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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 151, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654092

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has no cure, but early detection and risk prediction could allow earlier intervention. Genetic risk factors may differ between ethnic populations. To discover novel susceptibility loci of AD in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 3962 AD cases and 4074 controls. Out of 4,852,957 genetic markers that passed stringent quality control filters, 134 in nine loci, including APOE and SORL1, were convincingly associated with AD. Lead SNPs located in seven novel loci were genotyped in an independent Japanese AD case-control cohort. The novel locus FAM47E reached genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis of association results. This is the first report associating the FAM47E locus with AD in the Japanese population. A trans-ethnic meta-analysis combining the results of the Japanese data sets with summary statistics from stage 1 data of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project identified an additional novel susceptibility locus in OR2B2. Our data highlight the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1258, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627673

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564083

RESUMO

The arachidonic acid (AA) cascade plays a significant role in platelet aggregation. AA released from membrane phospholipids is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) or by 12S-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE). In contrast to a well-known role of the COX pathway in platelet aggregation, the role of ALOX12 is not well understood. Platelets of ALOX12-deficient mice exhibit increased sensitivity for ADP-induced aggregation. However, recent evidence strongly suggests a significant role of ALOX12 in platelet aggregation and calcium signaling. 12-HPETE potentiates thrombin- and thromboxane-induced platelet aggregation, and calcium signaling. Inhibition experiments of ALOX12 demonstrated decreased platelet aggregation and calcium signaling in stimulated platelets. We studied a family with a dominantly inherited bleeding diathesis using next-generation sequencing analysis. Platelet aggregation studies revealed that the proband's platelets had defective aggregation responses to ADP, TXA2 mimetic U46619, collagen, and AA, normal affinity of TXA2 receptor for U46619, and normal induction of GTPase activity upon stimulation with U46619. However, the production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) was only increased up to 30% of the control upon U46619 stimulation, suggesting a defect in phospholipase C-ß2 (PLCB2) activation downstream from TXA2 receptors. Affected family members had no mutation of PLCB2, but had a heterozygous c.1946A > G (p.Tyr649Cys) mutation of ALOX12. ALOX12 activity in platelets from the affected members was decreased to 25-35% of the control. Our data strongly suggested that a heterozygous c.1946A > G ALOX12 mutation was a disease-causing mutation; however, further experiments are required to confirm the pathogenesis of ALOX12 mutation in platelet aggregation.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1213, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441756

RESUMO

Skin pigmentation is associated with skin damages and skin cancers, and ultraviolet (UV) photography is used as a minimally invasive mean for the assessment of pigmentation. Since UV photography equipment is not usually available in general practice, technologies emphasizing pigmentation in color photo images are desired for daily care. We propose a new method using conditional generative adversarial networks, named UV-photo Net, to generate synthetic UV images from color photo images. Evaluations using color and UV photo image pairs taken by a UV photography system demonstrated that pigment spots were well reproduced in synthetic UV images by UV-photo Net, and some of the reproduced pigment spots were difficult to be recognized in color photo images. In the pigment spot detection analysis, the rate of pigment spot areas in cheek regions for synthetic UV images was highly correlated with the rate for UV photo images (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.92). We also demonstrated that UV-photo Net was effective for floating up pigment spots for photo images taken by a smartphone camera. UV-photo Net enables an easy assessment of pigmentation from color photo images and will promote self-care of skin damages and early signs of skin cancers for preventive medicine.

6.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.

7.
Hum Genome Var ; 8(1): 2, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452237

RESUMO

Bone dysplasias are a group of rare hereditary diseases, with up to 436 disease types. Perinatal diagnosis is clinically important for adequate personalized management and counseling. There are no reports focused on pathogenic variants of bone dysplasias in the general population. In this study, we focused on autosomal recessive bone dysplasias. We identified pathogenic variants using whole-genome reference panel data from 3552 Japanese individuals. For the first time, we were able to estimate the carrier frequencies and the proportions of potential patients. For autosomal recessive bone dysplasias, we detected 198 pathogenic variants of 54 causative genes. We estimated the variant carrier frequencies and the proportions of potential patients with variants associated with four clinically important bone dysplasias: osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), hypophosphatasia (HPP), asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (ATD), and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC). The proportions of potential patients with OI, ATD, and EvC based on pathogenic variants classified as "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" by InterVar were closer to the reported incidence rates in Japanese subjects. Furthermore, the proportions of potential patients with HPP variants classified as "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" in InterVar and "pathogenic" in ClinVar were closer to the reported incidence rates. For bone dysplasia, the findings of this study will provide a better understanding of the variant types and frequencies in the Japanese general population, and should be useful for clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, and personalized medicine.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 226, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431880

RESUMO

The complete human genome sequence is used as a reference for next-generation sequencing analyses. However, some ethnic ancestries are under-represented in the reference genome (e.g., GRCh37) due to its bias toward European and African ancestries. Here, we perform de novo assembly of three Japanese male genomes using > 100× Pacific Biosciences long reads and Bionano Genomics optical maps per sample. We integrate the genomes using the major allele for consensus and anchor the scaffolds using genetic and radiation hybrid maps to reconstruct each chromosome. The resulting genome sequence, JG1, is contiguous, accurate, and carries the Japanese major allele at most loci. We adopt JG1 as the reference for confirmatory exome re-analyses of seven rare-disease Japanese families and find that re-analysis using JG1 reduces total candidate variant calls versus GRCh37 while retaining disease-causing variants. These results suggest that integrating multiple genomes from a single population can aid genome analyses of that population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genoma Humano , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
J Hum Genet ; 66(1): 61-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782383

RESUMO

Large-scale, sometimes nationwide, prospective genomic cohorts biobanking rich biological specimens such as blood, urine and tissues, have been established and released their vast amount of data in several countries. These genetic and epidemiological resources are expected to allow investigators to disentangle genetic and environmental components conferring common complex diseases. There are, however, two major challenges to statistical genetics for this goal: small sample size-high dimensionality and multilayered-heterogenous endophenotypes. Rather counterintuitively, biobank data generally have small sample size relative to their data dimensionality consisting of genomic variation, lifestyle questionnaire, and sometimes their interaction. This is a widely acknowledged difficulty in data analysis, so-called "p¼n problem" in statistics or "curse of dimensionality" in machine-learning field. On the other hand, we have too many measurements of individual health status, which are endophenotypes, such as health check-up data, images, psychological test scores in addition to metabolomics and proteomics data. These endophenotypes are rich but not so tractable because of their worsen dimensionality, and substantial correlation, sometimes confusing causation among them. We have tried to overcome the problems inherent to biobank data, using statistical machine-learning and deep-learning technologies.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21726, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303893

RESUMO

The nature of the recovery process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is multifactorial. The Massive Parallel Limitless-Arity Multiple-testing Procedure (MP-LAMP), which was developed to detect significant combinational risk factors comprehensively, was utilized to reveal hidden combinational risk factors to explain the long-term trajectory of the PTSD symptoms. In 624 population-based subjects severely affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, 61 potential risk factors encompassing sociodemographics, lifestyle, and traumatic experiences were analyzed by MP-LAMP regarding combinational associations with the trajectory of PTSD symptoms, as evaluated by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised score after eight years adjusted by the baseline score. The comprehensive combinational analysis detected 56 significant combinational risk factors, including 15 independent variables, although the conventional bivariate analysis between single risk factors and the trajectory detected no significant risk factors. The strongest association was observed with the combination of short resting time, short walking time, unemployment, and evacuation without preparation (adjusted P value = 2.2 × 10-4, and raw P value = 3.1 × 10-9). Although short resting time had no association with the poor trajectory, it had a significant interaction with short walking time (P value = 1.2 × 10-3), which was further strengthened by the other two components (P value = 9.7 × 10-5). Likewise, components that were not associated with a poor trajectory in bivariate analysis were included in every observed significant risk combination due to their interactions with other components. Comprehensive combination detection by MP-LAMP is essential for explaining multifactorial psychiatric symptoms by revealing the hidden combinations of risk factors.

11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179747

RESUMO

In the Tohoku Medical Megabank project, genome and omics analyses of participants in two cohort studies were performed. A part of the data is available at the Japanese Multi Omics Reference Panel (jMorp; https://jmorp.megabank.tohoku.ac.jp) as a web-based database, as reported in our previous manuscript published in Nucleic Acid Research in 2018. At that time, jMorp mainly consisted of metabolome data; however, now genome, methylome, and transcriptome data have been integrated in addition to the enhancement of the number of samples for the metabolome data. For genomic data, jMorp provides a Japanese reference sequence obtained using de novo assembly of sequences from three Japanese individuals and allele frequencies obtained using whole-genome sequencing of 8,380 Japanese individuals. In addition, the omics data include methylome and transcriptome data from ∼300 samples and distribution of concentrations of more than 755 metabolites obtained using high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In summary, jMorp now provides four different kinds of omics data (genome, methylome, transcriptome, and metabolome), with a user-friendly web interface. This will be a useful scientific data resource on the general population for the discovery of disease biomarkers and personalized disease prevention and early diagnosis.

12.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 662, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177615

RESUMO

We performed a metabolome genome-wide association study for the Japanese population in the prospective cohort study of Tohoku Medical Megabank. By combining whole-genome sequencing and nontarget metabolome analyses, we identified a large number of novel associations between genetic variants and plasma metabolites. Of the identified metabolite-associated genes, approximately half have already been shown to be involved in various diseases. We identified metabolite-associated genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, some of which are from intestinal microorganisms, indicating that the identified genetic variants also markedly influence the interaction between the host and symbiotic bacteria. We also identified five associations that appeared to be female-specific. A number of rare variants that influence metabolite levels were also found, and combinations of common and rare variants influenced the metabolite levels more profoundly. These results support our contention that metabolic phenotyping provides important insights into how genetic and environmental factors provoke human diseases.

13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008207, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001993

RESUMO

Genotype imputation estimates the genotypes of unobserved variants using the genotype data of other observed variants based on a collection of haplotypes for thousands of individuals, which is known as a haplotype reference panel. In general, more accurate imputation results were obtained using a larger size of haplotype reference panel. Most of the existing genotype imputation methods explicitly require the haplotype reference panel in precise form, but the accessibility of haplotype data is often limited, due to the requirement of agreements from the donors. Since de-identified information such as summary statistics or model parameters can be used publicly, imputation methods using de-identified haplotype reference information might be useful to enhance the quality of imputation results under the condition where the access of the haplotype data is limited. In this study, we proposed a novel imputation method that handles the reference panel as its model parameters by using bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN). The model parameters are presented in the form of de-identified information from which the restoration of the genotype data at the individual-level is almost impossible. We demonstrated that the proposed method provides comparable imputation accuracy when compared with the existing imputation methods using haplotype datasets from the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and the Haplotype Reference Consortium. We also considered a scenario where a subset of haplotypes is made available only in de-identified form for the haplotype reference panel. In the evaluation using the 1KGP dataset under the scenario, the imputation accuracy of the proposed method is much higher than that of the existing imputation methods. We therefore conclude that our RNN-based method is quite promising to further promote the data-sharing of sensitive genome data under the recent movement for the protection of individuals' privacy.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study was launched in 2013 to evaluate the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors in multifactorial diseases. The present study describes the maternal baseline profile and perinatal data of participating mothers and infants. METHODS: Expectant mothers living in Miyagi prefecture were recruited from obstetric facilities or affiliated centers between 2013 and 2017. Three sets of self-administered questionnaires were collected, and the medical records were reviewed to obtain precise information about each antenatal visit and each delivery. Biospecimens, including blood, urine, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk, were collected for the study biobank. The baseline maternal sociodemographic characteristics, results of screening tests, and obstetric outcomes were analyzed according to the maternal age group. RESULTS: A total of 23 406 pregnancies involving 23 730 fetuses resulted in 23 143 live births. Younger maternal participants had a tendency toward a higher incidence of threatened abortion and threatened premature labor, while older age groups exhibited a significantly higher rate of low lying placenta, placenta previa, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The present study clearly shows the distribution of maternal baseline characteristics and the range of perinatal outcomes according to maternal age group. This cohort study can provide strategic information for creating breakthroughs in the pathophysiology of perinatal, developmental, and noncommunicable diseases by collaborative data visiting or sharing.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 294, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826857

RESUMO

The accuracy of previous genetic studies in predicting polygenic psychiatric phenotypes has been limited mainly due to the limited power in distinguishing truly susceptible variants from null variants and the resulting overfitting. A novel prediction algorithm, Smooth-Threshold Multivariate Genetic Prediction (STMGP), was applied to improve the genome-based prediction of psychiatric phenotypes by decreasing overfitting through selecting variants and building a penalized regression model. Prediction models were trained using a cohort of 3685 subjects in Miyagi prefecture and validated with an independently recruited cohort of 3048 subjects in Iwate prefecture in Japan. Genotyping was performed using HumanOmniExpressExome BeadChip Arrays. We used the target phenotype of depressive symptoms and simulated phenotypes with varying complexity and various effect-size distributions of risk alleles. The prediction accuracy and the degree of overfitting of STMGP were compared with those of state-of-the-art models (polygenic risk scores, genomic best linear-unbiased prediction, summary-data-based best linear-unbiased prediction, BayesR, and ridge regression). In the prediction of depressive symptoms, compared with the other models, STMGP showed the highest prediction accuracy with the lowest degree of overfitting, although there was no significant difference in prediction accuracy. Simulation studies suggested that STMGP has a better prediction accuracy for moderately polygenic phenotypes. Our investigations suggest the potential usefulness of STMGP for predicting polygenic psychiatric conditions while avoiding overfitting.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008915, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776928

RESUMO

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). As piRNAs block germline integration of transposons, piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been proposed to explain this association. In vitro, recombination of the HHV-6 genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected "solo-DR scar" has not been described in vivo. Here we screened for integrated HHV-6 in 7,485 Japanese subjects using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Integrated HHV-6 was associated with polymorphisms on chr22q. However, in contrast to prior work, we find that the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism is physically linked to an ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a solo-DR, supporting in vivo excision and possible viral reactivation. Together these results explain the recently-reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest potential exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact (non-retro)viral genome known to be present in human germlines.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Integração Viral , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Evolução Molecular , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 290, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807774

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous characteristics. A simulation study demonstrated that attempts to categorize patients with a complex disease into more homogeneous subgroups could have more power to elucidate hidden heritability. We conducted cluster analyses using the k-means algorithm with a cluster number of 15 based on phenotypic variables from the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). As a preliminary study, we conducted a conventional genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a data set of 597 ASD cases and 370 controls. In the second step, we divided cases based on the clustering results and conducted GWAS in each of the subgroups vs controls (cluster-based GWAS). We also conducted cluster-based GWAS on another SSC data set of 712 probands and 354 controls in the replication stage. In the preliminary study, which was conducted in conventional GWAS design, we observed no significant associations. In the second step of cluster-based GWASs, we identified 65 chromosomal loci, which included 30 intragenic loci located in 21 genes and 35 intergenic loci that satisfied the threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8. Some of these loci were located within or near previously reported candidate genes for ASD: CDH5, CNTN5, CNTNAP5, DNAH17, DPP10, DSCAM, FOXK1, GABBR2, GRIN2A5, ITPR1, NTM, SDK1, SNCA, and SRRM4. Of these 65 significant chromosomal loci, rs11064685 located within the SRRM4 gene had a significantly different distribution in the cases vs controls in the replication cohort. These findings suggest that clustering may successfully identify subgroups with relatively homogeneous disease etiologies. Further cluster validation and replication studies are warranted in larger cohorts.

18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(2): 97-115, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581193

RESUMO

In order to assess the long-term impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on the oral health of disaster victims and to evaluate gene-environmental interactions in the development of major oral diseases and oral-systemic associations, the oral part of two large-scale genome cohort studies by the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo), including the Community-based cohort (CommCohort) study and the Birth and Three-Generation cohort (BirThree) study, have been conducted. The study population comprised 32,185 subjects, including 16,886 participants in the CommCohort study and 15,299 participants in the BirThree cohort study, recruited from 2013 to 2017. The oral studies consist of a questionnaire regarding oral hygiene behavior, clinical examinations by dentists, and oral plaque and saliva sampling for microbiome analyses, which were carried out at seven community support centers in Miyagi prefecture. The median age of all participants was 55.0 years, and 66.1% of participants were women. Almost all participants reported that they brushed their teeth more than once a day. The median number of present teeth was 27.0, and the decayed, missing and filled tooth number was 16.0, with a significant difference according to age and sex. The median periodontal pocket and clinical attachment level was 2.48 mm and 4.00 mm, respectively. Periodontal parameters increased significantly according to age, except for the accumulation of dental calculus. The oral part of these extensive cross-sectional studies provides a unique and important platform for future studies on oral health and diseases that elicit through interactions with systemic diseases, lifestyles, life events and genetic backgrounds, and contributes to researches clarifying the long-term effects of disasters on oral health.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 157, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427830

RESUMO

To solve major limitations in algorithms for the metabolite-based prediction of psychiatric phenotypes, a novel prediction model for depressive symptoms based on nonlinear feature selection machine learning, the Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (HSIC Lasso) algorithm, was developed and applied to a metabolomic dataset with the largest sample size to date. In total, 897 population-based subjects were recruited from the communities affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake; 306 metabolite features (37 metabolites identified by nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and 269 characterized metabolites based on the intensities from mass spectrometry) were utilized to build prediction models for depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The nested fivefold cross-validation was used for developing and evaluating the prediction models. The HSIC Lasso-based prediction model showed better predictive power than the other prediction models, including Lasso, support vector machine, partial least squares, random forest, and neural network. L-leucine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, and gamma-linolenyl carnitine frequently contributed to the prediction. We have demonstrated that the HSIC Lasso-based prediction model integrating nonlinear feature selection showed improved predictive power for depressive symptoms based on metabolome data as well as on risk metabolites based on nonlinear statistics in the Japanese population. Further studies should use HSIC Lasso-based prediction models with different ethnicities to investigate the generality of each risk metabolite for predicting depressive symptoms.

20.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(8): 1-9, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, etc. Only a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for UAE have been conducted in the European population, but not in the Asian population. Here we conducted GWAS and identified several candidate genes harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for UAE in the Japanese population. METHODS: We conducted GWAS for UAE in 7805 individuals of Asian ancestry from health-survey data collected by Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo) and Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (IMM). The SNP genotype data were obtained with a SNP microarray. After imputation using a haplotype panel consisting of 2000 genome sequencing, 4,962,728 SNP markers were used for the GWAS. RESULTS: Eighteen SNPs at 14 loci (GRM7, EXOC1/NMU, LPA, STEAP1B/RAPGEF5, SEMA3D, PRKAG2, TRIQK, SERTM1, TPT1-AS1, OR5AU1, TSHR, FMN1/RYR3, COPRS, and BRD1) were associated with UAE in the Japanese individuals. A locus with particularly strong associations was observed on TSHR, chromosome 14 [rs116622332 (p = 3.99 × 10-10)]. CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully identified UAE-associated variant loci in the Japanese population. Further study is required to confirm this association.

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