and development of bioinspired multifunctional dental materials to spur advancements in dentistry. In this review, we survey the range of biomolecules that have been used across dental biomaterials. Our particular focus is on the key biological activity imparted by each biomolecule toward prevention of dental and oral diseases as well as restoration of oral health. Additional emphasis is placed on the structure-function relationships between biomolecules and their biological activity, the unique challenges of each clinical condition, limitations of conventional therapies, and the advantages of each class of biomolecule for said challenge. Biomaterials for bone regeneration are not reviewed as numerous existing reviews on the topic have been recently published. We conclude our narrative review with an outlook on the future of biomolecules in dental biomaterials and potential avenues of innovation for biomaterial-based patient oral care.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Dentários/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Biomineralização/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , DNA/química , DNA/uso terapêutico , Implantes Dentários , Materiais Dentários/química , Restauração Dentária Permanente/instrumentação , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Imobilizadas/uso terapêutico , Periodonto/fisiologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Salivares/fisiologia
11.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(5): 2682-2695, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467858

RESUMO

The integration of molecular and cell biology with materials science has led to strategies to improve the interface between dental implants with the surrounding soft and hard tissues in order to replace missing teeth and restore mastication. More than 3 million implants have been placed in the US alone and this number is rising by 500,000/year. Peri-implantitis, an inflammatory response to oral pathogens growing on the implant surface threatens to reduce service life leading to eventual implant failure, and such an outcome will have adverse impact on public health and create significant health care costs. Here we report a predictive approach to peptide design, which enabled us to engineer a bifunctional peptide to combat bacterial colonization and biofilm formation, reducing the adverse host inflammatory immune response that destroys the tissue surrounding implants and shortens their lifespans. This bifunctional peptide contains a titanium-binding domain that recognizes and binds with high affinity to titanium implant surfaces, fused through a rigid spacer domain with an antimicrobial domain. By varying the antimicrobial peptide domain, we were able to predict the properties of the resulting bifunctional peptides in their entirety by analyzing the sequence-structure-function relationship. These bifunctional peptides achieve: 1) nearly 100% surface coverage within minutes, a timeframe suitable for their clinical application to existing implants; 2) nearly 100% binding to a titanium surface even in the presence of contaminating serum protein; 3) durability to brushing with a commercially available electric toothbrush; and 4) retention of antimicrobial activity on the implant surface following bacterial challenge. A bifunctional peptide film can be applied to both new implants and/or repeatedly applied to previously placed implants to control bacterial colonization mitigating peri-implant disease that threatens dental implant longevity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peri-Implantite , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Humanos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Titânio
12.
Dent Mater ; 36(2): 284-295, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new synthesized multifunctional monomer, aminosilane functionalized methacrylate (ASMA), containing polymerizable methacrylate, tertiary amine, and methoxysilane functionalities in dental adhesive formulations, and to investigate the polymerization kinetics, leachates, thermal and mechanical properties of copolymers. METHODS: Adhesive contained HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w) was used as a control, and mixtures based on HEMA/BisGMA/ASMA at the mass ratio of 45/(55-x)/x were used as experimental adhesive. Adhesives were characterized with regard to water miscibility, photo-polymerization behavior (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), leached co-monomers (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC), thermal properties (modulated differential scanning calorimeter, MDSC), and mechanical properties (dynamic mechanical analyzer, DMA). Stress relaxation times and the corresponding moduli, obtained from stress relaxation tests, are used in a simulated linear loading case. RESULTS: As compared to the control, ASMA-containing adhesives showed higher water miscibility, lower viscosity, improved monomer-to-polymer conversion, significantly greater Tg and rubbery modulus. HPLC results indicated a substantial reduction of leached HEMA (up to 85wt%) and BisGMA (up to 55wt%) in ethanol. The simulation reveals that the ASMA-containing adhesive becomes substantially stiffer than the control. SIGNIFICANCE: ASMA monomer plays multiple roles, i.e. it serves as both a co-initiator and crosslinker while also providing autonomous strengthening and enhanced hydrolytic stability in the adhesive formulations. This multifunctional monomer offers significant promise for improving the durability of the adhesive at the composite/tooth interface.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários , Metacrilatos , Hidrólise , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização
13.
ACS Appl Polym Mater ; 2(3): 1134-1144, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834166

RESUMO

Bacterial adhesion and growth at the composite/adhesive/tooth interface remain the primary cause of dental composite restoration failure. Early colonizers, including Streptococcus mutans, play a critical role in the formation of dental caries by creating an environment that reduces the adhesive's integrity. Subsequently, other bacterial species, biofilm formation, and lactic acid from S. mutans demineralize the adjoining tooth. Because of their broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and low risk for antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received significant attention to prevent bacterial biofilms. Harnessing the potential of AMPs is still very limited in dentistry-a few studies have explored peptide-enabled antimicrobial adhesive copolymer systems using mainly nonspecific adsorption. In the current investigation, to avoid limitations from nonspecific adsorption and to prevent potential peptide leakage out of the resin, we conjugated an AMP with a commonly used monomer for dental adhesive formulation. To tailor the flexibility between the peptide and the resin material, we designed two different spacer domains. The spacer-integrated antimicrobial peptides were conjugated to methacrylate (MA), and the resulting MA-AMP monomers were next copolymerized into dental adhesives as AMP-polymer conjugates. The resulting bioactivity of the polymethacrylate-based AMP conjugated matrix activity was investigated. The antimicrobial peptide conjugated to the resin matrix demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Secondary structure analyses of conjugated peptides were applied to understand the activity differential. When mechanical properties of the adhesive system were investigated with respect to AMP and cross-linking concentration, resulting AMP-polymer conjugates maintained higher compressive moduli compared to hydrogel analogues including polyHEMA. Overall, our result provides a robust approach to develop a fine-tuned bioenabled peptide adhesive system with improved mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity. The results of this study represent a critical step toward the development of peptide-conjugated dentin adhesives for treatment of secondary caries and the enhanced durability of dental composite restorations.

14.
JOM (1989) ; 71(4): 1271-1280, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178649

RESUMO

The rising use of titanium dental implants has increased the prevalence of peri-implant disease that shortens their useful life. A growing view of peri-implant disease suggests that plaque accumulation and microbiome dysbiogenesis trigger a host immune inflammatory response that destroys soft and hard tissues supporting the implant. The incidence of peri-implant disease is difficult to estimate, but with over 3 million implants placed in the USA alone, and the market growing by 500,000 implants/year, such extensive use demands additional interceptive approaches. We report a water-based, nonsur-gical approach to address peri-implant disease using a bifunctional peptide film, which can be applied during initial implant placement and later reapplied to existing implants to reduce bacterial growth. Bifunctional peptides are based upon a titanium binding peptide (TiBP) optimally linked by a spacer peptide to an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). We show herein that dental implant surfaces covered with a bifunctional peptide film kill bacteria. Further, using a simple protocol for cleaning implant surfaces fouled by bacteria, the surface can be effectively recoated with TiBP-AMP to regain an antimicrobial state. Fouling, cleansing, and rebinding was confirmed for up to four cycles with minimal loss of binding efficacy. After fouling, rebinding with a water-based peptide film extends control over the oral microbiome composition, providing a novel nonsurgical treatment for dental implants.

15.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 107(8): 2673-2683, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895695

RESUMO

Nearly 100 million of the 170 million composite and amalgam restorations placed annually in the United States are replacements for failed restorations. The primary reason both composite and amalgam restorations fail is recurrent decay, for which composite restorations experience a 2.0-3.5-fold increase compared to amalgam. Recurrent decay is a pernicious problem-the standard treatment is replacement of defective composites with larger restorations that will also fail, initiating a cycle of ever-larger restorations that can lead to root canals, and eventually, to tooth loss. Unlike amalgam, composite lacks the inherent capability to seal discrepancies at the restorative material/tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth is intended to seal the interface, but the adhesive degrades, which can breach the composite/tooth margin. Bacteria and bacterial by-products such as acids and enzymes infiltrate the marginal gaps and the composite's inability to increase the interfacial pH facilitates cariogenic and aciduric bacterial outgrowth. Together, these characteristics encourage recurrent decay, pulpal damage, and composite failure. This review article examines key biological and physicochemical interactions involved in the failure of composite restorations and discusses innovative strategies to mitigate the negative effects of pathogens at the adhesive/dentin interface. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B:2466-2475, 2019.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Materiais Dentários , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dentina , Adesivos/química , Adesivos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Dentários/química , Materiais Dentários/uso terapêutico , Dentina/química , Dentina/metabolismo , Humanos
16.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 94: 333-343, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423715

RESUMO

Bacterial infection is a serious medical problem leading to implant failure. The current antibiotic based therapies rise concerns due to bacterial resistance. The family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is one of the promising candidates as local therapy agents due to their broad-spectrum activity. Despite AMPs receive increasing attention to treat infection, their effective delivery to the implantation site has been limited. Here, we developed an engineered dual functional peptide which delivers AMP as a biomolecular therapeutic agent onto calcium phosphate (Ca-P) deposited nanotubular titanium surfaces. Dual functionality of the peptide was achieved by combining a hydroxyapatite binding peptide-1 (HABP1) with an AMP using a flexible linker. HABP functionality of the peptide provided a self-coating property onto the nano-topographies that are designed to improve osteointegration capability, while AMP offered an antimicrobial protection onto the implant surface. We successfully deposited calcium phosphate minerals on nanotubular titanium oxide surface using pulse electrochemical deposition (PECD) and characterized the minerals by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM. Antimicrobial activity of the engineered peptide was tested against S. mutans (gram- positive) and E. coli (gram-negative) both in solution and on the Ca-P coated nanotubular titanium surface. In solution activity of AMP and dual functional peptide have the same Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (32 mg/mL). The peptide also resulted in the reduction of the number of bacteria both for E.coli and S. mutans compare to control groups on the surface. Antimicrobial features of dual functional peptides are strongly correlated with their structures suggesting tunability in design through linkers regions. The dual-function peptide offers single-step solution for implant surface functionalization that could be applicable to any implant surface having different topographies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Nanotubos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Titânio/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Acta Biomater ; 83: 130-139, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366133

RESUMO

Resin-based composite has overtaken dental amalgam as the most popular material for direct restorative dentistry. In spite of this popularity the clinical lifetime of composite restorations is threatened by recurrent decay. Degradation of the adhesive leads to gaps at the composite/tooth interface-bacteria, bacterial by-products and fluids infiltrate the gaps leading to recurrent decay and composite restoration failure. The durability of resin-dentin bonds is a major problem. We address this problem by synthesizing silyl-functionalized BisGMA (e.g., silyl-BisGMA), formulating dental adhesives with the new monomer and determining the physicochemical properties and leaching characteristics of the silyl-BisGMA adhesives. Silyl-BisGMA was synthesized by stoichiometric amounts of BisGMA and 3-isocyanatopropyl trimethoxysilane (IPTMS). The control adhesive was a mixture based on HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w). In the experimental formulations, BisGMA was partially or completely replaced by silyl-BisGMA. Water miscibility, polymerization behavior (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), thermal property (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), mechanical properties in dry and wet conditions (dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA), and leached species (HPLC) were investigated. Data from all tests were submitted to appropriate statistical analysis (α = 0.05). Silyl-BisGMA-containing adhesives exhibited comparable water miscibility, lower viscosities, and significantly improved degree of conversion of CC bond as compared to the control. After 4 weeks aqueous aging, the glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli of the experimental copolymers were significantly greater than the control (p < 0.05). HPLC results indicated a substantial reduction of leached HEMA (up to 99 wt%) and BisGMA (up to 90 wt%). By introducing silyl-functional group, the new BisGMA derivative exhibited potential as a monomer that can lead to dental adhesives with improved mechanical properties and reduced leaching under conditions relevant to the oral environment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth (enamel and dentin) is intended to seal and stabilize the composite/tooth interface, but it degrades leading to a breach at the composite/tooth margin. As the most popular crosslinking monomer in adhesives, Bisphenol A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) has limitations, e.g. susceptible to hydrolysis and concomitant property degradation. A methoxysilyl-functionalized BisGMA derivative (silyl-BisGMA) was introduced in this work to respond to these limitations. Our results indicated that by introducing silyl-BisGMA, higher crosslinked networks were obtained without sacrificing the homogeneity, and the leached amount of HEMA was reduced up to 99%. This novel resin offers potential benefits including prolonging the functional lifetime of dental resin materials.


Assuntos
Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Cimentos Dentários/química
18.
Appl Sci (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542835

RESUMO

The most common cause for dental composite failures is secondary caries due to invasive bacterial colonization of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. Innate material weakness often lead to an insufficient seal between the adhesive and dentin. Consequently, bacterial by-products invade the porous a/d interface leading to material degradation and dental caries. Current approaches to achieve antibacterial properties in these materials continue to raise concerns regarding hypersensitivity and antibiotic resistance. Herein, we have developed a multi-faceted, bio-functionalized approach to overcome the vulnerability of such interfaces. An antimicrobial adhesive formulation was designed using a combination of antimicrobial peptide and a ε-polylysine resin system. Effector molecules boasting innate immunity are brought together with a biopolymer offering a two-fold biomimetic design approach. The selection of ε-polylysine was inspired due to its non-toxic nature and common use as food preservative. Biomolecular characterization and functional activity of our engineered dental adhesive formulation were assessed and the combinatorial formulation demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Our antimicrobial peptide-hydrophilic adhesive hybrid system design offers advanced, biofunctional properties at the critical a/d interface.

19.
JOM (1989) ; 71(4): 1281-1290, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149269

RESUMO

Combining multiple modalities is at the center of developing new methods for sensing and imaging that are required for comprehensive understanding of events at the molecular level. Various imaging modalities have been developed using metallic nanoparticles owning to their exceptional physical and chemical properties. Due to their localized surface plasmon resonance characteristics, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit unique optoelectronic properties commonly used in biomedical sciences and engineering. Self assembled monolayers or physical adsorption have previously been adapted to functionalize the surfaces of nanoparticles with biomolecules for targeted imaging. However, depending on differences among the functional groups used on the nanoparticle surface, wide variation in the displayed biomolecular property to recognize its target may result. In the last decade, the properties of inorganic binding peptides have been proven advantageous to assemble selective functional nano-entities or proteins onto nanoparticles surfaces. Herein we explored formation of self-assembled hybrid metallic nano-architectures that are composed of gold and silver nanoparticles with fluorescent proteins, for use as bimodal imaging probes. We employed metal binding peptide-based assembly to self assemble green fluorescence protein onto metallic substrates of various geometries. Assembly of the green fluorescent proteins, genetically engineered to incorporate gold- or silver-binding peptides onto metallic nanoparticles, resulted in the generation of hybrid-, biomodal-imaging probes in a single step. Green fluorescent activity on gold and silver surfaces can be been monitored using both plasmonic and fluorescent signatures. Our results demonstrate a novel bimodal imaging system that can be finely tuned with respect to nanoparticle size and protein concentration. Resulting hybrid probes may mitigate the limitation of depth penetration into biological tissues as well as providing high signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity.

20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 469, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides attract considerable interest as novel agents to combat infections. Their long-time potency across bacteria, viruses and fungi as part of diverse innate immune systems offers a solution to overcome the rising concerns from antibiotic resistance. With the rapid increase of antimicrobial peptides reported in the databases, peptide selection becomes a challenge. We propose similarity analyses to describe key properties that distinguish between active and non-active peptide sequences building upon the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides. We used an iterative supervised machine learning approach to classify active peptides from inactive peptides with low false discovery rates in a relatively short computational search time. RESULTS: By generating explicit boundaries, our method defines new categories of active and inactive peptides based on their physicochemical properties. Consequently, it describes physicochemical characteristics of similarity among active peptides and the physicochemical boundaries between active and inactive peptides in a single process. To build the similarity boundaries, we used the rough set theory approach; to our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been used to classify peptides. The modified rough set theory method limits the number of values describing a boundary to a user-defined limit. Our method is optimized for specificity over selectivity. Noting that false positives increase activity assays while false negatives only increase computational search time, our method provided a low false discovery rate. Published datasets were used to compare our rough set theory method to other published classification methods and based on this comparison, we achieved high selectivity and comparable sensitivity to currently available methods. CONCLUSIONS: We developed rule sets that define physicochemical boundaries which allow us to directly classify the active sequences from inactive peptides. Existing classification methods are either sequence-order insensitive or length-dependent, whereas our method generates the rule sets that combine order-sensitive descriptors with length-independent descriptors. The method provides comparable or improved performance to currently available methods. Discovering the boundaries of physicochemical properties may lead to a new understanding of peptide similarity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/classificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares
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