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1.
Infection ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious complications are significant causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). They occur variably over different periods, with scant data reported from Lebanon and neighboring countries. In this study, we described the pre-engraftment neutropenic phase, febrile episodes, and peri-transplant medical complications in patients undergoing allo-HCT at a tertiary-care hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent allo-HCT between 2007 and 2016 at Makassed General Hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. Data were extracted from medical records, the HCT registry, and medical laboratory logbooks. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were included, 75% having hematologic malignancies and 13% aplastic anemia. None received antibacterial prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones. Yet from conditioning chemotherapy till the say before HCT, 32% of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA) due to fever or infection. At the day of cell infusion, 41.5% of the patients were on BSA. Neutrophil engraftment failure was recorded in 8% of the patients. The cumulative incidence of pre-engraftment bacteremia and Gram-negative bacteremia was 14.3 and 7.1%, respectively. Aplastic anemia was an independent risk factor for pre-engraftment bacteremia [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.29-11.5), P = 0.02]. The cumulative incidence of pre-engraftment pneumonia was 11.2%. Patient age significantly increased the risk of pre-engraftment pneumonia [HR = 12.35, 95% CI (1.27-120.50), P = 0.03]. Six-month post-transplant mortality reached 17% in our cohort. Myelodysplastic syndrome was the only significant parameter increasing the risk of death [HR = 3.40, 95% CI (1.05-10.98), P = 0.04]. CONCLUSION: The cumulative incidence of pre-engraftment bacteremia and pneumonia was 14.3% and 11.2% respectively in this cohort. Aplastic anemia predicted for the occurrence of bacteremia, increasing patient age contributed to the occurrence of pneumonia, and myelodysplastic syndrome increased the risk of death.

2.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MUC1-glycoprotein is expressed at low levels and in fully glycosylated form on epithelial cells. Inflammation causes MUC1 overexpression and hypoglycosylation. We hypothesized that overexpression of hypoglycosylated MUC1 would be found in postoperative Crohn's disease (CD) recurrence and could be considered an additional biomarker of recurrence severity. METHODS: We examined archived neo-terminal ileum biopsies from patients with prior ileocecal resection who had postoperative endoscopic assessment of CD recurrence and given a Rutgeerts ileal recurrence score. Consecutive tissue sections were stained using 2 different anti-MUC1 antibodies, HMPV that recognizes all forms of MUC1 and 4H5 that recognizes only inflammation-associated hypoglycosylated MUC1. RESULTS: A total of 71 postoperative CD patients were evaluated. There was significant increase in MUC1 expression of both glycosylated/normal (P<0.0001) and hypoglycosylated/abnormal (P<0.0001) forms in patients with severe endoscopic CD recurrence (i3+i4), ileal score i2, compared with patients in endoscopic remission (i0+i1). Results were similar regardless of anti-TNF-α use. Although MUC1 expression and Rutgeerts scores were in agreement when characterizing the majority of cases, there were a few exceptions where MUC1 expression was characteristic of more severe recurrence than implied by Rutgeerts score. CONCLUSIONS: MUC1 is overexpressed and hypoglycosylated in neo-terminal ileum tissue of patients with postoperative CD recurrence. Increased levels are associated with more severe endoscopic recurrence scores, and this is not influenced by anti-TNF-α use. Discrepancies found between Rutgeerts scores and MUC1 expression suggest that addition of MUC1 as a biomarker of severity of postoperative CD recurrence may improve categorization of recurrence status and consequently treatment decisions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205785

RESUMO

The aim of this trial was to decrease the incidence of life-threatening infections by decreasing the dose and the duration of dexamethasone treatment during maintenance therapy. This was a prospective, nonrandomized trial of low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients aged 1 to 18 years who were treated at the Children's Cancer Center of Lebanon (CCCL). Patients consecutively diagnosed between 2002 and 2013 were divided into groups 1 and 2 receiving total dexamethasone doses of 1144 and 618 mg/m, respectively. A total of 84 patients were assigned to group 1 and 33 patients to group 2. The 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated central nervous system relapse increased from (n=0% [95% confidence interval: 0%-4.4%]) in group 1 to 9.1% [95% confidence interval: 3%-23%]; P=0.021) in group 2. Decreasing cumulative dose of dexamethasone for low-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients aiming to avoid serious viral infections led to a significant increase in isolated central nervous system relapse.

4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23236, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, should be assessed and monitored. This study compared directly measured and Friedewald-estimated LDL-C values in children and adolescents. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 464 children and adolescents. Calculated LDL-C (CLDL-C) levels were estimated using the Friedewald formula for any triglyceride value below 4.6 mmol/L. Direct LDL-C (DLDL-C) levels were measured on an ARCHITECT c8000 Abbott Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. The differences in LDL-C were then calculated. RESULTS: The correlation coefficients (R) between DLDL-C and CLDL-C were 0.978 (P = .148) and R = 0.970 (P = .052) for children and adolescents, respectively. Children with LDL-C values above 4.92 mmol/L had a correlation value of 0.971 (P = .419). The correlation and agreement between DLDL-C and CLDL-C in adolescents were moderate for LDL-C below 2.85 mmol/L (R = 0.806; 84.1%) and improved above 2.85 mmol/L (R = 0.978; 91.5%). In children, good correlations between DLDL-C and CLDL-C were observed for normal (<0.85 mmol/L), borderline (0.85-1.12 mmol/L), and abnormal (≥1.13 mmol/L) triglyceride levels (R = 0.9782, 0.990, and 0.951, respectively). The rates of agreement were better for normal (80.5%) and borderline (82.9%) but not abnormal (68.2%) triglyceride levels. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement between DLDL-C and CLDL-C in both children and adolescents. The Friedewald formula provided an adequate estimate of LDL-C for most fasting specimens. LDL-C difference percentage can also be used as a quality indicator to check laboratory analyzer performance in healthy subjects.

5.
World J Urol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the perioperative outcomes associated with laser enucleation of the prostate (LEP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) using a national database. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for patients who underwent TURP or LEP from 2008 to 2016. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, and predisposition to bleeding were compared between TURP and LEP. The 30-day perioperative outcomes including operative time, length of hospital stay (LOS), return to the operating room (OR), bleeding requiring transfusion, and organ system-specific complications were compared between the procedures. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for the type of surgery and other covariates. RESULTS: The series included 37,577 TURP and 2869 LEP procedures. While TURP was associated with a shorter operative time (55.20 ± 37.80 min) than LEP (102.80 ± 62.30 min), the latter was associated with a shorter hospital stay (1.29 ± 2.73 days) than TURP (2.05 ± 5.20 days). Compared to TURP, LEP had 0.52 (0.47-0.58) times the odds of a LOS > 1 day and 0.67 (0.54-0.83) times the odds of developing urinary tract infections. Nevertheless, no difference was found for other postoperative complications, need for transfusion, and return to OR. CONCLUSION: Real-life data from a large national database confirmed that LEP is a safe and reproducible procedure to treat benign prostatic obstruction. Compared to TURP, LEP was associated with a lower rate of infectious complications and a shorter LOS at the expense of an increased operative time.

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108855, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the value of using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) mapping in Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) when monitoring treatment response in pediatric Osteogenic and Ewing sarcomas and to correlate with level of necrosis on post-surgical excision pathology. METHOD: This retrospective study includes 7 Osteosarcoma and 8 Ewing sarcoma patients. Pre-treatment and post-treatment focal MRIs were evaluated for ADC values, tumor volumes and variability of both measurements. We also compared the measurement between Ewing and Osteosarcoma groups, as well as between good (=/>90 % necrosis post-excision) and poor (<90 % necrosis post-excision) responders. RESULTS: All measurements except Maximum ADC (p = 0.20) showed a statistically significant difference when comparing them before and after treatment. When we segregated our population according to pathologic complete response, there was no difference in ADC measurements, volumetric measurements or either variability between good (8 Patients) and poor responders (7 Patients). When comparing the before-after changes in our measurement between the Ewing sarcoma and Osteosarcoma cases, there was no significant difference in the change between pre and post treatment (Δ) Mean or Maximum ADC, or in Δtumor-volume when measured on STIR or SPIR T1 post-contrast sequences. Only the ΔMinimum-ADC showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.02) in this group. CONCLUSIONS: ADC can potentially reflect cellular changes associated with chemotherapy use, reflecting a response to treatment. However, quantitative use of those parameters to dictate a change in management, treatment regimen or chemotherapy dose in order to target a good response (>/ = 90 % necrosis post-excision) needs further investigation.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18926, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028400

RESUMO

Lymphoid follicles/aggregates in gastric biopsies have been traditionally linked to Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and less commonly to other inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. The frequency of such aggregates in normal stomachs has yet to be adequately evaluated. This is especially relevant when it comes to diagnosing non-specific chronic gastritis in biopsy specimens with chronic inflammation but no evidence of H pylori infection. Sleeve gastrectomies represent an opportunity to study adequately preserved gastric mucosa in patients who are otherwise asymptomatic and lack a history of gastric disease.To study sleeve gastrectomy specimens to quantify the amount of lymphoid follicles/aggregates and lymphocytic infiltration in normal stomachs.Sixty-eight bariatric sleeve gastrectomies and 13 control specimens from Whipple resections were examined for multiple histologic features including type, quantity, and distribution of chronic inflammation and lymphoid follicles/aggregates. Presence of H pylori was documented by both Hematoxylin and eosin-stained (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical information including age, sex, medication intake, prior endoscopy, and/or H pylori infection was recorded. The patient population was divided in 2 groups, H pylori negative versus H pylori positive, and statistical analysis was performed by a biostatistician.Two hundred sixty three fundic sections from 68 bariatric patients were examined. Fifty three patients were found to be H pylori-negative, compared with 15 who were positive for H pylori. Among the H pylori-negative group, the average number of lymphoid aggregates was 3.33, compared with an average of 6.26 in the H pylori positive group (the difference was statistically significant with a P-value of .008). The average number of plasma cells per high power field was 2.15 in the H pylori negative group, compared and average of 5.07 in the H pylori positive group (the difference was also statistically significant with a P-value <.001). Clinically, 10 of the 53 H pylori-negative patients had esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) that showed endoscopic mild non-erosive gastric erythema. The remaining had no documentation of symptoms or medication intake, including Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI).Our results suggest that the presence of lymphoid aggregates and plasma cells infiltration can be a normal finding in otherwise normal gastric mucosa, though more pronounced in H pylori infected patients.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Plasmócitos/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Clin Imaging ; 61: 43-48, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the incidence of incidental activity in the gallbladder and the factors that may contribute to it in a large cohort of patients undergoing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT for cancer evaluation. METHODS: 8096 PET/CTs were retrospectively reviewed. Data pertaining to patient demographics and PET/CT parameters were collected. Patients' records were reviewed for gallbladder disorders for up to 3 years after the exam. The presence/absence of gallbladder uptake was visually assessed. Findings were classified as focal, diffuse increased and diffuse increased wall uptake, or no uptake. Volumetric measurements of the gallbladder and SUVmax of the gallbladder, liver and blood pool were measured. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 54 cases (0.67%) of incidental gallbladder uptake were detected (uptake group). 162 exams without uptake were selected as control (no uptake group). The injection-to-scan interval, SUVmax of the liver and blood pool, and the gallbladder volume did not differ significantly between both groups. Higher blood glucose levels were observed in the uptake (109.9 ± 32.5) vs. no uptake group (97.4 ± 18) (p = 0.01), with levels >150 mg/dL more common in the uptake group (p = 0.004). The incidence of gallbladder disease within 3 years after imaging was higher for the uptake group (12/36) compared to the no uptake group (15/115) (p = 0.02). Diffuse increased wall uptake was more likely in the group who later developed a pathology (4/12) (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Incidental gallbladder uptake in patients is independent of the injected FDG dose, injection-to-scan interval or gallbladder volume, but may be related to blood glucose level. There's a higher incidence of gallbladder pathology three years after the exam particularly in cases of diffuse increased wall uptake.

9.
Hip Int ; : 1120700019889308, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common orthopaedic procedure and is expected to increase with an increasing elderly population. Many of these patients suffer from chronic diseases which might be associated with anaemia. Anaemia, by itself, increases the risk of morbidity. We aimed to delineate relationship between preoperative anaemia and postoperative composite morbidities in patients undergoing primary THA. METHODS: A cohort study analysed the data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2008-2014 database. Adult patients who underwent unilateral primary THA were included and divided into 3 groups: no anaemia, mild anaemia, and moderate-to-severe anaemia. Thirty-day mortality and morbidity were recorded as adverse events. The associations between anaemia, baseline characteristics, and adverse events were analysed after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Moderate-to-severe anaemia patients were at increased risk for composite morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43 [1.17-1.74]) when compared to non-anaemics. The stratification revealed a significant effect of younger age, male gender, white race, obesity, general anaesthesia, and mean operative time >120 minutes in patients with moderate-to-severe anaemia. These patients were also at a higher risk of developing several specific morbidities. CONCLUSION: Moderate-to-severe anaemia increases the risk for composite morbidities, but not mortality in patients undergoing primary THA. Further studies are needed to assess whether preoperative management of moderate-to-severe anaemia would improve outcomes in patients undergoing THA.

10.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 503-510, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) improves recurrence rates and overall survival in breast cancer patients. However, it remains unclear whether these findings can be applied to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive patients treated with trastuzumab. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial is a phase III randomized clinical trial that established the efficacy of trastuzumab in HER-2 positive early stage breast cancer. The present study is a retrospective analysis of prospective data of 1633 trial patients treated with mastectomy and adjuvant trastuzumab. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of PMRT on loco-regional recurrence rates (LRR). Hazard ratios were estimated from Cox models, and LRR curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Our analysis included 940 patients (57.6%) who received PMRT and 693 patients (42.4%) who did not. Patients in the PMRT group had worse prognostic disease characteristics. At a median follow-up of 11 years, no significant difference in LRR was noted after PMRT in node negative (N0) patients (P = .96). Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had a LRR-free survival of 97% in the PMRT group compared with 90% in the no PMRT group (hazard ratio = 0.28, P = .004) and a nonsignificant improved overall survival after PMRT (hazard ratio = 0.63, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: PMRT delivery in HER-2 positive breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes decreases the risk of LRR. Although the magnitude of PMRT benefit is lower than historic studies, the present findings are in favor of PMRT for HER-2 positive breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 involved nodes. Future studies are needed to determine which HER-2 positive breast cancer patients benefit the most from PMRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptor ErbB-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores Estrogênicos , Receptores de Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Emerg Med J ; 37(2): 79-84, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk unscheduled return visits (HRURVs), defined as return visits within 72 hours that require admission or die in the emergency department (ED) on representation, are a key quality metric in the ED. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and describe the characteristics and predictors of HRURVs to the ED. METHODS: Case-control study, conducted between 1 November 2014 and 31 October 2015. Cases included all HRURVs over the age of 18 that presented to the ED. Controls were selected from patients who were discharged from the ED during the study period and did not return in the next 72 hours. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, age (±5 years) and date of presentation. RESULTS: Out of 38 886 ED visits during the study period, 271 are HRURVs, giving an incidence of HRURV of 0.70% (95% CI 0.62% to 0.78%). Our final analysis includes 270 HRURV cases and 270 controls, with an in-ED mortality rate of 0.7%, intensive care unit admission of 11.1% and need for surgical intervention of 22.2%. After adjusting for other factors, HRURV cases are more likely to be discharged with a diagnosis related to digestive system or infectious disease (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.65 and OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.05 to 7.51, respectively). Furthermore, presentation to the ED during off-hours is a significant predictor of HRURV (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.43) as is the presence of a handover during the patient visit (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.75). CONCLUSION: HRURV is an important key quality outcome metric that reflects a subgroup of ED patients with specific characteristics and predictors. Efforts to reduce this HRURV rate should focus on interventions targeting patients discharged with digestive system, kidney and urinary tract and infectious diseases diagnosis as well as exploring the role of handover tools in reducing HRURVs.

12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(1): 112-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One-third of non-pregnant women worldwide are anemic.1 Anemia is a known independent risk factor for postoperative morbidity.2 Given that the vast majority of hysterectomies are not performed in the emergency setting, we designed this study to evaluate the effect of preoperative anemia on postoperative morbidity following laparoscopic hysterectomy performed for benign indications. Our main goal is to encourage surgeons to use anemia-corrective measures before surgery when feasible. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 98 813 patients who underwent a laparoscopic hysterectomy between 2005 and 2016 for benign indications identified through the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Anemia was examined as a function of hematocrit and was analyzed as an ordinal variable stratified by anemia severity as mild, moderate or severe. Associations between preoperative anemia and patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities and postoperative outcomes were evaluated using univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent associations between hematocrit level and postoperative outcomes after adjusting for confounding covariates. At the multivariable logistic regression level, anemia severity was analyzed using hematocrit as a continuous variable to assess the independent association between each 5% decrease in hematocrit level and several postoperative morbidities. RESULTS: Of the 98 813 patients who met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 19.5% were anemic. A lower preoperative hematocrit was associated with higher body mass index, younger age, Black or African American race, longer operative times, and multiple other medical comorbidities. After appropriate regression modeling, anemia was identified as an independent risk factor for extended length of stay, readmission and composite morbidity after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative anemia is common among patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. Preoperative anemia increases patients' risk for multiple postoperative comorbidities. Given that most hysterectomies are performed in the elective setting, gynecologic surgeons should consider the use of anemia-corrective measures to minimize postoperative morbidity.

13.
Heart Lung ; 49(1): 36-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is commonly used to measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with heart failure (HF). We examined the psychometric properties and cultural validity of an Arabic version of the MLHFQ. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted with 210 adult HF outpatients. Patients were interviewed with the Arabic MLHFQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cronbach's alpha coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Patients with different NYHA classes and HF-hospitalization histories were compared on QOL to test known-group validity. RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis yielded 3 factors: physical, emotional, and social. Three items (4, 8, and 15) had low loadings. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. There were significant differences in MLHFQ by PHQ-9 categories, NYHA class, and HF-hospitalization history. CONCLUSIONS: This Arabic version of MLHFQ is valid and reliable and can be used in Arabic-speaking Lebanese HF populations.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877773

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate leptin, ghrelin, and leptin/ghrelin ratio in critically ill patients and association of leptin/ghrelin ratio with outcomes. This is a sub-study of the PermiT trial (ISRCTN68144998). A subset of 72 patients who were expected to stay >14 days in the Intensive care unit were enrolled. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. Samples were analyzed for leptin and active ghrelin in addition to other hormones. Baseline leptin/ghrelin ratio was calculated, and patients were stratified into low and high leptin/ghrelin ratio based on the median value of 236. There was a considerable variation in baseline leptin level: Median 5.22 ng/mL (Q1, Q3: 1.26, 17.60). Ghrelin level was generally low: 10.61 pg/mL (Q1, Q3: 8.62, 25.36). Patients with high leptin/ghrelin ratio compared to patients with low leptin/ghrelin ratio were older, had higher body mass index and more likely to be diabetic. There were no differences in leptin/ghrelin ratio between patients who received permissive underfeeding and standard feeding. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age and body mass index were significant independent predictors of high leptin-ghrelin ratio. Leptin-ghrelin ratio was not associated with 90-day mortality or other outcomes. Age and body mass index are predictors of high leptin/ghrelin ratio. Leptin/ghrelin ratio is not affected by permissive underfeeding and is not associated with mortality.

16.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 406, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most academic medical institutions lack a structured program that provides residents with an in-depth research training. The objectives of this paper are to describe a comprehensive residency research program at a university hospital, and to assess the pre- post-self-assessment of research capabilities of resident for the evaluation of the program. METHODS: The residency research program (RRP) was implemented in 2011 as an essential component of the residency program at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Categorical residents are required to carry out a research project and go through all the steps of the research process from identifying a topic to writing a manuscript. As for evaluating the program, data were collected from residents who graduated between 2014 and 2016 using a questionnaire, which included the overall evaluation of the program, self-assessment on research-related tasks pre- and post- joining the program, as well as general recommendations. The mean scores on the five-point Likert scale were transformed into percentages (0-100%). The average was calculated and the difference in the means was reported. RESULTS: Overall, 103 residents from the different clinical departments were included in this study. Residents' self-assessment showed a 19.3% improvement in research-related tasks before and after completion of the RRP (P < 0.0001). Most of the residents have either published or are in the process of publishing their projects (34 and 55.3%, respectively). Time management was the most reported challenge. Generally, the program was evaluated positively. CONCLUSION: The RRP is a unique, well-structured program, encompassing residents from various clinical departments, which enhances residents' research capabilities.

17.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Distal pancreatectomy (DP) accounts for 25% of all pancreatic resections. Complications following DP occur in around 40% of the cases. Our aim is to analyze short-term surgical outcomes of DP based on whether the indication for resection was benign or malignant pathology, as well as the effect of the surgical approach, open versus laparoscopic on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients undergoing DP from the National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted pancreatectomy participant use file from 2014 to 2016. The patients were divided into 2 groups, those who underwent DP for benign diseases (DP-B) and those who underwent DP for malignant diseases (DP-M). We performed multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between benign or malignant distal pancreatectomies and 30-day outcomes. We included clinically and/or statistically significant confounders into the models. We also conducted the same analysis in the subgroups of open and laparoscopic DP. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. The most common indication for surgery was malignant disease in 1894 (53%). Thirty-day mortality occurred in 0.4% of DP-B compared to 1.3% DP-M. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in mortality or in the risk of pancreatic fistula between the 2 groups. Bleeding (p = 0.002) and composite morbidity (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the DP-M group. Among composite morbidities, thromboembolism was significantly associated with DP-M (OR 2.1, p = 0.0004) only when performed with an open approach. CONCLUSION: DP-M is associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bleeding, thromboembolism, and sepsis compared to DP-B but no significant increase in mortality. When further analyzing the impact of the operative approach on morbidity, there was an increased rate of post-operative thromboembolic in the DP-M group when the surgery was performed in an open manner and this increased risk was no longer statistically significant if the DP-M was performed using a minimally invasive approach.

18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-5, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625806

RESUMO

Patients with heart disease (HD) are at increased risk of developing cardiac complications if they acquire the influenza virus. The objective of this study was to determine whether the influenza vaccine has a primary role in preventing newly diagnosed HD in patients who have no history of HD and who were being followed up at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC). The study is a retrospective cohort, with 2-years follow up, which was conducted using electronic medical records between the years of 2011-2013 in a tertiary care center. All patients 60 years and older (n = 698) who have taken the flu vaccine were randomly selected from the University Health Service records (UHS) and compared to a group who has not taken the flu vaccine during the same period. The odds of developing HD among vaccinated people with cofactors are 0.97 times the odds of that among non-vaccinated. This odds ratio is not significantly different than that of people vaccinated without cofactors (OR = 1.74). The occurrence of HD in the presence of vaccination revealed a non-significant decrease trend with the increase in a number of risk factors (OR = 1.61 vs 0.97). Our results suggest that there was a non-significant difference between the effect of the vaccine for influenza on patients who had cofactors for HD and those who had not. Similarly, the effect of vaccine showed a non-significant increase in protective effect as the number of comorbidities increase. The potential effects of the vaccine may be related to the protection against flu.

19.
Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg ; 23(3): 219-227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501809

RESUMO

Backgrounds/Aims: Common bile duct stones (CBDS) affect the management of acute cholecystitis (AC). This study aims to investigate the utility of liver function tests (LFTs) in predicting the presence of CBDS in AC patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with AC found in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2008 to 2016. Patients were classified into two groups, without CBDS (AC-) and with CBDS (AC+). LFT results namely total bilirubin, SGOT and ALP were collected and categorized into normal and abnormal with the cut-offs of 1.2 mg/dl for total bilirubin, 40 U/L for SGOT and 120 IU/L for ALP. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for individual and combinations of LFTs were computed. Results: A total of 32,839 patients were included in the study, with 8,801 (26.8%) AC+ and 24,038 (73.2%) AC- patients. Their mean age was 52.4 (±18.6) years and over half (59.1%) were females. Mean LFT results were significantly higher in the AC+ group for total bilirubin (1.82 vs 0.97), SGOT (110.9 vs 53.3) and ALP (164.4 vs 102.3) (p<0.0001). The proportions of abnomal LFTs were significantly higher in the AC+ group for total bilirubin (47.7% vs 20.2%), SGOT (62.8% vs 27.1%) and ALP (56.6% vs 21.0%) (p<0.0001). Among AC+, the odds of having abnormal results for bilirubin, SGOT and ALP were found to be 3.61, 4.54 and 4.90 times higher than among AC-, respectively. Conclusions: Abnormal LFTs are strong predictors for the presence of CBDS in patients with AC. Normal LFTs should be interpreted with caution as some patients with AC and CBDS might not present with characteristic abnormalities in results.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026148, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of behavioural risk factors, namely cigarette smoking, physical activity, dietary intakes and alcohol consumption, with blood lipids profile. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Data drawn from a cross-sectional study involving participants aged 18 years and over (n=363) from the nationwide WHO STEPwise Nutrition and Non-communicable Disease Risk Factor survey in Lebanon. MEASURES: Demographic characteristics, behaviours and medical history were obtained from participants by questionnaire. Dietary assessment was performed using a 61-item Culture-Specific Food Frequency Questionnaire that measured food intake over the past year. Lipid levels were measured by the analysis of fasting blood samples (serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)). RESULTS: Current cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and low physical activity were prevalent among 33.3%, 39.7% and 41.6% of the sample, respectively. The contributions of fat and saturated fat to daily energy intake were high, estimated at 36.5% and 11.4%, respectively. Abnormal levels of TC, TG, VLDL, LDL-C and HDL-C were observed for 55.4%, 31.4%, 29.2%, 47.5% and 21.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusting for potential confounders, cigarette smoking was positively associated with higher odds of TG and VLDL (OR=4.27; 95% CI 1.69 to 10.77; and 3.26; 95% CI 1.33 to 8.03, respectively) with a significant dose-response relationship (p value for trend=0.010 and 0.030, respectively). Alcohol drinking and high saturated fat intake (≥10% energy intake) were associated with higher odds of LDL-C (OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.82 and OR= 1.73; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.93). Physical activity did not associate significantly with any blood lipid parameter. CONCLUSION: The demonstrated positive associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and high saturated fat intake with adverse lipoprotein levels lay further evidence for clinical practitioners, public health professionals and dietitians in the development of preventive strategies among subjects with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon and other neighbouring countries with similar epidemiological profile.

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