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1.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 77(11): 1279-1287, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803108

RESUMO

Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) is a flat-panel detector (FPD) -based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view of FPDs permits real-time observation of motion/kinetic findings on the entire lungs, right and left diaphragm, ribs, and chest wall; heart wall motions; respiratory changes in lung density; and diameter of the intrathoracic trachea. Since the dynamic FPDs had been developed in the early 2000s, we focused on the potential of dynamic FPDs for functional X-ray imaging and have launched a research project for the development of an imaging protocol and digital image-processing techniques for the DCR. The quantitative analysis of motion/kinetic findings is helpful for a better understanding of pulmonary function, because the interpretation of dynamic chest radiographs is challenging and time-consuming for radiologists, pulmonologists, and surgeons. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the usefulness of DCR combined with the digital image processing techniques for the evaluation of pulmonary function and circulation. Especially, there is a major concern in color-mapping images based on dynamic changes in radiographic lung density, where pulmonary impairments can be detected as color defects, even without the use of contrast media or radioactive medicine. Dynamic chest radiography is now commercially available for the use in general X-ray room and therefore can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. This review article describes the current status and future prospects of DCR, which might bring a paradigm shift in respiratory diagnosis.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Radiografia , Radiografia Torácica
2.
Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 20: 23-29, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693040

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Urethra-sparing radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer can reduce the risk of radiation-induced genitourinary toxicity by intentionally underdosing the periurethral transitional zone. We aimed to compare the clinical impact of a urethra-sparing intensity-modulated proton therapy (US-IMPT) plan with that of conventional clinical plans without urethral dose reduction. Materials and Methods: This study included 13 patients who had undergone proton beam therapy. The prescribed dose was 63 GyE in 21 fractions for 99% of the clinical target volume. To compare the clinical impact of the US-IMPT plan with that of the conventional clinical plan, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated with a generalized equivalent uniform dose-based Lyman-Kutcher model using dose volume histograms. The endpoints of these model parameters for the rectum, bladder, and urethra were fistula, contraction, and urethral stricture, respectively. Results: The mean NTCP value for the urethra in US-IMPT was significantly lower than that in the conventional clinical plan (0.6% vs. 1.2%, p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the conventional and US-IMPT plans regarding the mean minimum dose for the urethra with a 3-mm margin, TCP value, and NTCP value for the rectum and bladder. Additionally, the target dose coverage of all plans in the robustness analysis was within the clinically acceptable range. Conclusions: Compared with the conventional clinically applied plans, US-IMPT plans have potential clinical advantages and may reduce the risk of genitourinary toxicities, while maintaining the same TCP and NTCP in the rectum and bladder.

3.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(9): 4016-4027, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476186

RESUMO

Background: Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) is a type of non-contrast-enhanced functional lung imaging with a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). This study aimed to assess the clinical significance of ventilation and perfusion metrics derived from changes in radiographic lung density on DCR in comparison to nuclear medicine imaging-derived metrics. Methods: DCR images of 42 lung cancer patients were sequentially obtained during respiration using a dynamic FPD imaging system. For each subdivided lung region, the maximum change in the averaged pixel value (Δmax), i.e., lung density, due to respiration and cardiac function was calculated, and the percentage of Δmax relative to the total of all lung regions (Δmax%) was computed for ventilation and perfusion, respectively. The Δmax% was compared to the accumulation of radioactive agents such as Tc-99m gas and Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin (radioactive agents%) on ventilation and perfusion scans in the subdivided lung regions, by Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) and the Dice similarity coefficients (DSC). To facilitate visual evaluation, Δmax% was visualized as a color scaling, where larger Δmax values were indicated by higher color intensities. Results: We found a moderate correlation between Δmax% and radioactive agents% on ventilation and perfusion scans, with perfusion metrics (r=0.57, P<0.001) showing a higher correlation than ventilation metrics (r=0.53, P<0.001). We also found a good or strong correlation (r≥0.5) in 80.9% (34/42) of patients for perfusion metrics (r=0.60±0.16) and in 52.4% (22/42) of patients for ventilation metrics (r=0.53±0.16). DSC indicated a moderate correlation for both metrics. Decreased pulmonary function was observed in the form of reduced color intensities on color-mapping images. Conclusions: DCR-derived ventilation and perfusion metrics correlated reasonably well with nuclear medicine imaging findings in lung subdivisions, suggesting that DCR could provide useful information on pulmonary function without the use of radioactive contrast agents.

4.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 128, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of using mean computed tomography (mCT) values to predict non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 494 patients with stage IA NSCLC. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to assess the ability to use mCT value, C/T ratio, tumor size, and SUV to predict tumor recurrence. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent variables for the prediction of tumor recurrence. RESULTS: The m-CT values were - 213.7 ± 10.2 Hounsfield Units (HU) for the recurrence group and - 594.1 ± 11.6 HU for the non-recurrence group (p < 0.0001). Recurrence occurred in 45 patients (9.1%). The tumor recurrence group was strongly associated with a high CT attenuation value, high C/T ratio, large solid tumor size, and SUV. The diagnostic value of mCT value was more accurate than the C/T ratio, excluding the pure ground-glass opacity and pure solid (0 < C/T ratio < 100) groups. The SUV and mCT are independent predictive factors of tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of mCT values was useful for predicting recurrence after the limited resection of small-sized NSCLC, and may potentially contribute to the selection of suitable treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonectomia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1393-1399, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040366

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the relationships between parameters obtained from dynamic-ventilatory digital radiography (DR) and ventilatory disorders. Methods: This study comprised 273 participants with respiratory diseases who underwent spirometry and functional residual capacity measurements (104 with normal findings on spirometry as controls, 139 with an obstructive lung disorder, 30 with a restrictive lung disorder) were assessed by dynamic-ventilatory DR. Sequential chest radiography images of the patient's slow and maximum breathing were captured at 15 frames per second by a dynamic flat-panel imaging system. The system measured the following parameters: lung area at maximum inspiration divided by height (lung area_in/height), changes in tracheal diameter due to respiratory motions, rate of tracheal narrowing, diaphragmatic motion, and rate of change in lung area due to respiratory motion. Relationships between these parameters and ventilatory disorders were analyzed. Results: Lung area_in/height in patients with restrictive disorders showed significant decreases. Tracheal diameter change and tracheal narrowing rate in patients with obstructive disorders were significantly increased compared to both the control participants and patients with restrictive disorders. Patients with obstructive disorders and patients with restrictive disorders showed decreased diaphragmatic motion and lung area change rate. With the restrictive disorders as references, the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of lung area_in/height were 0.88, 0.77, and 0.88, respectively. With the obstructive disorders as references, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity of tracheal narrowing rate were 0.67, 0.53 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion: Dynamic-ventilatory DR shows potential as a method for the detection and evaluation of ventilatory disorders in patients with respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Radiografia , Espirometria
6.
J Radiat Res ; 62(3): 483-493, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899102

RESUMO

We developed a confidence interval-(CI) assessing model in multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling for predicting radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in primary liver cancer patients using clinical and dosimetric data. Both the mean NTCP and difference in the mean NTCP (ΔNTCP) between two treatment plans of different radiotherapy modalities were further evaluated and their CIs were assessed. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed in 322 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 215) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 107) treated with photon therapy. Dose-volume histograms of normal liver were reduced to mean liver dose (MLD) based on the fraction size-adjusted equivalent uniform dose. The most predictive variables were used to build the model based on multivariable logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping. Internal validation was performed using the cross-validation leave-one-out method. Both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were calculated from computationally generated multivariate random sets of NTCP model parameters using variance-covariance matrix information. RILD occurred in 108/322 patients (33.5%). The NTCP model with three clinical and one dosimetric parameter (tumor type, Child-Pugh class, hepatitis infection status and MLD) was most predictive, with an area under the receiver operative characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84). In eight clinical subgroups based on the three clinical parameters, both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were able to be estimated computationally. The multivariable NTCP model with the assessment of 95% CIs has potential to improve the reliability of the NTCP model-based approach to select the appropriate radiotherapy modality for each patient.

7.
Med Phys ; 48(4): 1616-1623, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate preoperative assessment of tumor invasion/adhesion is crucial for planning appropriate operative procedures. Recent advances in digital radiography allow a motion analysis of lung tumors with dynamic chest radiography (DCR) with total exposure dose comparable to that of conventional chest radiography. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of preoperative evaluation of pleural invasion/adhesion of lung tumors with DCR through a virtual clinical imaging study, using a four-dimensional (4D) extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) computational phantom. METHODS: An XCAT phantom of an adult man (50th percentile in height and weight) with simulated respiratory and cardiac motions was generated to use as a virtual patient. To simulate lung tumors with and without pleural invasion, a 30-mm diameter tumor sphere was inserted into each lobe of the phantom. The virtual patient during respiration was virtually projected using an x-ray simulator in posteroanterior (PA) and oblique directions, and sequential bone suppression (BS) images were created. The measurement points (tumor, rib, and diaphragm) were automatically tracked on simulated images by a template matching technique. We calculated five quantitative metrics related to the movement distance and directions of the targeted tumor and evaluated whether DCR could distinguish between tumors with and without pleural invasion/adhesion. RESULTS: Precise tracking of the targeted tumor was achieved on the simulated BS images without undue influence of rib shadows. There was a significant difference in all five quantitative metrics between the lung tumors with and without pleural invasion both on the oblique and PA projection views (P < 0.05). Quantitative metrics related to the movement distance were effective for tumors in the middle and lower lobes, while, those related to the movement directions were effective for tumors close to the frontal chest wall on the oblique projection view. The oblique views were useful for the evaluation of the space between the chest wall and a moving tumor. CONCLUSION: DCR could help distinguish between tumors with and without pleural invasion/adhesion based on the two-dimensional movement distance and direction using oblique and PA projection views. With anticipated improved image: processing to evaluate the respiratory displacement of lung tumors in the upper lobe or behind the heart, DCR holds promise for clinical assessment of tumor invasion/adhesion in the parietal pleura.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pleura , Adulto , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Respiração
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(3): 531-545, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bimanual coordinated behaviors are critical for detecting robust individual hand preference in nonhuman primates but are particularly challenging to observe in the wild. This study focuses on spontaneous feeding behavior on African ginger (Aframomum sp. and Renealmia sp.), which involves a unimanual task (reaching and pulling out a ginger stem) and a bimanual coordinated task (extracting pith from a ginger stem) by wild western lowland gorillas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study subjects were 21 gorillas in the Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. We examined whether they exhibit significant hand preference at the individual and group levels for both tasks. RESULTS: Sixteen gorillas showed significant hand preference in the unimanual task, whereas all 21 individuals showed significant hand preference in the bimanual coordinated task. Hand preference was significantly stronger in the bimanual coordinated task than in the unimanual task. It is noteworthy that gorillas showed a significant right-hand preference at the group level for the bimanual task (roughly 70% of the subjects). DISCUSSION: This study confirmed that bimanual coordinated tasks are more sensitive in detecting hand preferences in nonhuman primates. In addition to the bimanual nature of the task, the precision grip for processing and the importance of African ginger as a food resource might influence the expression of hand preference. Evidence of a group-level right-hand preference may support the "postural origins theory." Because all wild African great apes feed on the pith of African ginger, comparing this task and its hand preferences can contribute toward a better understanding of the evolution of handedness in Hominidae.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Lateralidade Funcional , Gorilla gorilla , Mãos
9.
Surg Today ; 51(5): 836-843, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study investigated whether the pulmonary intersegmental planes could be identified with the intravenous injection of vitamin B2 using a fluorescent camera and whether this method can be used instead of the inflation-deflation technique or the intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) method. METHODS: In experiment 1, the vitamin B2 was intravenously injected to visualize the pulmonary intersegmental plane and perform segmentectomy, and the visualized pulmonary intersegmental line was then compared to the inflation-deflation line in six pigs. In experiment 2, using six pigs, the fluorescent area and duration of fluorescence were compared after the intravenous injection of vitamin B2 and ICG in the same animals. RESULTS: In all animals in experiment 1, it was possible to clearly detect yellow-green fluorescence in the lung, in segments other than the one intended for resection, for at least 60 min. Moreover, the line visualized with vitamin B2 fluorescence matched the inflation-deflation line in all animals. In experiment 2, the area of vitamin B2 fluorescence corresponded to the area of ICG fluorescence in each animal. CONCLUSIONS: The visualization of fluorescence after the intravenous injection of vitamin B2 using a fluorescent camera was a simple, safe, and accurate method for detecting intersegmental planes in a pig model. This method can be an alternative to the inflation-deflation technique and the intravenous ICG method.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Verde de Indocianina , Injeções Intravenosas , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Suínos
10.
J Radiat Res ; 62(2): 329-337, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372202

RESUMO

Pharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) using a model-based approach were retrospectively reviewed, and acute toxicities were analyzed. From June 2016 to March 2019, 15 pharyngeal (7 naso-, 5 oro- and 3 hypo-pharyngeal) cancer patients received IMPT with robust optimization. Simulation plans for IMPT and intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) were generated before treatment. We also reviewed 127 pharyngeal cancer patients with IMXT in the same treatment period. In the simulation planning comparison, all of the normal-tissue complication probability values for dysphagia, dysgeusia, tube-feeding dependence and xerostomia were lower for IMPT than for IMXT in the 15 patients. After completing IMPT, 13 patients completed the evaluation, and 12 of these patients had a complete response. The proportions of patients who experienced grade 2 or worse acute toxicities in the IMPT and IMXT cohorts were 21.4 and 56.5% for dysphagia (P < 0.05), 46.7 and 76.3% for dysgeusia (P < 0.05), 73.3 and 62.8% for xerostomia (P = 0.43), 73.3 and 90.6% for mucositis (P = 0.08) and 66.7 and 76.4% for dermatitis (P = 0.42), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that IMPT was independently associated with a lower rate of grade 2 or worse dysphagia and dysgeusia. After propensity score matching, 12 pairs of IMPT and IMXT patients were selected. Dysphagia was also statistically lower in IMPT than in IMXT (P < 0.05). IMPT using a model-based approach may have clinical benefits for acute dysphagia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Faríngeas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias Faríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(12): 10-19, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151643

RESUMO

A synchrotron-based real-time image gated spot-scanning proton beam therapy (RGPT) system with inserted fiducial markers can irradiate a moving tumor with high accuracy. As gated treatments increase the beam delivery time, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of intra-field adjustments corresponding to the baseline shift or drift and the beam delivery efficiency of a synchrotron-based RGPT system. Data from 118 patients corresponding to 127 treatment plans and 2810 sessions between October 2016 and March 2019 were collected. We quantitatively analyzed the proton beam delivery time, the difference between the ideal beam delivery time based on a simulated synchrotron magnetic excitation pattern and the actual treatment beam delivery time, frequency corresponding to the baseline shift or drift, and the gating efficiency of the synchrotron-based RGPT system according to the proton beam delivery machine log data. The mean actual beam delivery time was 7.1 min, and the simulated beam delivery time in an ideal environment with the same treatment plan was 2.9 min. The average difference between the actual and simulated beam delivery time per session was 4.3 min. The average frequency of intra-field adjustments corresponding to baseline shift or drift and beam delivery efficiency were 21.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Based on our clinical experience with a synchrotron-based RGPT system, we determined the frequency corresponding to baseline shift or drift and the beam delivery efficiency using the beam delivery machine log data. To maintain treatment accuracy within ± 2.0 mm, intra-field adjustments corresponding to baseline shift or drift were required in approximately 20% of cases. Further improvements in beam delivery efficiency may be realized by shortening the beam delivery time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia com Prótons , Marcadores Fiduciais , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Cintilografia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Síncrotrons
12.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 166, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. DCR provides objective and quantifiable information, such as diaphragm movement, pulmonary ventilation and circulation, and is reasonable for detecting tumor invasion or adhesion. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Pleura (SFTP), preoperatively predicted visceral pleura origin using Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) and surgically resected through single-access (uniportal) video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (UVATS). CONCLUSIONS: UVATS may be a suitable surgical option for pedunculated SFTPs. Dynamic chest radiography provides information, such as tumor invasion or adhesion and helpful for predicting origin of the tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pleurais/cirurgia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tumor Fibroso Solitário Pleural/cirurgia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Tumor Fibroso Solitário Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor Fibroso Solitário Pleural/patologia
13.
Med Phys ; 47(10): 4800-4809, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687607

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional lung imaging technique capable of measuring temporal changes in radiographic lung density due to ventilation and perfusion. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of DCR in the evaluation of pulmonary function based on changes in radiographic lung density compared to nuclear medicine lung scans. METHODS: This study included 53 patients with pulmonary disease who underwent DCR and nuclear medicine imaging at our institution. Dynamic chest radiography was conducted using a dynamic FPD system to obtain sequential chest radiographs during one breathing cycle. The maximum change in the average pixel value (Δmax ) was measured, and the percentage ofΔmax in each lung region, calculated relative to the sum of all lung regions (Δmax %), was calculated for each factor (ventilation and perfusion). The Δmax % was compared with the accumulation of radioactive agents (radioactive agents%) on ventilation and perfusion scans in each lung and lung region using correlation coefficients and scatter plots. The ratio of ventilation to perfusion Δmax % was calculated and compared with nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) findings in terms of sensitivity and specificity for V/Q mismatch in each lung region. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between Δmax % and radioactive agents% for each lung (Ventilation: r = 0.81, perfusion: r = 0.87). However, correlation coefficients were lower (0.37 to 0.80) when comparing individual lung regions, with the upper lung regions showing the lowest correlation coefficients. The sensitivity and specificity of DCR for V/Q mismatch were 63.3% (19/30) and 60.1% (173/288), respectively. Motion artifacts occasionally increased Δmax %, resulting in false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Ventilation and perfusion Δmax % correlated reasonably with radioactive agents% on ventilation and perfusion scans. Although the regional correlations were lower and the detection performance for V/Q mismatch was not enough for clinical use at the moment, these results suggest the potential for DCR to be used as a functional imaging modality that can be performed without the use of radioactive contrast agents. Further technical improvement is required for the implementation of DCR-based V/Q studies.


Assuntos
Medicina Nuclear , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfusão , Imagem de Perfusão , Radiografia
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(20): 200501, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501043

RESUMO

We report the observation of the quantum walks of a phonon, a vibrational quantum, in a trapped-ion crystal. By employing the capability to prepare and observe the localized wave packet of a phonon, the propagation of a single radial local phonon in a four-ion linear crystal is observed with single-site resolution. The results show an agreement with numerical calculations, indicating the predictability and reproducibility of the phonon system. These characteristics may contribute advantageously in the advanced studies of quantum walks, as well as boson sampling and quantum simulation.

15.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 13(5): 1035-1044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509076

RESUMO

Research on the amplification of oncogenes in thymic malignant tumor is limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the gene amplification status of receptor tyrosine kinases and other cell regulator genes in thymic malignant tumors, with a view toward the future introduction of molecular targeted therapy. In addition, we examined the usefulness of multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the semi-comprehensive detection of these gene amplifications. The participants of this study were nine patients with thymic carcinoma and one patient with atypical carcinoid who underwent resection at our department from 1999 to 2016. Twenty-four oncogenes (MDM4, MYCN, ALK, PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, DHFR, EGFR, MET, SMO, BRAF, FGFR1, MYC, ABL1, RET, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, MDM2, AURKB, ERBB2, TOP2A, AURKA, AR) were analyzed for amplification by MLPA. In cases where amplification by MLPA was suspected, confirmation was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immunostaining for detected oncoproteins and p53 were performed in cases with confirmed oncogene amplification. MYC (2/10, 20%) and MDM2 (1/10, 10%) amplifications were detected using MLPA and FISH. Immunostaining in both cases was positive. The MDM2-amplified tumor relapsed and spread rapidly after operation despite the use of post-operative chemo-radiotherapy. MYC amplification may be involved in the carcinogenesis of thymic malignant tumors. In addition, MDM2 amplification may be a concern in the increased malignancy.

16.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(3): 163-168, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393696

RESUMO

Surgical treatment is often required in patients with Marfan syndrome presenting with scoliosis or cardioaortic disease. If these patients present with pectus excavatum, surgery for spinal deformity correction or chest wall closure during cardioaortic surgery can cause thoracic organ compression secondary to narrowing of the thorax resulting in hemodynamic and respiratory compromise. Cardiovascular complications serve as prognostic factors in patients with Marfan syndrome, and surgical treatment is often required in these cases. In our case series involving 4 patients, 2 patients with pectus excavatum and scoliosis underwent a Nuss procedure followed by safe and successful spinal correction surgery 6 months later. A Nuss procedure was also performed in a patient complicated with sinus of Valsalva dilatation, and thoracotomy was performed before cardioaortic surgery. Another patient with a complication of pectus excavatum and acute deterioration of cardiac status underwent concomitant repair with sternal elevation using an AO plate and cardioaortic surgery. In patients with Marfan syndrome presenting with pectus excavatum complicated by scoliosis or cardioaortic disease, it is necessary to consider concomitant or staged repair depending on the disease condition.


Assuntos
Tórax em Funil , Síndrome de Marfan , Escoliose , Tórax em Funil/cirurgia , Humanos , Síndrome de Marfan/cirurgia , Esterno , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Radiol Case Rep ; 15(6): 702-704, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280402

RESUMO

Here, we report a case of lung cancer with preoperatively predicted invasion to the parietal pleura on dynamic chest radiography (DCR). An 82-year-old patient was referred for staging of a right lung tumor. Preoperative DCR revealed invasion or adhesion of the tumor to the chest wall, and intraoperative findings revealed invasion of the tumor to the parietal pleura. DCR provides objective and quantifiable information, including diaphragmatic movement, pulmonary ventilation, and circulation, as well as tumor invasion or adhesion and is less invasive compared to 3-dimensional chest computed tomography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. This study was our initial attempt at performing a quantitative assessment using DCR.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(3): 651-658, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274130

RESUMO

Background: Various approaches and markers for marking the lungs prior to lung tumor resection have been reported. In clinical practice, the hook wire localization method is often used owing to the simplicity of the technique. However, although rare, this method is associated with air embolism, which can be lethal. Because vitamin B2 is harmless to the body and fluorescent, it was applied to various methods for thoracic surgery. Using a pig model, we aimed to examine whether a lung-marking method involving the injection of vitamin B2 to peripheral small lung lesions and observing them under black light irradiation could replace the hook wire localization method. Methods: We used a pig model to perform hook wire localization of the lungs and at the same time injected 1 mL of a vitamin B2 aqueous solution to the lung parenchyma at the hook wire puncture site under the visceral pleura. Subsequently, we measured the length of the fluorescent marked area and fluorescence intensity over time. Black light was used to assess the fluorescent marked area, and fluorescence intensity was quantified using image analysis software. Results: Lung-marking was successful in all five pigs and we visualized the vitamin B2-marked area under black light irradiation. Measurements were taken immediately after thoracotomy (0 min) and 60 and 120 min thereafter. No changes in the length of the marked area (1.3±0.3/1.2±0.3/1.1±0.3 cm, 0/60/120 min, P=0.21) and fluorescence intensity (162.8±55.1/157.2±63.1/165.2±62.2, 0/60/120 min, P=0.96) were observed over time. Compared to the non-marked area (normal lungs), the marked area showed significantly higher fluorescence intensity (P=0.01/0.01/0.01, 0/60/120 min). Conclusions: Vitamin B2 lung-marking was performed safely and accurately using the pig model, providing good visibility of the marked area. This approach may replace the hook wire localization method. In the near future, we plan to conduct clinical trials to evaluate the applicability of this method in humans.

19.
Am J Primatol ; 82(6): e23130, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297360

RESUMO

Extractive foraging is considered a key selective pressure for the evolution of primate cognitive abilities-the extractive foraging hypothesis. Although tool-use and substrate-use are representatives of the foraging strategy, some primates engage in extractive foraging without external objects. Manual processing skills of prickly foods have been described in some species, whereas there are few studies on other type of food defenses. Here, I describe extractive foraging of hard-shelled walnuts by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), focusing on whether they accomplish the tasks only by their physical strength or require manual and/or oral processing skills to crack open the walnut shells. The study subjects comprised all members of troop B1 and three nontroop males in Kinkazan Island, Japan. Walnut feeding was observed during the main walnut seasons (September-December) when the troop visited walnut patches for 79 days in 2 years. I categorized the walnut feeding behavior into complete cracking and partial cracking. The number of times the five behavioral elements in the cracking stage occurred were counted from complete cracking. All six adult males and 11 of the 17 adult/adolescent females showed complete cracking, while the remaining females were never observed exhibiting this activity, despite their physical maturity. I observed four clearly distinguishable cracking methods during walnut feeding in the 17 subjects. The compositions of five behavioral elements were different in each method. These results suggest that walnut feeding by Japanese macaques is not only by brute force but requires the acquisition of at least one of four cracking methods for the achievement of complete cracking. In particular, females need to compensate for their physical inferiority by increasing walnut manipulations. To my knowledge, this is the first detailed description on feeding techniques in primates to overcome hard-shelled obstacles without the use of tools and even substrates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Juglans , Macaca fuscata/fisiologia , Nozes , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Estações do Ano
20.
Respiration ; 99(5): 382-388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of dynamic-ventilatory digital radiography (DR) for pulmonary function assessment in patients with airflow limitation. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients with airflow limitation (72 patients with lung cancer before surgery, 35 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], 6 patients with asthma, and 5 patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome) were assessed with dynamic-ventilatory DR. The patients were instructed to inhale and exhale slowly and maximally. Sequential chest X-ray images were captured in 15 frames per second using a dynamic flat-panel imaging system. The relationship between the lung area and the rate of change in the lung area due to respiratory motion with respect to pulmonary function was analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of change in the lung area from maximum inspiration to maximum expiration (Rs ratio) was associated with the RV/TLC ratio (r = 0.48, p < 0.01) and the percentage of the predicted FEV1 (r = -0.33, p < 0.01) in patients with airflow limitations. The Rs ratio also decreased in an FEV1-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The rate of change in the lung area due to respiratory motion evaluated with dynamic DR reflects air trapping. Dynamic DR is a potential tool for the comprehensive assessment of pulmonary function in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Capacidade Residual Funcional , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Torácica , Capacidade Vital
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